<h1 align="center">John Hodgson<br />Memoir..by Rev James Raine<br /></h1><p align="center">VICAR OF HARTBURN, AND AUTHOR OF A HISTORY OF NORTHUMBERLAND, etc. BY THE REV. JAMES RAINE, M.A., F.S.A.N. RECTOR OP MELDON, BTC, AUTHOR OF A HISTORY OF NORTH DURHAM, ETC. IN TWO VOLUMES.</p><p>

In compiling the following Memoir the author has had the use of the various letters addressed to Mr. Hodgson from an early period of his life till the time of his death, and also of such copies of letters in reply as have been preserved. The latter, however, it is much to be regretted, are not numerous. These letters and copies are contained in several volumes arranged in chronological order, under Mr. Hodgson's directions, a while before his death, with indexes of the writers. He has also been favoured with numerous letters addressed by Mr. Hodgson to his various friends from time to time, of which no copy had been taken and for the loan of which he begs to express his obligations. The great extent to which in this respect he has been benefited will abundantly appear in the course of the Memoir. The letters by Mr. Hodgson to the various members of his own family have all of them been carefully pre- served, and, having been placed before the author without reserve, have signally contributed to give a value to his narrative and illustrate the kind and affectionate character of their writer. From the time in which Mr. Hodgson first settled in the county of Durham in 1801, as master of Sedgefield school, he appears to have kept a series of books of a miscellaneous nature, but chiefly containing memoranda respecting his school or parochial engagements. Of such entries in these books as refer to his personal history due use has been made. . Much private information is also recorded in his numerous notebooks of historical collections for his various topographical publications, and the author hopes that nothing of that nature registered in those volumes has escaped his eye. For a long period of his life it appears to have been Mr. Hodgson's custom to record occasionally and in an irregular method in the volumes and books above referred to such of his personal proceedings and thoughts as he wished to remember, but in the year 1833 he began, as it will be hereafter observed, to keep a regular journal of his daily life, the precise nature and value of which will best appear from the Memoir itself, towards the compilation of which that record has been so especially useful. The other sources from which the author has derived his information, such as essays, sermons,etc, printed or in manuscript, are sufficiently specified in the progress of his undertaking. Crook Hall, near Durham, July 1857.

CHAPTER II. Lanohester— Esh and Satley — Collegiate Church — Lanchester School — Roman Camp and Antiquities — Poems — Longovicum — His cousin Harding . . 28—48
CHAPTER III. Gateshead — Neville's Cross/apoem — Presented to the Living of Jarrow with Heworth — C. Ellison, Esq. — Ancient History of Jarrow — Duties and Emoluments of Jarrow and Heworth— Creation, a poem — ^A painter — History of the River Tyne and the Roman Wall ....... 49—62
CHAPTER IV. Marriage— History of Northumberland in &quot; Beauties of England and Wales*' — Survey of Northumberland — Rev. A. Hedley — More Poetiy — Sits for his portrait — Letter of advice — History of Westmorland in &quot; Beauties of England and Wales**— Mr. Surtees of Mainsforth— Picture of Newcastle . . 63 — 89
CHAPTER V. The Felling Explosion — First acquaintance with the Author — ^The Society of Anti- quaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ..... 90 — 128
CHAPTER VI. History of Jarrow — Northumberland — Sir John Edward Swinburne, Bart. — Experi- ments on Coal — Journal — Cowper's '' Votum *' — ^Another Explosion — Journal — Lines in Sickness — Correspondence — Another Explosion • . 124 — 186 CHAPTER VIL Visit to Mounces, a shooting-seat of Sur J. E. Swinburne, Bart. — ^The Durham Advertiser ..... • • 187 — 166 via CONTENTS.
CHAPTER VIII. The History of the Parish of Jarrow — CorreBpondence on that subject — Saxon Corns . . . . . • . . . 166—169 CHAPTER IX. Expedition to the Dudley Coal Field — Sir Humphry Davy and the Safety Lamp — Its first trial — Visit to Edinburgh — Correspondence . . . 170 — 189 I
CHAPTER X. History of Northumberland — ^Histories of Northumberland — Correspondence — Mons. Gallois — ^Eflsay on Brass and other Metals — Mr. Surtees^s History of Durham — History of Northumberland abandoned — Resumed — Mr. T. Bewick. 190 — ^208
CHAPTER XI. The Mickleton MSS.— First Visit to London— Letters to Mrs. Hodgson. 208—266
CHAPTER XII. Announcement of History — Correspondence on History-— Edward Swinburne, Esq. — Correspondence respecting Engravings, &amp;c. — Destruction of three cart-loads of ancient Records at Little Harle— Richardson and Dixon's Picturesque Views in Northumberland — Correspondence ..... 267 — 289
CHAPTER XIII. Correspondence respecting Engravings continued— A rival History of Northumber- land — ^The Qreenwich Hospital and Tower Records — Correspondence resumed — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. — Henry Petrie, Esq. . . . 290—309
CHAPTER XIV. Publication of the first volume (Part III. Vol. I.)' of his History of Northumberland — Contents — Prefiice — Topographical Queries — Letter of encouragement from Mr. Surtees— Reply ....... 810—322
CHAPTER XV. Correspondence— Second Visit to London — Letters to Mrs. Hodgson — Visit to Oxford — Other Correspondence — ^The Living of Whitfield — Roman Altars, &amp;c. at Ryton — Subscription for Engravings for his History . . . 828 — 382
CHAPTER XVI. Communications to the Gentleman's Magazine — Correspondence with Dr. McCuUoch on Natural History— The Rev. James Tate, Master of Richmond School, and the Memoir and Monument of Richard Dawes — Engravings for another volume — ^New Chapel at Heworth — Consecration Sermon — Church Restoration — Family Distresses — Illness of his Children — Death of two Brothers — Sympathy of his Friends — 'Discovery of a Mithraic Cave at Borcovicus or Housesteada^- Essay on the subject — Prospect of Preferment . . 388—408 <span style="font-size: 18px;">


Lanchester— Esh and Satley — Collegiate Church — Lanchester School — Roman Camp and Antiquities — Poems — LongOTicum — His cousin Harding. The year 1804 sees the subject of our Memoir settled in the sub-curacy of Esh and Satley, chapels of ease in the parish of Lanchester, These two chapelries, although at that time, as at present, separate benefices, were then held by one incumbent; and of this incumbent Mr. Hodgson was the representative. la all probability his salary was very small, the curacies themselves having been left in extreme poverty by the dissolution of the collegiate church of Lanchester, to stalls in which their duties and revenues had been attached befoie that act of spoliation was carried into effect. In the church of Lanchester, before the disso- lution of religious houses, there were a dean and seven preben- daries, each having his specific duties within this extensive and important parish, and each having his own share of its revenues, in recompence for his services. It is not easy to understand why the act of spoliation should have extended to collegiate churches ; but no county suffered more severely from its operation than that of Durham. The great parishes of Darlington, Chester-le- Street, St. Andrew's Auckland, and Lanchester, comprising a very large portion, perhaps nearly one half of the county, were by royal sacrilege robbed of their natural rights; and at the present day any small income which they may happen to possess is chiefly derived from Queen Anne's Bounty or other accidental sources. In each of these collegiate churches there was, before they suffered from the hand of violence, a staff of clergy with a due division of labour, and a competency for their pains. In their stead we have now lay impropriators, who take all and give little in return. Such was the state of the chapels of Esh and Satley in point of religious services for a long period after the dissolution, that a century has not elapsed since they had only duty once a month 24 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. performed by the curate of Lanchester, the mother church, in the best way he could. &quot; I feed my fell cattle only once a month/' said an incumbent of Lanchester who died only in 1778. This was surely not a subject for a joke. With respect to the chapel of Esh, there is one little piece of history, in which, if he had been acquainted with it, Mr. Hodg- son would have felt much interest. Here, at the altar of St. Mary, on the 10th day of August, 1303, King Edward L made an offering of seven shiUings, on his way from Durham to Hex- ham ; and on the same day, during mass in his private chapel, he made another offering of three shillings, in honour of St. Lawrence, at Lanchester. The king was at that time on his road to the borders of Scotland, where he died at Burgh-upon-Sands, in the February following. Mr. Hodgson did not take up his residence at Esh or Satley, but at Lanchester itself, three miles from either chapel ; the chapels themselves being about the same distance from each other. Happily the districts were not then so populous as perhaps they are now, but even at that time the curacy must have been one of no small labour and responsibility. He could not afford to keep a horse, and therefore he must have had many a long and weary walk in all weathers, as we say in the North. His Sunday duties ap- pear to have been morning and afternoon service at each chapel alternately, with the usual week-day ministrations. Once only does his name occur in the Esh register, and that is in attestation of a marriage on the 30th July, 1804. Some opinion may be formed of the extent of Hodgson*s personal property at this period, from the circumstance that its removal from Sedgefield cost him only the small sum of 4«. 9d,, the dis- tance being not much less than twenty miles by the round-about way of Durham. After he had become settled at Lanchester, his first purchase was a fishing-rod, wheel, and hooks for 228. The pleasure .which he had derived from angling in the lakes and streams of his native Westmerland again revives. At Sedgefield he had had no opportunity of indulging in this amusement, without going to a distance; but here, at Lanchester, every facility was thrown in his way. Two well-known trout streams were at his very door, the one running through the village, and A LANCHESTER SCHOOL. 25 the other joining it a mile below. He buys also gunpowder, but no mention is made of a gun or of shot. The one he could borrow, the other he could purchase in the village. His payment for board and lodging seems to have been at the rate of 14^ per annum; and, such being the fashion, of the day, he buys hair powder, for the first stock of which he pays Is, 3d. These few notices are extracted from a collection of memoranda, begun at Sedgefield, of which some use has been already made. In this book I find reference made to a journal kept by him in 1802, which has not been preserved. From the attempts at poetry in the book before me, I select one, which, whatever its merit as a composition may be, is very striking for its piety. The fourth line is unfinished. &quot; A Prater. Eternal Source of never-ending love, From whom all goodness, all perfection flows ! Let no fond paasion in my bosom move, But such. Frail, as the earliest flower of early spring, And more unstable than the passing gale, Thy succours I implore, Eternal King, To guide my footsteps through life's dreary vale. Tear from my heart the latent seeds of pride. And prune the wild luxuriance of desire ; For each day^s want a competence provide. Then let me, when Thou wilt, in peace expire.&quot; But here also, as has been already stated, he was a school- master. To eke out the slender income of his curacy he was obliged to teach the village school; and of his doings in this school I have heard him tell many amusing anecdotes. The school itself consisted of two very humble rooms, one above the other, and the communication between the two was by a ladder. The boys were aloft, and sadly did they sometimes misbehave in the absence of the master. &quot; I found them better to manage,'* said he, &quot; than the girls, and therefore I put them above, and I could always frighten them well by going a few steps up the stee, and showing my black head, of which they were afraid.&quot; ** Soon as the evening shades prevail, The moon takes up the wondrous tale.&quot; 26 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. *^ Now, my little girl,&quot; said he one day to a child repeating the above lines, &quot; tell me what is meant by this tofef&quot; '* My daddy's cow taiV was the reply. There was at that time belonging to this school an annual payment of ten pounds, settled upon the Greencroft estate by George Clavering, Esq. a former owner, for teaching a few poor children ; but, owing to some family disputes, or some other cause, it was not paid during Hodgson's mastership. The arrears how- ever, amounting to 261., were honorably given to him in 1813, long after he had left the place; as he had conscientiously per- formed the duty, notwithstanding the withdrawal of the salary. Of the other children, some were taught at the usual rate of Sd. or 4:d. per week; others at the rate of 7«. 6eZ., and others at that of lOs, per quarter. From his account book lie appears to have had much difficulty in extracting his poor fees from the parents of some of his scholars. One single entry may suffice. &quot; Dec. 10, 1804. Received pay for Walton's children of New Houses. My bill was 9a. lid., but I only took 9«. in money; the rest in scold- ing. The bill ought to have been 15«.'* This was weary work for such a man. But he had clerical duties to cheer him, and private pursuits and studies for his consolation in his solitary hours. &quot; At Lanchester, &quot; says he, &quot;I commenced my knowledge of the coal formation.&quot; On this acquaintance and its results, much remains to be said in a future page. But, in addition to clerical duties and geological inquiries, he begins to be a poet and antiquary in earnest. He had not long been settled at Lanchester before his antiquarian zeal awoke from its slumbers. In 1801 he had offered his services to the Editors of the &quot;Beauties of England and Wales,'^ but the county of Durham had been surveyed before his letter was received, and his assistance was not required. From that time we hear of no search after old stones with supposed Bunic inscriptions, as upon Moor Duvoch in 1800, nor of any other attempt at gathering sweets in the flower-strewn field of hoar antiquity. Here, however, at Lanchester, was a mine of the most exciting antiquarian wealth, in which had laboured Camden, and Horsley, to say nothing of those Dii Minorum Gentium, Gale, Stukeley, Hunter, Hutchinson, LANCHESTER — ROMAN CAMP, ETC. 27 and last, though not least in his own honest estimation, Cade; under whose feet wherever he trod there sprung up camps and military roads, with the peculiar faculty of changing their sites and directions according to his will and pleasure. By all these, in their order of time, had the Roman camp at Lanchester been investigated and described ; but each succeeding year had brought to light new records, numismatic or lapidary, of its ancient inhabitants, calling for elucidation. Here, then, was a field for an active mind, and just at the very time there came into the valley a man in the vigour of youth, with every necessary power of investigation, and already in no slight degree stung by the OBstrum which goaded on honest old Aubrey to ** this wearisome task of searching for antiquities, which (as he goes on to say) nobody hereabout hardly cares for, but rather makes a scorn of it. But, methinks, it shews a kind of gratitude and good nature to revive the memories and memorials of those who are long since dead and gone.&quot; To Hodgson, whatever progress he might have made in archaeological pursuits, which was perhaps not much, a Roman camp was a subject of novelty ; and we have abundance of proof that he lost no time in commencing £gid vigorously prosecuting the study of this branch of our national antiquities. In the progress of his inquiries he was told that, on the subject of the camp at Lan- chester, some valuable information could be afforded by Mr. Richard Waugh, a person who resided at East Morton, not far from Durham ; and in reply to his application to that gentleman he has preserved the following letter, proving its writer to have been a man of an inquisitive mind and accurate observation. Of his own letter Hodgson has kept no copy. It may be stated that his correspondent resided at one time, as it appears, at Lanchester. He died in 1808. In his will he is described as ** of Gateshead, merchant,^' and he left behind him a manuscript collection of local words and phrases, with respect to which I find Hodgson making anxious inquiries in 1813, after he had taken up his residence at Heworth. The result of these inquiries was, that the book was, on the 22nd Nov., in the possession of Mrs. Emerson, of Hillgate, in Gateshead. *' She sought for it,&quot; says he, ** yesterday, but did not find it, but she knows she has it, and will send 28 MEMOIR OF THE BBY. JOHN HODGSON. for me wlien she has found it.&quot; It does not appear that the book was ever found. A collection of Durham words, formed now ahnost a century ago, would be peculiarly valuable at the present time ; and I have placed the above memoranda upon record to the intent that they may be of use in any search which may be made for its recovery. &quot;To THE Rev. Mr. HODGSON, Lakchester. &quot; Sm, East Morton, 5 May, 1806. &quot; Yours of Saturday morning was handed to me in Durham. I shall willingly give you any small information I have respecting the Roman station at Lanchester. The altar you allude to is a small votive one, and was in good preservation the last time I saw it at HoUin Hall: but since that it was in possession of the late Mr. CaUender of Newcastle, who gave it, along with some other antiquities, to P. Crosthwaite of Keswick, in whose museum I suppose it still remains. ** The inscription I have not by me ; it being among other old papers of mine in Gateshead ; but I will seek them out, and send it you in a few days. About 18 or 20 years ago, a considerable number of Roman copper coins, with a stylus and other things, were found at your station. Mr. Hopper (now of Hamsteels) got these; who tells me he gave them away; and thinks they are at present in the collection of Dr. Mitford. I am not certain whether I have a copy of their inscriptions preserved, but a description of them was printed in the Newcastle Chronicle, at that time, about 1787 or 8. The station has been supplied with water from the sources of the Smallhope, above Knycheley, a distance of about three miles. Mr. Tho. Fenwick, of Dipton, and myself, traced the course of the aqueduct, from its head down to the west side of the station, where there has been a reservoir. It begins about a mile to the S.W. from Knycheley mill, near a house called Dyke Nook; where an embankment has been thrown across the rivulet, to collect the waters of three fine springs — ^thence skirting along the heath, till it crosses the road on the west side of Mr. White's woodlands, where it enters his plantation, and passes on a little way south of the house, distinguishing its track by the superior size of the trees, which are more luxuriant by its edges than in other parts of the grounds ; then, continuing its course eastward through the new-inclosed fields on the north side of Home- Moor Hill, takes a sweep to preserve the level and comes on 'tween X&lt;ANCHE8T£B — ROMAN CAMP, ETC. 29 Newbiggen and Upper Houses, and over the old inclosed ground, where it is nearly obliterated, till it crosses the Wolsingham turnpike to the station. &quot; This watercourse is now dry, and has been neglected, I suppose, ever since the Eoman town and station were abandoned ; as the head-stream has found its way down the ancient course of the rivulet, and now supplies the corn-mill at Knycheley. Mr. Fenwick would, I dare say, point out this aqueduct, so as to give you a better idea of it than any description can convey; and I wish you every success in collecting materials for a history of the place. Mr. Fenwick was mentioning that he has lately got an altar that was found at Ebchester, which I ha^e not seen; you may likely take an opportunity to examine it. &quot;When at Lanchester the other day. Smith's Botany was lying in Newton's ; which induced me to suppose you are paying attention to the native plants in the neighbourhood. As this part of natural history has long been a favourite pursuit of mine, you would oblige me much by communicating the habitats of any of the rarer species you have ob- served ; as it may add to the catalogue of the Durham and Northumberland plants lately published. ** I am, Sir, with respect, yours, &amp;c. &quot; Rd. Waugh.&quot; Here is a kind and sensible letter, which, as we shall see, excited Hodgson to make further inquiries touching the subject now beginning to engage his attention. The concluding paragraph of the letter gives us the further information that Hodgson was at that time beginning to turn his thoughts to botany, a science in which he afterwards made considerable progress, and which afforded him much gratification in his after years. A few days afterwards he writes again to Mr. Waugh, and also to the keeper of the museum at Keswick, respecting the altar above mentioned. I give their letters to him in reply. Of the result of his investigations and inquiries respecting the camp, more will be said in my notice of his poems, written here at Lanchester, in which *' Longovicum &quot; makes so conspicuous a figure as the result of his Roman inquiries. 30 MEMOIR OF itEV. JOHN HODGSON. &quot;To THE Rev. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; Sir, East Morton, 17 May, 1806. &quot; The Roman coins, of which the following is some short account, were found in a field on the east side of the station at Lanchester, be- longing to Miss Omsby, where it was ploughed out in the spring of 3788 &quot; No. 1. A laureated head, legend very perfect, imp • c * m • avr * SEV • ALEXAND * AVG. ; and on the reverse, pietas • avg. Figure, the type of Piety at the altar. This coin must be of Alexander Severus, &quot; No. 2. A female he^d, ivlia • maesa • avg • ; and on the reverse SAECVLi * FELiciTAS. The figUTc is stolated, at the altar, holding in the right hand a patera with a star, which shews her to be deified; in the left an hasta with a caduceus. &quot; No. 3. A laureated head, ibip • antoninvs • avg. On the reverse, VICTORIA • AVG. The figure Victory gradient or passant, holding in the right hand a laurel, in the left a palm. &quot; No. 4. A female radiated head, legend perfect, sall • barbia ORBIANA • AVG. Reverse concordia • avg. Figura sedens, dextra pa- teram, sinistra comucopiam. The wife of Alexander Severus. &quot;No. 5, Of copper. A radiated head. On the obverse, imp • c • vic- TOBiNVS • P.F AVG. On the reverse, pietas (as in No. 1 nearly). &quot; A large coin of very bad brass, one and a quarter inch in diameter and one-eighth in thickness : legend defaced. On the reverse a figure which I take to be Quies, a goddess among the Romans. &quot; The four first numbered coins are of a substance like tin&lt; There were also two more of copper and one of lead, defaced. &quot; A copper wire four and a half inches long ; one-eighth of an inch in diameter, sharp at one end, with a moulding one inch from the point ; the other end is flat. I conjecture it to have been a Roman stylus or pen for writing upoQ waxed tablets. &quot; A piece of lead which has been about an inch in diameter, and one- twelfth in thickness, having a small triangular piece of copper fixed in the middle: it seems to have had legends on each side, but now totally defaced. &quot; A kind of hollow-headed nail of brass with a flat shank, one inch long, one quarter broad, flat at the end, and having near it a round hole one-sixth in diameter; to what use it may have been applied I LANCHB8TER— EOMAK ANTIQUITIES. 31 am not able to form the least conjecture : it is finely coated with the * sacred rust of antiquity ' so much esteemed by antiquaries. &quot; The three following coins were found some time the same summer. &quot; 1. A laureated head, caes • ner • traian • optim • avg* geb. Reverse, p • M • T • p • cvi 'P'P'S'P'Q'R. Figura stans, dextra bilancem, sinistra palmam. &quot;2. A laureated head, p * sept • geta • pivs • AVG Rev. .... Caesar paludatus, stans, dextra ramum, sinistra hastam, cum tropeo a tergo. &quot; 3. A laureated head, imp • antoninvs • pivs • avg. (Elagabalus). &quot; The last and finest of these coins which I have seen is the following : it was found in Jftne 1789, in Miss Omsby's field when weeding. &quot;A fine struck laureated head: legend, imp • const antinvs • avg. On the reverse a very perfect %ure of Sol gradiens, holding in the right hand a lamp, in the left a globe; five rays about the head^ soli INVICTO • COMITI. In the exergue, ptr : under the right hand t : under the left F. This coin is in copper, nine-tenths of an inch in diameter, weight fifty-and-a-half grains, beautifully covered with an iron-coloured rust : it is more perfect than any of the foregoing, both in respect of the head and figure on the reverse, and also the formation of the letters ; they being squared at the heads and feet like the modem Roman alphabet now used. ** Rev. Sir, yours truly, « Rd. Waugh.&quot; [On the back of the letter is a drawing of a Roman altar at Mr. Tho. Wilkinson's, Hollin Hall, 1788. Face nine inches high: between six and seven inches broad. Inscription, d yictorde vot • s • v • l • M. s.] ** To THE Rev. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; Dear Sir, Keswick, June 2, 1806. &quot; I received yours of the 30th ult., and indorsed send you as good a drawing of the Altar as I am able ; but the latter part of the inscrip- tion is not legible and left blank. Breadth at the middle seven and a half inches. Breadth at the two ends eight and a half. Thickness at the middle four and a half. At the two ends five. On the centre of the top is indented the representation of a small saucer with a cup topsy- turvy in its middle, viz. like as an indent made in clay with a six pound cannon-ball in its middle, flat side dowii. The altar is free- 32 MEHOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. stone, of a large grit, and when fresh broke^of a cream colour. I shall be very thankful to receiTe any very curious article by carrier, if not too heayy, and am, Sir, your humble and very obedient senrant, '* Peter Cbosthwaite/' [Here is a bad drawing of the altar mentioned in Mr. Waugh's first letter.]] '' N.B« — The figure on the side of the stone like the handle and shank of a key, projects above the surface of the stone, and its parts are about three-quarters of an inch in diameter I have no other antiques from Lanchester.*' At Lanchester also the poetical tendencies of Hodgson's mind began to expand and manifest themselves in a more conspicuous way. The following pleasing stanzas were written here in 1805, although they were not published till 1810, when his mother, to whom they are addressed, was in her grave. She was buried on the 25th Aug. 1809. His father died in 1807, in the 54th year of his age. The small volume in which the stanzas are contained will be noticed hereafter. To THB AlTTHOB^S MoTHBB ON HIS BlRTHDAY. Fnll six and twenty winters now have swoln With angry tnrbnlence the stream that laTes The meadows, where my hoyish feet Their dark prints left in morning dew, Since I was horn. O, my dear Mother, with what envions speed The years of mortal beings roll away ! Like cooriers through some beanteons vale We haste, and the receding view Escapes as fast. In memory's eye the finish* d moments seem, A mighty prospect, dappled o'er with gleams And gloom — with sorrow and with joy : A land diversified with wilds And flowery plains. Far back, in dim diminishM form, appear The days of childhood, like a distant hill With ether bine ; and nearer rise, A wild of barrenness, the idle years I spent at school. LANCHESTEB — ^POEMS. 33 There is my ^trance in the vale of lift ! Dark as a forest in a winter*B night. All through whose boughs translucent streams Of loTO and bliss, and hope and fear, Like moonlight flow. High on the foreground, in colossal size, Manhood, in strange variety, presents A picture over which the mind Hurries with pain, or gazing views With fond deU^t. Before me blackness palpable is spread, Through which conjecture travels but in vain : Another birthday I may see ; Or, long ere that, be lifsless clay — 'Tis mystexy all I O could I wings across my shoulders bind. With speed tstr swifter than the swiftest gale I*d rise impatient from the earth. Cleave the long wilderness of air. And come to you. While life shall flutter at my mother*s heart, Dear, very dear, the dawning light shall be, Which first, on dewy-glistening wings. Maternal prayers for me upbore To Mercy *s throne. Nor shall foigetfnlness obscure the day When o*er my cheeks the emblematic drops Of pureness fell, and holy hands Upon my infant temples made The Christian sign. For when I lose remembrance of her love. Who watched with anxious hope my rising years, FareweU to all the bliss of Ufe 1 • Farewell my GK&gt;d, and fiureweU all That^ worth a thought But this was not the only poem written by Mr. Hodgson at Lanchester. I have before me a small volume of the most unpre- tending appearance, with the following title, &quot; Poems written at Lanchester by John Hodgson, clerk. London, 1807,'^ of which little book an account must be given, not merely because it is its D 34 MEMOIR OF TH£ RBY. JOHK HODGSON. author's first appearance in print, but because it demands a notice from its intrinsic merit, and the light it throws upon the thoughts and feelings, and, it may be added, the amiabilities, of his mind at that early period of his life. One more remark may be made, — that he was an acute observer and ardent admirer of nature in her Tarious operations is proved in every page of this little volume. The poems which it contains were written, as their author in- forms us, in periods of ill-health and the depression of spirits which the long continuance of such ill-health never fails to bring along with it. What a merciful gid must a mind so constituted be, under such painful and almost hopeless circumstances, to the man to whom it is vouchsafed ! As long as Hodgson could so observe, and think, and write, he wanted not consolations in the midst of afflictions of whatever kind or severity. The book contains a poem called ** Woodlands,&quot; &quot; Longovicum, a Vision,&quot; and five &quot; Odes.&quot; It is neatly printed, in a duodecimo size, by David Akenhead and Sons, Newcastle, and extends to nearly 140 pages. With Mr. John Akenhead, Hodgson main- tained a long and cordial friendship after his settlement on the banks of the Tyne in 1806. In the preface we have the following statements as an apology for the boldness of its author, in thus appearing before the public. These statements are chiefly deserving of a notice here on account of the personal history which they contain. &quot; At a time when the claim to poetical talent seems no longer to be attributed to innate power, or to any peculiar complexion of the human mind, when the press every day teems with polite and weU-finished verse, it may demand an apology to offer to the public a work trifling and unimportant as the present volume. &quot; And after I have confessed it is neither from the flattery or the persuasion of my friends, nor from any confidence in the merit of my own performance, that I send it into the world, I hope I may be credited. To say I am entirely unanxious about its favourable recep- tion would belie my feeHngs. Authors of every description must be agitated with some expectation of the good opinion of their readers, and, if I have any motive for the publishing this volume, it certainly origi- nated in a desire to draw myself from obscurity into notice. My scheme may be blameable, and every way unsuccessful. But when I recollect LANCHESTER — POEM8. 35 the pleasure I had in composing these poems, and the honrs of sickness and anxiety thej have alleviated, I shall never look back with penitence on the time I have bestowed upon them. '' During a residence at Lanchester of a little more than two years my time was chiefly occupied in educating the children of the village, and attending to the duties of an extensive curacy. But my health had required some relaxation from professional employment; and that was chiefly sought for in the society and hospitality of the families in the neighbourhood, in wandering into the fields, in botanical recreations, in searching for antiquities about the Boman station, and in occasional attempts at poetry.&quot; &quot; Woodlands,&quot; he proceeds to state, &quot; which has been chosen for the subject of the first poem, is situated near Lanchester, in the county of Durham, and is the estate of Thomas White, Esq. Prior to the year 1777 it was a wild heath. For improvements in it, according to the Transactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &amp;c., Mr. White received their gold medal ten times, and their silver medal once. The following description of it previous to its inclosure is from Mr. White's own report:^ &quot; * The ground of this plot, whilst in a state of nature, was covered with ling, fern, broom, and bad grass, and rushes in the wet places : the high parts of it very bad land, of a channelly quality, and not many inches from a grit-stone rock: lower down the hills the land is of a better quality, afibrding a tolerable depth of soil, but was then very cold and swampy for want of draining. The features of this inclosure are rather gentle than bold, inclining from the north and south down to a narrow valley in the middle, which continues from east to west through the adjacent country, over which a small but petulant trout-stream wantonly meandered in so many ridiculous mazes as choked its own progress, and rendered the whole of the small valley, containing about eleven acres of my best and most sheltered land, almost useless.' &quot; — Transact of the Soc. of Arts, ^c. vol. V. p. 10. &quot; Of the second poem (the author proceeds) the notes I have given supersede the necessity of any explanation in my preface : and the pieces I have ventured to caU Odes are, perhaps, more in want of a sufficient apology for their insertion than of a history of their composition.'* '« Gateshead, June 1807.&quot; It forms no part of my duty to exercise, even if I were able, the province of a critic; but it may probably appear to many of my readers that, as a whole, the poem of Woodlands is no d2 36 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. ordinaiy composition, and there may be many who will thank me for placing before them the following extracts, some of which, on account of their personal nature, appear to demand a place in a memoir of their author, if even there were no better reason for bringing them forth from a book which is now but little known. Now Flora, loYolieit of the train of spring. Her temples wreath'd with many a blnahing flower, And loose robe floating on the sunny light, Galls oat her children from the sleep of death. The humble speedwells, with cerulean eye^ And deep-ting'd Tiolet, with fragrant breath. Adorn the shade : scatter'd o*er eveiy mead. The golden spangles of the pile- wort glow; And through the leafless woods the anemone And fur oxalis, like yon world of stars That crowd the galaxy, serenely smile. Meek ofliipring of the earth, your fragrance breathe 0*er hill and dale I In all your mingled hues, Burst from your seeds and little folded buds ! O'er you, as well as man, the Almighty*B eye Watches for ever; and the lily^ bell Is still as white, as beautiful, as sweet As in the morning when the obedient earth Heard the Creator's mandate, and ye sprang, Seed-yielding herbs, tall trees, and grassy blades, AU-jocund into life. How many hours Of sweet society I found with you. When grief and sickness eyery eyening drew The wings of misery above my head ! And (hardiness may laugh) but I haye thought 'Twas cruelty to pluck you in the bloom Of life, and implicate your bleeding stems. E'en though to nu^e a garland for the brow Of her I most admire. With you I claim A mortal kindred ; for, like me, to death Obnoxious are you all. But then, alas 1 My death is passage to an awful state. In which no change of circumstance can be. A grain of wheat, committed to the earth. Produces wheat, consimilar to itself, And souls their moral likeness still shall keep — Be rude and restless in the world to come, Or, blessing others, happy in themsdves. — ^p. 14, &amp;c. Spread like a mantle o*er yon sloping hills, The forest now appears. It feels the yemal lymph LAKCHE8T£B — ^POEMS. 37 Afloending its innnmeimble Teiiii, And, pletaed, iti dappled liTeiy retmmnm. For commerce or for war, in ftiture daji, Of dow maturity, the ai4pling oak Unfblds hia princely honours; and the lime Weds his young hranohes to the shady beech. Clustering and dark, the Caledonian fir Puts on a brighter hue. The lofty spruce, That on Norwegian hills by twilight seems A sable pyramid of dissy height. Extends the branches of his gradual wheels. And throws his length'ning spears into the sky. The larch, fiur native of the towering heights Whence storm-fed Po, impatient down the brows Of Yiso, comes to kiss the blooming flowers Of Parma^ pastures, like some beauteous maid At Hymen's altar, bends with graceful boughs. Its robe is bridal, set with dangling flowers, Of which the yellow male affords a dust. That by the Zephyr^s ministerial hands Borne to the purple bride, with joy, insures Fecundity. And, trembling like a hart Entangled in a hunter's toil, the poplar shakes His hoary tresses o*er the murmuring brook : Dark alders too, the many-leayed ash. The supple osier, and the slender birch Put on the vesture of the youthful year.*' — ^p. 24, &amp;c. Tell me, ye dead ! is not your ceaseless work To adore and imitate the God who made Your glorious habitations, and to search With unabated zeal into the plans Of Wisdom, infinite ? O happy life. And happy spirits, whom no ills molest ! A few short years, and we shall all enjoy This high, this fuH beatitude with you.&quot; Brothers — is this no phrenzy of the soul ? Oh, yes ! dear sister, I shall meet with thee ; The anguish that my mother felt, and all My father *s tears, that wet thy early grave, Shall then be quite forgotten in our joy. Methinks I see thee in yon distant star Astronomers the fair Arista call, ! With all our humble kindred, bending down I To sing high anthems to the King of Kings, And, whUe imagination fills my ear With angels' harmony, my eyes weep joy. 38 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN H0DG80K. O ! may this dear delotioo ofk My soul, — ^this little yittonuygleun return To diflupftte the eloudi of hnman UU, And gild my proepeet into fatare bliM. — ^p. 86, &amp;e. Within the shadow of a sonthem hedge. The mower hangs his scythe upon a bough Of feathery larch. Exact, as is the sun To climb the dizzy summit of his course, His little daughter brings a clean repast. Prepared by her who shares his toil and bliss. The prating beauty on his shonlden hangs ; Dangles the flexures of its father's hair, And wakes a trembling pleasure in his veins. Here is a lesson for the idle crowd. Whose limbs are lax and weary with the toil Of most laborious driyelling. Round his head He twines his tawny arms, and lays him down. Possessed of all the luxury of rest. Light is his heart, not many are his cares; His mind upon a level with his state ; And if he never felt the throb of him Who wanders in the flowery paths of thought With science and with poesy, he feels No hooks of envy thrown into his soul ; No shock electric, from the hand of pride, To paralyze the body of research. — p. 38, &amp;c. The poem of &quot; Longovicum&quot; is, as its title at length informs us, &quot;a Vision.&quot; Its author sees in a dream a female &quot; form divinely fair — with flowing robe and braided hair&quot; moving upon a cloud &quot; whose milky hue — was ting'd with shades of clearest blue&quot; and singing to her harp the history of Longovicum under the Druids, the Romans, the Saxons, and the earlier period of Christianity. The verse is harmonious, and some of the pictures are very striking. But the poem was perhaps chiefly intended to serve as a text to which might be appended numerous learned and interesting notes relative to the history of the Camp it- self, the result of reading and personal observation. These notes, which are occasionally illustrated by woodcuts rudely carved by the author himself, prove that to Hodgson's short residence at Lanchester must be attributed that faculty of patient inquiry into the subject of Roman antiquities for which he was afterwards so highly distinguished, and which, in process of time, led to such signal discoveries in other and more extensive fields. He now POEMS— JLONQOVICUM. 39 for the first time writes upon subjects to which happily so much of his after leisure was devoted, and he writes to the purpose. To Lanchester in fact we owe &quot; The Roman Wall.&quot; A few of his more general remarks upon the camp and its situation and condition at that time may be extracted from his pages. Mr. Surtees made much use of the whole in his History of the County, vol. ii. p. 303—307. &quot; The Boman station (writes he, p. 67, &amp;c.) the history of which has been attempted in this little poem, is situated near the village of Lan- chester in the county of Durham. From the present extent of its ruins and the variety of curious inscriptions, coins, and sculptures that have been dug from them, it is certain the place was once of considerable importance. But its history is so much involved in obscurity, and so many of the records of its ancient strength and extension have perished with its less valuable remains, that its name is now disputed and its founder unknown.&quot; He then discusses at length the opinions of preceding writers respecting the real name of the station in times of old, and pro- ceeds — &quot; The scene of this Vision is supposed to lie about the middle of the south wall of the station. Within the last century, and in the memory of many people yet alive, the whole site of the station was overgrown with thorns, brambles, and hazels. But its irregular ruins have now for several years been levelled by the plough, and its area, and the groimd on the outside of its walls, been usefully employed. It still, however, exhibits one of the most conspicuous remains of a Roman camp now to be seen in South Britain. That many valuable antiques should be destroyed by the workmen, who prepared its site for agri- cultural purposes, was to be expected, and that its remains have for many ages continued to be removed for building the church, the village, the farm-houses, the fences of the neighbouring inclosures, and even to be buried in the highways, is more than probable. It has often, indeed, been visited by very eminent antiquaries, especially by Dr. Hunter and Mr. Horsley, and several of its inscriptions and coins have met the eyes of the curious. But, it is to be feared, many of these records of its history are irretrievably lost. The late proprietor of the farm at Hollingside remembered the spot when it was covered with fallen pillars, and while the towers of the wall were still visible. His dwelling-house was in a great measure built from its remains, and the masons he employed, according to his own description, pre- 40 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. ferred the stones fhat were carved to those that had been used lor ordinary purposes. '' Ths grave atones thai were a' covered w€ Utters made excellent tkroughs /*' One stone in particular, he affirmed, made a yard of wall, and had a beautiful female figure cut on one side, which the masons turned inwards. This %ure is said to be in the west gable.&quot; — ^p. 74, &amp;c. &quot; While I resided at Lanchester I not unfrequently met with frag- ments of altars, hand-mills, mortars, and other curiosities, in the field- walls, and the walls of the cottages and farm-houses, but was never fortunate enough to be gratified with a new inscription. Two of the votive altars I found, had the figures of toads cut upon them; a third had a pcAera and urceolus on its sides ; and a foiuth, though neatly hewn, was without any emblematic representation.&quot; — ^p. 78. &quot; Its form is a parallelogram, the length of the vallum or wall from east to west being one hundred and eighty-three yards, and its breadth from north to south one hundred and forty-three yards. Like all Roman camps, it had a gate in the middle on every side, from which were streets traversing each other at right angles at the centre. Of the east and west gate and the street leading between them there are yet evident traces. The comers of the wall were roimd and guaided with towers. The vallum itself was eight feet thick at the foundation, gradually decreasing by parallel steps from the surface of the inside to four feet at the top. It was strengthened on the west by a fosse. The other sides had the advantage, in case of a siege, of the sloping of the hilL The Pretorium was situated near the north gate, and evident vestiges of it are still remaining. The stone has been brought from a hill about a mile east from Lanchester. There are traces of two aqueducts, each at least two miles long.&quot; — ^p. 91. &amp;c. At a subsequent period of his life, when resident at Heworth, Mr. Hodgson communicated to the Archaeologia ^liana (yoL i. p. 118) Observations on one of these aqueducts^ and also Bemarks upon certain heaps of Iron Scoria in the parish of Lanchester. Of the odes contained in the same little volume one is ad- dressed to the West Winds; two to the Kev J. Cowper, a school- master at Swindale, the author's birth-place ; one to a Bee; and the fiiflh and last to a Lady. We venture to print the first at full length. It was a great favourite with the late Mr. Surtees, no ordinary judge of poetical elegance, long before he was acquainted with its author. LANCHESTEB — ^POEMS. 4 1 To THB Webt Winds. Whither, ye timid zephyrs, have you flown, Ye people of the west wind, tell me where You Btretch your aromatio wings, And in what gardens of the sun, At morning, breathe Your pleasant odours ? Have you southward fled. With spring to linger on the breezy shores Of Ebro, or the olivets leaf To paint with everlasting green On Tajo^s banks ? Perhaps you sport upon the golden sands Of Niger, and, in heat meridian, dip Your wings upon Anzioo^ plains; Or in the cocoa- vesturM islee Beyond the line Kiss the young plantain, and to dance and song The simple natives call. O ! ministers Of health, and medicines that cure The soul with sickness woe-begone— - O back return. And brace my languid limbs, and on my cheek With hands benevolent your crimson lay : Come and repair the dreadful waste Committed by the boisterous tribe That rule the north. From the fair pastures of the bright-horn M bull Descending, on the orient shafts of day, A thousand sylphs of heat are come To strew your grassy road with flowers. And bid you hail. Already has the primrose decked for you Her fragrant palaces, and wide unfolds Their vestibule with yellow doors; The purple-spotted orchis too Prepares his halls Of curious workmanship, where you may spend Your festal mornings, or, beneath the gloom Of solitary midnight, rest In caves, that azure crystal seem To eyes like yours. 42 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. Come in the globe-flower** golden laTer, wash Yonr little hftnde with dew-drope, and in leee Of evening teen, npon the leeTet Of alchemilla, gently plnnge Yoor beanteooa limbe. Will yon not np the woodiniTe od'iooa lymph. And banqnet on the ambrosia it affords ? Will yon not on the wortle * ait, And luacions nectar drink beneath Its mby dome ? O ! you shall revel on Elian's lip, Madden with ii4&gt;tnre on its coral bloom. And in her gentle eye behold The infant softness of yonr form Reflected bright. Come then, O genial winds, and in yonr way Visit the fairest fountains of the sky, And in the hollow of your hands Bring each a precious drop to cheer Returning spring. On the subject of the above volume of poems, however, we must not omit to give Mr. Hodgson's own opinion. The following is an extract from a letter written by him to his wife at Heworth when he was in London in 1821. &quot; 3 March. I must not omit to tell you what the Bishop [of Durham, Dr. Barrington] said when I entered the room to dinner. * here he is; we have just been talking about you. I have been saying that you are not only an excellent antiquaiy but an excellent poet. I assure you I have read your poems all through more than twice, and I have been advising the company to do the same; they are full of genius.' I do not mention this from vanity, because I have none about the work, which the Bishop honoured with his opinion. Iof);en wish, on account of its £aults, that every copy was burnt.*' I myself have frequently heard him express the same desire, es- pecially during a pleasant excursion from Durham to his old scenes at Lanchester on Oct. 14, 1836. Our company, including Hodgson, consisted of Mr. Townsend, Mr. Dobie Wilson of ♦ Vaccinium myrtillus, bilberry or Uagberry. The stamina of this shruh form a very beautiful dome. LANCHESTER — ^POEHS. 43 Glenarbach, in Scotland, Mr. Omsby, and myself. Hodgson was our guide over the camp, every line and stone of which seemed fresh to his memory ; although thirty years had elapsed since his connection with the village had ceased. But he strongly deprecated any mention of his poem of Longovicum, which I happened to have in my pocket, and regretted that the volume in which it was contained was in existence. With the same feel- ing, he in the preceding year (1835) thus writes in his Journal, on the 22nd of May : &quot; Finished the account of the trees here (at Hartbum) for Mr. Loudon, and sent him, to be returned, a copy of the foolish poems I wrote at Lanchester, as he requested.' And yet the book had been popular, not only at the time of its publication, but long afterwards; and he had received numerous testimonies in its favour from competent and disinterested judges. Two maybe mentioned : &quot; I shall be happy,&quot; says Mr, Surtees, by letter on the 29th April, 1812, *Mn any opportunity of your personal acquaintance; not only on account of the valuable assistance you promise me, but from the great pleasure I have de- rived from your poems :&quot; and Mr. Tate of Eichmond thus writes, 3 March, 1829: &quot; The sympathies of my heart are with you ever — When I last saw John Ingram (Dr. Zouch's nephew), who once lived at Staindrop, it delighted me to hear him speak in such high terms of admiration about your little Book of Poetry. Ingram is a man of very fine cultivated talent.&quot; But of the poem of Woodlands more must be said, at the risk of being thought tedious by those who have not, like Hodgson, studied nature and her proceedings, and for whom the eternal lan- guage of hills and dales and streams has no charms. Such sub- jects as these, it must be admitted, have been much abused in what has been called poetry ; but there may be some who will be of opinion that Hodgson's feeling of intense veneration for out- ward nature is expressed in no ordinary way. From a memorandum in his Journal it appears that, about the year 1830, Mr. Hodgson revised the poem of Woodlands with a view to a new edition. The alterations and additions which he proposed to make are many of them before me ; and they are of such a character as to cause a regret that his design was not carried into execution. The additions are numerous and important, proving 44 MEMOIR OF THB BEY. JOHN HODGSON. that time had matured the judgment of their author, and had furnished him with new ideas, and a stiU more happy mode of ex- pressing himself in poetic language. I shall probably not incur much blame if I give &amp;om the manuscript the following extracts. The poem itself is already before the world. The additions and emendations may never see the light except partially in the present pages. But how shall I the rural pipe attune To peaoefiil measures, while tempestuous winds, Fitful and loud, upon my roof descend ? The sturdy plane-tree stoops : the moon, alarm 'd, Flies like a hunted stag from oloud to cloud. While rudeness thus usurps the reign of nig^t, How shall I sing of influences of stars Or inspirations from the midnight hours That pour their soothings o'er the anxious soul ? How shall I paint the mead, With blooming hawthorn hemm'd around, and streams ; With butter-cups that drink their spangled hue From golden rivers of the opening day ? How think I wander in some shelter'd nook, Where, in the blushing noons of early spring, The daisy courts the sun vrith open disc, And tufts of primrose grace the hazel banks ? But contrast teaches us the worth of things. And gives the highest relish to the joys That stand in sight of danger or of pain. Hence the strange pleasure that the landsman feels In safety, when he sees the tempest turn The ocean*s sur&amp;ce into whitening foam, Or on its ourUug billows bear aloft The gilded yessel and its gallant crew. Like leaf autumnal, or an empty gourd. To dash to atoms on the deaf ning shore. Henoe the lone herdsman, on a mountain-brow Secure, the thrill of pleasing horror feels While war^ dread din from all the plain below Comes thickening up, and lightning's horrid glare Through smoke and dust from thick battalions join'd. And trench'd artillery on the carnage gleams. Then, while depression weighs my spirits down, And tempest riots in the troubled air. Go, Fancy, forth and contemplation hold With woods, and culturM fields, and lawns, With warbling birds, and Flora's lovely train. LANCHESTEB — POEMS. And tell, how White, with iiresistleflB word, Dzoye startled Barrenness from all her rights Of old possession ; and morasses deep And vnnd-swept hills in woods and yerdure clothed. Such as in genial climes spontaneous rise By winding margin of a mighty stream. And while in thought I tread yon siWan aisles Through all the seasons of the changing year, In morning's balmy air, in heated noon. Or veUed in shadows of the dewy eve, And trace Divinity in Nature's laws, Be far, my soul, from adulation's shrine ; Pour thou no incense on the altar there — Its perfumes all thy youthful energies Will kill, forbid thy pinions far above The intrigues of life in freedom's car to ride And make thee crouching sycophant, but fit To be a great man's Sunday visitor, The piteous object of his alms and scorn. But be thou bold, and generous : from fear Or envy never let my heart refuse To useful merit its reward of praise. Departed spirit ! daughter of my friend,* From Heaven, thy home eternal now, O send On me the lambent tongue of fire and powers Thy aged father's broken heart to heal ; His troubled mind with holy charm to touch Of consolation, and to lead his step Backward through scenes where he and nature vied The desert and the wilderness to clothe In garments such as floated once around Patau's rich places and the ancient groves Of Gtehol. Thou hast pass'd the gate that leads To life eternal, and the scenes with thee Are all of certainty and joy: but do not Angels of the world, of faith, and hope Remembrance bear, and sympathize with those They left behind, obnoxious to the pangs Of mortal partings and the pains of death ? And he, thy sire, of memory's dearest thoughts Is worthy 'mongst the worthiest. They who Were mighty bom have mighty works to do. And often do them not The coronet Within its magic circle has a spell, That binds nobility to offer all • Mr. White of Woodlands. 45 46 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON* Her wealth and mental powen before the ihrine Of pomp. The hot-home bean the fragrant pine While oom«fleldt cease from oaltnre. Indian palms, And balmy flowers that nature gave to olimes Within the Equator blossom now in air, Britannia in ten thousand furnaces Is forced to heat, while millions of her sons, For want of daily bread, are forced from home For friendlier shelter and for better fsre Than home could giye, in foreign climes to seek. The following extract sayours strongly of the first Georgic of VirgiL Where the smooth land with T^getable soil Abounds, and dark and friable but thin. And near to barren sands, is found below. Then, O ye husbandmen, beware to let Your coulters shine. The granary hence few times Replenished, and ten centuries* constant rest, Without manure your folds can ill afford. The pilfered treasure from your injured fields Cannot restore. Here, if the earth inert By decomposing lime converted be To pabulum fit for herbs that Iotc the mead, Enchantment quickly to the feast shall raise Fescue and poa, and the clover white. And odorous vernal grass, delight of sheep. But if its face with wUlows low, and heath, And mouldering brinks of pools uneven be. Ere drought unusual make it gasp with thirst, Or withering toughness root of shrub or rush. Or spongy hillock touch, the parers then With hooked spades in regular lines should lay The loathsome bearded turf. Few days elapse, And numerous hands to winds and sultry suns In columns straight the sever'd earth expose, Till fuel dry *tis pil'd in rows of cones On flaming embers, task of sportive boys, Laborious, but congenial to their minds. By gentle breezes ianuM, the flame ascends In lambent spires — ^a blaze that mocks the sun, And far and wide in light blue volume spread. The smoke with peaty odour scents the air. Now strew the ashes alkaline around, And covering friable of clay or sand Or earth calcareous add, and plough the land, And harrow, till the whole be smooth and plain ; J LANCHESTER — POEMS. 47 And last of all, when April's lengthening days A streaming Tapour from the moist land draws, With even hand the well selected seed Of various grasses to its care commit ; But guard thy labour well from hoof of horse, Or heavy cattle, till the roUer^s weight Or summer's heat compactly bind the sward. One winter past, and spring shall nurture here A herbage thick of deeply-tinted green, That from the scythe in fleecy loads shall turn The rich reward of well-directed toil. Whilst resident at Lanchester Hodgson discovered in the county of Durham another cousin^ a youth of the name of Harding, a native of his own valley of Swindale, and three years younger than.himself, with whom he entered into a friendly correspondence on subjects of literature, &amp;c. The young man was a teacher of writing, and perhaps also of arithmetic and mathematics, in the school of Mr. Kawes, who had by this time removed from Wit- ton-le- Wear to Houghton ; and certainly it is not easy to conceive a more beautiful hand than that in which he writes his letters. The two appear to have met occasionally, both at Lanchester, and afterwards at Gateshead ; after which period all intercourse between them seems to have been interrupted for many years ; imtil in 1839 they again begin to write to each other: and in one of his letters Harding, who then and had long resided in Liverpool, gives an account of his history during this long inter- val. He had been a private tutor in several respectable schools, had married, and had become the father of eight children, six of whom were then alive and in the way of doing well. Of Hodg- son's letters to this gentleman I have unfortunately no copy,* but that they were full of kindness and information is manifest. To one of them, the contents of which may be surmised from the answer it received, Harding made a long reply, from which, although I am anticipating the order of time which in general it is my intention to pursue, I make the following interesting extract* ** In looking over your note, which I do with renewed pleasure, I am particularly struck with the account you give of the dreams you relate * It is probable that these letters may be procured in time for my purpose. 48 KEHOIB OF THE KEY. JOHN H0DG80N. in reference to the scenes of onr early jonth. What jou saj about Swindale is to me very affecting. It recalls many tender scenes, that are past and gone, and which can never be recollected in this world ; but the hope of a recognition and happy reunion to our relations in tJie next is, as you justly intimate, our only solace here. I set a high value upon what you call your proxy, as it does ' revive in my memory tJie lineaments of an old friend.' It reminds me of Cowper's feelings on the receipt of his mother's picture ; and I wish I had talents to pay an equal tribute. The account you give of your topographical labours, con- sidering too your clerical duties, is to me quite astonishing ; and am glad to find that the composing of this work has afforded so much rational amusement, and, I would hope, some reasonable profit. The silence being now broken, I shall be happy to hear from you freely ^ as often as may be convenient. Tour affectionate cousin, « J. Haedihq.&quot;


Ghtteshead— Neville's Cross, a poem — Presented to the Living of Jarrow with Heworth — C. Ellison, Esq. — Ancient History of Jarrow — Duties and Emoluments of Jarrow and Heworth — Creation, a poem — A painter — History of the River Tyne and the Roman Wall. In the summer of 1806, after having resided at Lanchester for nearly two years and a half, the subject of our memoir became Curate of Gateshead under Dr. Prosser, at that time its rector, prebendary, and afterwards Archdeacon of Durham. Of Dr. Prosser in after years Hodgson had little to say, except that he made his curates wear a hat of a peculiar kind at visitations. Hodgson kept his hat to the last, as a curiosity. He leaves the vale of Lanchester, however, with considerable regret. With the two principal families then resident in the parish, the Whites and Greenwells, he had lived upon amicable terms. But his connec- tion with such friends was severed by a distance of eight or ten miles only ; and after his departure it appears to have undergone no interruption. The Whites, in particular, ever aftyerwards con- sidered him as a friend of their house, and invariably, as is proved by their letters, communicated to him their joys or their sorrows ; until Woodlands passed into the possession of another family, and they themselves became scattered residents in other and distant localities. The estate has passed into other hands. Much of the timber planted by the first Mr. White, having gained its growth, has been cut down ; and the land upon which it grew, having been greatly benefited by the improving process it had undergone, is now devoted to pasture and tillage. Woodlands, however, still retains many beauties. Proofs are not wanting that Hodgson was duly estimated by his Lanchester friends, and his welfare an object of their anxiety. Soon after his departure from that valley, Mr. Walker, the in- cumbent of the parish church, died; and, such was the feeling of the people in Hodgson's favour, after his connection with them E 50 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. had ceased, that they unanimously joined in a petition to the Bishop of Durham, its patron, for his appointment to the vacant benefice. The petition however was not attended with success, and the unsuccessful candidate has preserved a letter from his kind old friend Mr. Stopford of Sedgefield, at that time perpetual curate of Kyloe and Lowick, near Berwick-upon-Tweed, con- doling with him on his disappointment. There is somet hing ver pleasing in the letters of this gentlemanly man. Others will pre- sent themselves to our notice hereafter. **I do not forget you. I am not unmindful of you. My daily prayers and wishes are for your health, prosperity, and peace, as well as for the health, prosperity, and peace of all other friends and relations who justly merit my esteem and love. I easily foresaw that the appli- cation of the parishioners of Lanchester in your favour would avail nothing, but rather the contrary. But be not grieved at your dis- appointment. Be not anxious about such things. Conscientiously discharge your ministerial duties, and leave the rest to the disposal of an all-wise, good, and gracious Providence. I beg to recommend to your notice my son Theophilus, the bearer of this. I hope you will have jfrequent- opportunities of seeing him and giving him good counsel and advice, which to young persons, in such a place as Newcastle, is highly necessary. Your sincere friend, &quot; W. Stopford.&quot; The duties of the parish of Gateshead were of a most laborious kind. The population in 1801 was 8597, and there was at that time, I believe, no chapel of ease to assist in accommodating so many people. But Hodgson was no longer a schoolmaster; and therefore his leisure hours, few though they were, were at his own disposal. Here too was a new field for his inquisitive mind, and here he converted to a good use the opportunities which were thrown in his way for acquiring sound practical knowledge in the various departments of science in which he took a delight. If during his residence at Lanchester, he formed his first &quot; ac- quaintance with the Great Northern coal-field&quot; under such limited circumstances as that neighbourhood afforded, here he became lo- cated in the very centre of mining operations, surrounded by pits in full working, and so abundant in produce as to encourage their owners in sparing no Expense in working them in the most GATESHEAD. 51 scientific way. Here also, in other respects, he found the human mind in the greatest activity. Enterprise and commerce, with all their remunerative concomitants, were flourishing on both sides of the Tyne, and elaborate machinery for almost every variety of purpose was in full exercise, giving employment to thou- sands. Here then was a wide field for a mind like his, taking nothing upon credit, but investigating with eye and thought every thing connected with science or adventure which fell in his way, and suffering no opportunity of gaining practical informa- tion to pass away unheeded. The only literary employment in which he appears to have been actually engaged, during his residence in Gateshead, was the publication of the poems written at Lanchester, of which we have already spoken. To the painful discharge of his clerical duties and to the acquisition of useful information he appears to have devoted his energetic mind with constancy and patience — with success we may hope in the one, under the blessing of the Almighty; the fruits of the other were not long in making themselves manifest. Hodgson's Journal during his residence at Gateshead, if it de- serves the name, is of a very miscellaneous nature, and kept apparently with no great regularity. It comprises notices of his various public and private ministrations as a clergyman, his sermons, visits to the sick, distribution of charity money, &amp;c. &amp;c. Many entries are made in short-hand of a peculiar character, in all probability of his own invention. It contains also a few notes of his personal expenses. Entries of a more general nature are neither numerous nor important. He became, it appears, a mem- ber of the Literary and Philosophical Society in Newcastle, at- tended lectures there, gained the acquaintance of Mr. Adamson, his future colleague as secretary of the Antiquarian Society, and received much notice from his own parishioners. The fol- lowing memoranda are perhaps worthy of being brought to light as specimens of the entries which the book contains : &quot; To write a poem for the benefit of Newcastle Infirmary on Charity — to make it chiefly didactive, but intersperse it with moral tales and enliven it with anecdotes.'* &quot; I went to-day with Mr, Ornsby of Darlington, an excellent scholar, to George Gray's room. He was painting a half- sized picture of Brude e2 52 MEHOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. the schoolmaster. On obserying that he did not put his name to all his pieces, I said ' But it is not a matter of moment, thej will always be recognized/ — He seemed pleased, and said, ' An artistes style is like a hand- writing, peculiar and easily known.* ** &quot;April 16 (1808). Dr. Prosser was collated to the Archdeaconry of Durham.** &quot; May 6. Thursday. Went to Durham, under an expectation of dining in residence with Dr. Prosser (his late rector). But, though I had been pressed to go over, any day I was at liberty, I was not in- vited to dinner, or next to not invited : * Perhaps, my dear, Mr. Hodgson will stop and dine with us this evening.' ** The Journal also contains a notice that the sum of 114Z. I65. had been collected in the parish of (Gateshead (chiefly by Hodg- son's means) for the benefit of the widows and children of numerous poor fishermen belonging to Newbiggin and Blyth in Northumberland, who had lost their lives at sea in a storm. He had soon to undertake a similar task at home and in his own parish, under circumstances of a more painful kind. It has been said above that Hodgson did not engage in any literary work whilst he resided at Grateshead, but a little book has been preserved, which from its hand-writing induces me to alter my opinion. It contains the beginning of a poem, in blank verse, on the subject of the Battle of Neville's Cross, near Durham, extending to upwards of 200 lines, written with considerable spirit; and also numerous historical notes and extracts from printed authorities on the same subject, together with memoranda for his own guidance in the management of the poem. An alphabetical list is prefixed of persons engaged in the battle on both sides, and the plan is laid down for a poem as it appears of considerable length. It has been already said that what is written is in the most unfinished state, but we may venture to give by way of specimen a single extract, which is spirited and poetical. The Scotish king is addressing his nobles, and ex- horting them to make an inroad into England -shall Scotland*s thanes Still tributary live, still hear the cries That widows and that orphans for revenge Morning and evening through our wasted towns Unceasing utter, and in scabbards still GATESHEAD. — NEVILLE'S CROSS. 53 Suffer their Bwords to tlnmber ? She who held All Europe's states in tribute, and her sway 0*er Asia's plains extended, and oompellM The tawny Moor her prowess to obey, Never by guile or force oould bind in chains The sons of Caledonia; and shall we Tamely submit to see the sacred soil That fed our fathers, and through countless years Has been the abode of liberty and peace, Held in subjection by a king whose realm Neither in bounds nor beauty of its fields Surpasses ours ? What shall we say, my thanes; Shall we unsheath our swords and freedom seize, Or let them slumber, and continue slaves ? Upon the cession of Dr. Prosser Mr. Phillpotta, now Bishop of Exeter, was collated to the vacant benefice ; and with him Hodg- son was making the necessary arrangements respecting his curacy when he received the following letter from Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. of Hebburn Hall, near Gateshead: &quot; Dear Sir, Hebbnm Hall, May 23 (1808). &quot; If your engagements will allow you to breakfast with me to- morrow morning at nine o'clock I wish to see you on particular business. I am yours truly &quot; C. Ellison. *' Rev. Mr. Hodgson.&quot; The Journal above referred to explains this ** particular busi- ness.'* Hodgson is no longer a stipendiary curate, but the incumbent of one of the most antient and famous parishes in the whole North of England ; the representative of a college of holy men who from Jarrow and her sister establishment of Monkwearmouth shed the light of learning, sacred and secular, over the widely extending kingdom of Northumbria. &quot;May 15. Monday. At Mr. Harvey's. Evening. Mr. Glover (curate of Jarrow with Heworth) died. Mr. Willis gave me some expectations of obtaining the curacy of Jarrow and Heworth.&quot; &quot; May 17. Mr. Robinson curate of Boldon died suddenly in his way from Hebburn Hall.&quot; &quot; May 22. Mr. Barras's. Mr. Akenhead's. Mr. Willis. Strong en- couragement to hope.&quot; &quot; May 24. Breakfasted with Mr. Ellison, and had the living of Jarrow offered me, vdthout any solicitation, or ever being, but once, in 54 MEMOIK OF THE KEY. JOHN HODGSON. Mr. Ellison's company before. Dined with him in the evening. Mj obligations are great to Mr. Dodd, Mr. Ellison's steward, but especiaUj to Mr. Willis (his solicitor). Wrote to my mother, Mr. Stopford, Mr. Phillpotts, Mr. J. Bawes, Mr. White, Jan., Mr. Greenwell (both Lanchester friends), Mr Marshall.** This is the commencement of a series of acts of kindness extending over many years which Hodgson received at the hands of Mr. Ellison, for whom, and hb family, he entertained the most sincere feelings of respect and gratitude to his dying day. In turning over an immense mass of correspondence for these pages I have been much struck with the way in which Mr. Elli- son writes to him on all occasions ; treating him not merely as his parish priest, but as a friendly adviser on- many important occasions, and almost as a member of his own family. To antici- pate in some measure the course of time, as a specimen of the delicate and gentlemanly way in which Mr. Ellison was in the habit of conferring a favour upon him, when he knew it' was needed, the following letter is here presented to the reader. Hodgson in this year was slowly recovering from a most severe illness, and Jarrow with Heworth could not afford to pay the bills of wine-merchants. &quot; Dear Sir, Hebburn Hall, 8th Jan. 1821. &quot; I will not fail to forward the letters I received from you to-day,* and I am very sorry for the cause which prevents me from shaking hands with you before I emigrate. ** Will you do me the favour to accept of 6 doz. of port wine, of the year 1807, for which I have not a sufficiently rapid consumption. &quot; Yours very truly, &quot; C. Ellison.&quot; On the 1st June following the Bishop of Durham wrote as follows : &quot; Eev. Sir, Mongewell, 1 June, 1808. &quot; Nothing can be more honourable to Mr. Ellison, more flattering to you, or more satisfactory to me, than the motives which have in- duced him to give you such a proof of his favourable opinion. That * Mr. Ellison was at that time a representative of Newcastle in Parliament, and his franks were of great use to Hodgson in his literaiy correspondence. JABROW WITH HEWORTH. 56 you will answer his laudable purposes in the appointment by an exem- plary discharge of all the duties which it imposes, is not with me matter of doubt. I have given directions for preparing your licence, which, when signed, shall be forwarded to Mr. Burrell.* I am with much regard your sincere friend and brother *' S. Ddnelm;* His old friend Mr. Stopford also writes in terms of congratula- tion. &quot; Dear Sir, Kyloe, May 26, 1808 &quot; Yesterday evening my son, on his return from Belford, left here a letter from you, which conveys to us the pleasing intelligence of your unsolicited, and consequently unexpected, promotion. We all greatly rejoiced, and we heartily congratulate you on the pleasing event. ** I am an entire stranger to Mr. Ellison, but I must always esteem the man who has penetration to discern, and generosity to reward, modest, unassuming merit. &quot; I now entertain a pleasing hope that in a little time you will have leisure and opportunity of paying us a visit. We shall be all very glad to see you. Please inform us by a few lines when we may expect you. &quot; We hope you frequently see Theophilus. We commend him to your friendship and protection. We understand he has been some time unwell; we hope to receive a favourable account of him when you write. &quot; I pray God to bless you ; and am your sincere friend and humble servant, &quot; Wm. Stopford.'' When Mr. Hodgson's private pursuits and line of reading in his leisure hours are considered, he cannot but be considered as having been fortunate in obtaining this preferment ; although the income of the curacy afforded an inadequate compensation for the spiritual services of so painstaking a man. If Lanchester had been robbed of its rights by the strong arm of the Dissolu- tion, so had the church of which he now becomes the incum- bent. * Mr. BurreU's fees for licence, &amp;o. amounted to 101. 28. Sd. To pay this sum, among others, Hodgson borrowed 60^. of his friend Mr. Robert Akenhead, out of which he pays 271. for a mare and 8/. for a gold watch. 56 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN H0D680K. JaiTOw had been in times of old a mother church, fiunous for its antiquity, and renowned as a seat of piety and learning in the Saxon period; and Heworth had been an unendowed chapel within the limits of its jurisdicdon. But ancient endowments had been sacrilegeously set aside, and Hodgson found his prefer- ment in point of emolument, population and all other circum- stances considered, the poorest of the poor. But upon this subject more will be said after few words shall have been devoted to the early history of the parish. If Mr. Hodgson found at Lanchester a Boman camp, for the amusement of his leisure hours, he finds at Jarrow, not only a station of that people, of a lower class it must be admitted than that of Lanchester, but also a church boasting, and with no empty boast, of having been founded in the Saxon times, and pregnant with ecclesiastical associations of learning and piety and academical renown. The position of Jarrow, on the very verge of the Tyne, where that noble river combines with the sea at high tide in forming a large estuary, now called Jarrow Slake, led, without question, to the settlement upon that precise spot of both the Boman and the Saxon. The sea, and security, were both within reach, when danger approached on the side of the land, and such a situation was in consequence not to be neglected. The Boman remains at Jarrow, which Hodgson studied deeply from year to year, consist of traces of a road extending from the camp at Lanchester to the mouth of the Tyne, by way of Urpeth, Gateshead Fell, the modern Wrekenton, and Jarrow itself, to South Shields, where altars have been foimd, one of which is at the present time preserved in the library of the Dean and Chap- ter of Durham. In a commimication to the society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, written in 1822 (Arch. iEHian. ii. 123), Hodgson proves this road to be a branch of the ancient Wrekendyke, and when requested by the builder of a village on the line of the road, near Gateshead, to give a name to the new settlement, he called it by the appropriate name of Wrekenton, which it will now always retain. But further : during the progress of certain repairs in Jarrow church, in 1782, two Boman monuments, or inscribed stones, were found in the walls; and two square pavements of Boman brick were observed in the earth when the road was ANCIENT HISTOEY OF JABROW. 57 altered near Jarrow Row. Besides, the whole ground to the north of the church has been ascertained to contain a series of foundations bearing every character of Roman masonry — and further stilly in addition to these Roman indicia^ as Leland would have called them, a regular line of masonry has been traced from east to west (parallel to the wall of the church-yard), till it ter- minated in the site of a round-tower, near the south-west angle of the cemetery, and on this very spot was found a silver coin of the emperor Aulus Vitellius.* To come down to Saxon times: — the monastical church of Jarrow (we may be indulged in giving a few particulars of its origin and subsequent history) was founded in the year 681 by Benedict Biscop, a Saxon of noble birth, who had held office in the court of Oswy King of Northumbria, and who, at the early age of 25, had abjured the world and had become an ecclesiastic. Jarrow was the second of his monastic foundations. The church of St. Peter at Wearmouth (afterwards Monkwearmouth) had been the first, in the year 675. An inscription upon stone, of unquestionable antiquity and in good preservation in the church records the dedication or consecration of Jarrow in the year 685, and soon afterwards, until their destruction by the Danes, the two establishments appear to have been united in one fraternity, with the education of youth as one of its principal objects. It is re- corded by Bede that at one time there were not fewer than 600 scholars receiving their education at Jarrow or Wearmouth. &quot; But Jarrow (we quote from Surtees, p. 69) derives its principal honours from its connection with the Venerable Bede. An an- cient and not an improbable tradition fixes the birth-place of Bede to the small hamlet of Monkton, nearly adjoining Jarrow. Bede himself states, generally, that he was born within the jurisdiction of St. Peter and Paul, that he entered the monastery * These notes are chiefly extracted from Surtees, ii. o8, &amp;c. ; see also Hodgson ^s own account of Roman Jarrow in the Hist, of Northumb. vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 230. In a letter to myself, on the 31st of March, 1832, he says — ''Jarrow has much that is very curious about it. The name is derived from the old Saxon and Danish term Gyr, a carr or marsh subject to be flooded. The Isle of Ely had the same name; and in con- tradistinction to this was called ** Suth Gyrvy.*' The inscribed Roman stones mentioned above fell into Hodgson's hands upon the death of Brand, and he gave them to Mr. Ellison. They are now at Hebbum Hall. 58 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. at seven years of age in 684, was ordained deacon at nineteen by John Bishop of Hexham in 696, and received the full order of priesthood j&amp;om the same prelate in his thirtieth year (707). ' From the date of my attaining the priesthood, until this ray fifty-ninth year, I have never ceased to compile annotations and glosses on the Holy Scripture, for the edifying of myself and my brethren !' In another passage he adds that he spent his whole life, from childhood to age, within his own monastery. To these naked dates, and to this simple and authentic account, little can be added; but the sequestered habits of Bede may demand the attention of those who, blind to native talent and home-bred worth, despise all learning and undervalue all ac- complishment which is not tinctured with the flavour of a foreign growth. The lamp of learning trimmed by the hand of a simple monastic, who never passed the limits of his Northumbrian province, irradiated ifrom the cell of Jarrow the Saxon realm of England with a clear and steady light; and when Bede died, History reversed her torch, and quenched it in deep night.&quot; But Jarrow and her sister of Wearmouth were, in the year 867, along with similar religious institutions on the eastern coast, laid waste by a band of invading and plundering Danes; and, after having been for a long time unoccupied, became by the gift of Walcher Bishop of Durham, in 1075, the property and residence of a few Benedictine monks, who had migrated from Winchel- cumbe to the North of England, and who eventually, in 1083, were removed to Durham, to constitute the germ of that afterwards splendidly endowed Benedictine convent. The Winchelcumbe monks, however, were no sooner settled at Durham than, mind- ful of the historic fame and sanctity of the two churches which they had so lately occupied, they established a few mem- bers of their body in the churches of Jarrow and Wearmouth, which now became separate but dependent fraternities, obeying in all things the will of the church of Durham, of which they were offsets, removeable at pleasure, but with fixed sources of income, of the receipt and expenditure of which an annual ac- count was to be rendered at home. The two churches, therefore, became cells, as they were called; and so they continued till the Dissolution. Many of the annual account-rolls here spoken of, and ANCIENT HISTORY OF JARROW. 59 numerous inventories of the ecclesiastical furniture, goods, &amp;c. of the two cells, extending from 1303 to the Dissolution, have lately been made public by the Surtees Society, and much light has consequently been thrown upon their history and domestic economy during that period. Of architectural interest the church of Jarrow has much to boast of peculiar to itself. There is over its chancel-arch the unique and memorable historical inscription in 685, above spoken of, and numerous fragments of the original Saxon fabric are pre- served in the second structure, which mainly belongs to the early Norman period of the Winchelcumbe settlers in 1075, The tower is very characteristic of that early style, and there are ex- tensive remains of monastic buildings of the same date upon the brow of the hill on the south and west of the church. These few notices may suffice with respect to the church of Jarrow, with which Mr. Hodgson becomes connected as its minister, a place with everything to excite and keep alive his historical and antiquarian zeal. The Roman, the Saxon, the Dane, and the Benedictine monk of Durham, all figure before him ; each with his own national feelings and characteristics, but all of them belonging to the great family of man : and that he at one time meditated a detailed history of the place in all its bearings, appears from the following note by Mr. Surtees (ii. p. 67): '* I am the less anxious to give a more detailed account of this interesting spot, both because I feel it impossible to collect, from its present mutilated state, any certain account of its original ap- pearance, and because I am aware that the subject is turning in the mind of a genuine antiquary who has every local advantage.'^ To the subject of this contemplated history we shall return by and by. It is in general, however, easier to write books than to find means for sending them forth to the world. The income of Jarrow was barely sufficient to procure the ordinary necessaries of life for its incumbent. And here again we may have recourse to somewhat of history to account for the present poverty of such an ancient church. To the monks of Jarrow, the convent of Durham had appro- 60 MEMOIB OF THE BEV. JOHN HODGSON. priated the tithes of the townships of Jarrow and Heworth (strictly so called), together with the responsibility of providing for the due performance of parochial service in both places^ re- serving to themselves the tithes of the other numerous townships within the parish : that these duties were duly performed by the monks may not be doubted; but, as the annual revenue of the cell of Jarrow did not at the Dissolution amount to 200Z., it was dis- solved by the first spoliatory statute, and in consequence its revenues (the above tithes included) fell away for ever from the church into the hands of the Crown or its grantees, and until recent times, under the operation of Queen Anne's Bounty, and other charitable aids, the emoluments of the curacy consisted only of a pension of ten marks (61, 13«. 4A) per annum, payable by the lay impropriators (the owners of what had belonged to the monks, and which had in their time been devoted to sacred purposes), together with the surplice fees. The population of Jarrow and Heworth amounted in 1811, three years after the commencement of Hodgson's incumbency, to 6,303 souls. The income at that time, from all sources, was not more than 116L per annum. There was no glebe house, and the distance between the church and its chapel was four and a quarter miles, and the circuit of the parish was considerable; so that a horse was required, and yet Hodgson could only afford to keep a horse for the first two or three years of his incumbency, afterwards he borrowed or walked. But it may be convenient to anticipate here somewhat of the subsequent his- tory of the parish in point of its emoluments. Things had not long continued in this state of poverty before Hodgson made an effort to procure an augmentation to his benefice fi:om the fund of Queen Anne's Bounty, but difficulties presented themselves, and for a while he gave up his attempt in despair. In 1815 however he was more fortunate; Jarrow was in that year augmented with 500Z., 200/. being contributed by Lord Crewels trustees, and 300/ by Queen Anne's Bounty. In 1818 another sum of 5001. was raised, lOOL being contributed by the Pyncombe trustees, lOOZ. by Hodgson himself, and 300/. by parliamentary grant. In 1819 again Hodgson succeeded in obtaining from the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty two additional allotments of 200/. each. This sum DUTIES AT JARROW AND HEWORTH. 61 of 1,400Z. in all was afterwards laid out in the purchase of a small farm called Lough House, in the parish of Stamfordham, for the benefit of the living. From the commencement of Mr. Hodgson's incumbency, divine service was performed in the morning or afternoon at Jarrow and He worth on alternate Sundays ; but, as he resided at He worth, this latter place had always an evening service, in addition to that in the morning or afternoon, according to its turn ; so that, over and above his other ministerial functions, such as reading prayers thrice, baptisms, marriages, funerals, &amp;c.* which were generally very numerous, Hodgson preached three sermons every Sunday. &quot; That's a wonderful man, that Mr. Hodgson,&quot; said a gentleman one evening in Durham, in a crowded room, whilst looking on and talking over a whist table. ** Yell hardly believe it, but he has the churches of He worth and Jarrow, and he has so many duties every Sunday, of one kind or another, that he's never done; and yet after all he gives a second, evening service at He worth; but he is sometimes so tired that he can only read the exhortation and con- fession before he begins his sermon.&quot; &quot; That's very wrong,&quot; spoke a reverend personage, &quot; very wrong. Sir; quite contrary to the canons.^' &quot; The canons,&quot; replied the first speaker, &quot;the canons, did you say ? Why as to the canons, ^t^si ihat^^^ snapping the forefinger and thumb of his right hand with such a noise that there was an instant silence in the room ; &quot;the canons, you know, my Lord, say a clergyman is not to play at cards, and there you are, a bishop, with the ace of trumps in your hand.&quot; The bishop was the chaplain of 1802, by whom poor Hodgson had been rejected in his exami- nation for Holy Orders, and the gentleman, who is happily still alive, was a privileged person in the habit of telling plain truths in a way peculiar to himself, a man who has not unfrequently said a good thing, and, with all his peculiarities, has done many a kind one. In the year 1809, after he had resided a year at He worth, Hodgson began another poem, with the exalted title of '* The Creation,^' in which however, he made but little progress. * A portion of land was inclosed within the chapel yard and consecrated as an additional burial-ground for the chapelryof Heworth, in Sept. 1808, a few weeks after the commencement of Mr. Hodgson's incumbency. 62 MEMOIR OF THE KEY. JOHN HODOSOX. Eight closely-written pages in octavo contain the whole of his lahouTS on this high theme, before the design was abandoned. Some of the lines, which appear to be in a finished state, are harmonious and full of character. One extract may suffice. He thus addresses Truths in the opening of the poem : '— — •* O holy ipirit, eome and breathe Thy own odettial ardour throng^ my soul ! There is a valley in the mmm, where oft On herbage wet with fragrant dew thou lov'it To walk by crystal watera, and repeut The joyfol hymn to which nnnomber'd harps Of angeb aonnded, when th^ Afanighty toach'd Oar infant worid, and it began to moire. O take my fiuicy to the sacred spot ! O place her in a grore within the sonnd Of mshing waters, and where zephyrs oool By fonntains fringed with amaranthine flowers, Shed from their emerald wings a thousand sweets ; Teach her thy hymn, and, pointing to oar globe. Tell her how darkness fled, and yoatfafril light. Clad in bright porple and with radiant wheels. That tingM the lingmng gloom, sarroanded, rose From oat tiie dawning East; how chaos felt The genial sonbeams warm her maddy hills, And earth and sea b^;an to teem with life.^ At this time also, Hodgson began to draw landscape scenery^ buildings, (fee. in water colours. A few of his endeavours in this way are contained in the volume intended to have been occupied by his poem on the Creation ; but they are of a very humble character. In 1810 he attempted a picture in oils of Pliny the Elder, contemplating the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79, which was tossing about in his house till 1 84 1, when he bestowed upon it a &amp;ame. This picture will be mentioned here- after.


Marriage — History of Northumberland in ** Beauties of Eijgland and Walea*' — Survey of Northumberland— Rev. A. Hedley— More Poetry — Sits for his portrait — Letter of advice — History of Weetmerland in &quot; Beauties of England and &quot;Wales&quot; — ^Mr. Surtees of Mainsforth — Picture of Newcastle.

On the 11th of January, 1810, Mr. Hodgson became a married man ; the object of his choice was Jane Bridget, daughter of Mr. Eichard Kell, a stone merchant residing at He worth Shore, in his parish, and afterwards the aflPectionate mother of a numerous family, the sharer in her husband's joys and sorrows for thirty- five long years, and the very comfort of his life in his long afflictions before he was removed out of the world. The following letter gives intimation of an intention on the part of Hodgson, immediately after his marriage, of which there is no other trace, and which was certainly not carried into execu- tion at that time, or at any later period under that title. The writer is Mr. David Stephenson, an architect of considerable note at that period in Newcastle; the contributor of a plate of miscellaneous antiquities to Brand's History of that town in 1789, and the architect of that fantastic edifice the Church of All Saints. To THE Rev. Mb. HODGSON. &quot;Dear Sir Newcastle, Feb. 9, 1810. &quot; The communication of your intention of favouring the public with an History of the river Tjne and Eoman Wall gives me much pleasure, and be assured that any assistance I am able to afford you ^hall be most cheerfully granted. &quot; I shall, from time to time, forward you such i^einembrances as may lead to the purest sources of information on your subject ; and I trust I need not add that you are at perfect liberty to introduce my name, when connected with the matter before you. My library contains some books not very common. They are very much at your service, if at all connected with your inquiries. I shall just mention, Grose's England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland — Percy's Reliques — Eitson*s Ancient 64 MEMOIR OP THE KEY. JOHN HODGSON. Songs — ^Hollingshed's Chronicle of Scotland — ^Bentham and other pre- faces on ancient architectare, &amp;c. &amp;c. Pray have you seen the Diary of Roger North? It contains some carious anecdotes relative to the sports on the Tyne. If in town, favour me with a call. In the mean time forgive all hurry in writing in the middle of our timber customers, and bustle of a counting house. Faithfully yours, &quot;David Stephenson.'* Forgive me introducing my congratulations on your marriage into a P.S. Believe me, you have eYery wish of mine and my family for your happiness, and Mrs. Stephenson will take the first opportunity of paying her respects to Mrs. Hodgson, to whom, in the mean time, you will have the goodness to tender our kindest compliments. In the beginning of the same year also there commences in earnest Mr. Hodgson's connection with Messrs. Vernon, Hood, and Sharpe, the proprietors of a book then in course of publica- tion, entitled &quot; The Beauties of England and Wales,&quot; giving a succinct account of the leading features of each county, its an- tiquities, natural history, &amp;c. &amp;c Hodgson, as we have seen above, had made himself known to one of the editors, Mr. Brayley, whilst resident at Sedgefield, and had begged to be employed in compiling the account of the county of Durham, but was too late in making his application. In the present instance he appears to have been recommended by his friend Major Ander- son, of Newcastle, as on the 12th of July the publishers inform that gentleman that they &quot; gladly accept Mr. Hodgson's services,&quot; and propose that the account of Northumberland, which they wish him to draw up, should extend to fifteen sheets; promising a remuneration of five guineas per sheet, with an allowance of 20/. for travelling expenses. With these terms Hodgson closed, and made a proposal to write a like account of Westmerland in due time, to which the publishers agreed. He now commences a personal survey of the county of Northumberland, and for the first time, in all probability, becomes acquainted with its hills and valleys, and other objects of interest, ancient and modern. The following letters to his lately married wife, written during a portion of this survey, must not be withheld from the reader, affording as they do such an artless picture of the mind of their writer. Of such assistance his biographer SURVEY OF NOKTHUMBEBLAND. 65 gladly avails himself. These letters were intended to be seen by one alone, and on that account they are peculiarly valuable for my purpose. &quot; To Mbs. HODGSON. &quot; Mr DEAR Jane, Haltwhistle, 28 Sep. 1810. ** I have been from you since Wednesday, and have only got hither. I have this moment come from church : where I preached to a congregation not over numerous. The church is the most miserably damp and fusty place I was ever in. I intend staying here all night, and going to Hexham to-morrow ; and from thence to proceed up the Reed. I trust I shall not be longer from home than the time I proposed when I set out. ** On Wednesday night I slept at ChoUerford, and on Thursday I was at Simonbum with Dr. Scott,* and examined the station at Chesters, one of the most delightful places you ever saw. I slept with Mr. Clay- ton at his house there ; and, in the morning, proceeded along the line of the Wall ; and without getting any dinner reached Haltwhistle about six in the evening. I had tea for dinnex. I slept at Mr. HoUingsworth^st on the Friday night, and next morning went to Caervoran ; then to Glen- whelt; then to Blenkinsop Castle; and from it I passed over Redpath- moor, partly along the Maiden Way, till it reached the South Tyne. I met with it at Fetherstonhaugh Castle. Some places are beautiful, on account of the extensiveness of the prospects they afford : this is sweet and secluded beyond all description. From this charming spot I went by the river's edge to Lambley, where once there was a nunnery, now swept away : but my ride was amply repaid by a sight of a fine dark broad oak ; and such an ash for size, lightness of foliage, and picturesque situation as there is not another in the world. It has ten trunks, each more than I can fathom, and at least eighty feet high, all springing from one main stock. &quot; Lambley Chapel is one of the poorest and humblest of Christian tem- ples. When I got here I was divided, whether to return to Haltwhistle as I had proposed, or go on to Kirkhaugh, near Alston. I went on; and arrived at the public-house by Whitlaw Castle, a Roman station, at about seven o'clock, and had just time to see it by a hazy light. * Of Dr. Scott, and what took place at this interview, somewhat will be said hereafter i* One of the Curates of Sedgefield during Hodgson's short residence there, and one of the gentlemen who had signed his testimonial for Holy Orders. See p. 15, &amp;c. 66 MEMOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; I found it a wonderful place, but will tell you all about it afterwards. The landlord was drunk, and a dancing-master at the house; and, had it not been for the great civility of a Mr. Teasdale, brother of Mr. Teas- dale of South Shields, I should have been benighted in the drunkenness and confusion of a hedge alehouse. We had tea there, the first thing I had tasted during the day ; but I got three eggs to it and excellent oat- cake and knead-cake of fine white bread, and as good water &quot; as any in the world '' — mind, that phrase you taught me. We crossed the Tyne, which was very low, so low as to be passed in many places dry-shod, in a night which had nothing to light a part of the way but flashes of lightning ; and I slept well at Mr. Teasdale's house, and with a guide came over the moors this morning, through a thick mist, and got here about ten o'clock, afler a miserable ride of about twelve miles. Thank God, I have no more such places to visit. Tell Betty I saw her uncle Mr. Albany Fetherstonhaugh, and he spent the evening with me at Barhaugh last night. &quot; I hope you take care of yourself. I have lost my pencil-case, my ivory rule, and two of my new pencils ; and also my gold breast-pin.* I hope I shall not lose myself. &quot; Remember me kindly to your father and mother. Is Sarah with you yet, and is she well ? I hope she is. Bet must not be told how many fine sights I have seen, and how many charming rides she has missed by not being with me, or I shall never get her into humour again. — God bless you, dear Jane, from ** J. Hodgson.&quot; *• To Mbs. HODGSON. '* My dear Wife, Hexham, 26th Sep. 1810. &quot; As I may not have an opportunity of posting a letter to you again this week, I think it better to tell you not to expect to hear from me by next Sunday again; though I will not neglect to tell you where and how I am as often as I can. I do not know the time I have en- joyed better health than I have done since I came from home. I left Haltwhistle yesterday at four o'clock, afternoon, and slept at Haydon Bridge. I did not get to this place till twelve to-day. The Cathedral is a remarkable edifice. I have been in a sepulchral vault of a very remarkable nature, and which has not been open for some time. * These losses are very characteristic of the writer ; he seldom paid a visit to a friend's house without leaving something behind him. u u SURTTET OF XORTHUMBERLAND. 6? The stool of sanctiuury here is still perfect, from which, before the time of Henij VllL whocTer had fled to it could not be dragged, whatever great crimes he had been goihr of, under penalty of excommunication, a punishment, at that time, worse than death. Tell Betty I hare nerer had my boots well blacked since I saw her. I hope all things go on properly, and without grumbling in the ]&gt;arish. I have to-day been with Mr. Hedley, minister of Hexham, and hare had great ciTility from him, and much pleasure in his com* pany, and that of a Mr. Buchanan, a very pleasant and wealthy Scotchman, Mr. Hedley has promised to breakfast with me in the morning. Tell your father I breakfasted along with Mr. and Mrs. Hollingsworth at Isaac Waugh's, at Broomhouses, yesterday morning, and that Isaac complains of the miU-stone tnide being very bad. I much wished to have had your father there, as also at Fetherstonhaugh Castle, which is close by Broomhouses. &quot; The weather has turned unpleasant and unfarourable to my pursuits. The fogginess that preyails hinders the prospect into the country. ** I much wish to hear from you ; but, as it is impossible to say where I shall be at any given time, I am afraid my wishes must not be gratified. &quot; How are the cabbages thriving ? Have any new plants been put in ? &quot; Give my affectionate remembrances to all the fiunily, and take care of yourself, and be very happy. I am, dear Jane, thine ** J. Hodgson.&quot; &lt;• To Mrs. HODGSON. &quot; Mt dear JaNB, WhitUngham, Sunday morning. &quot; I got to this place yesterday, but quite fagged. I had not been so much fatigued since I set out. I did not get from Hexham till about 5 o'clock on the Tuesday. That night I slept at Barrasford, in tlie parish of ChoDerton. In the morning I rode to Chipchase Castle, where, though I was gratified by the sight of Col. Reed*s paintings, and, more particularly, with the sight of his pretty daughters, I stayed mudi too long. At one o'clock that day the Col. sent a servant with nie as far as to the Watling-street road. I had a letter of recommendation from the Rev. Hedley of Hexham, to a person who lives on tlie Roman station at Risingham, but when I got there tlie solitary gentleman was not at home, and all the information I could pick up about it was from observation. This person, whose name is Thomas Ridley, the station F 2 68 MEMOIR OF TH£ BEY. JOHN HODGSON. belongs to: there haye been two cottages in the interior of the rains: one of them is much out of repair, and the other, apparently a single room, is Mr. Eidley's habitation. He follows no employment except fishing for amusement. I am told he has a brother, who occasionally resides with him, and is a labouring man: a person so oddly situated you may guess to be an oddity. He is said to be a good scholar by the country people, and I apprehend by them supposed to have conununica- tion with ^rseter-naturals. &quot; I got an uncomfortable dinner at Woodbum, my first entrance in Reed ; and slept at a farmer's house, a respectable young man, named Armourer. &quot; Next morning I went to the Boman station, Rochester, and was much gratified. It detained me so long that I got no fiirther than Elsdon on Friday. There is a piece of great antiquity at Elsdon, which I shall be better able to describe to you when I get home ; but, by the way, let me tell you that Elsdon signifies the Den of Ell, a giant, who is tradi- tionally said to have resided and committed his ravages here. ** Yesterday morning I travelled six miles over moors from Elsdon to Hallystone. At a place near Hallystone, called Campville, I saw and copied all the fine altars that had been dug up at Rochester from the ruins of the Temple of Minerva, and I also discovered that a Roman way ran between Hallystone and Rochester. &quot; At Hallystone was formerly a nimnery. There is a very copious spring here, having water sufficient to turn a mill, in which PauHnus baptised in the sixth century many thousands of our Saxon ancestors, the first converts to Christianity in these parts. &quot; Harbottle Castle is two miles above Hallystone. Its green mounds and grey walls rise up proudly in the valley, and even yet seem to threaten the traveller no passage to the mountainous districts of the Coquet, without leave. I dined very comfortably here, and rode from Harbottle to Alwinton, where I met with a very clever and sensible old lady sitting at a cottage door, and gleaned much informatioi from her. &quot; The difference of soil between this country and the Reedwater is as striking as the difference of feature. The Reed has neither boldness nor fertility : the hills seem to be laid alongside of it asleep, and to suffer all the natural wants of indolence. About Alwinton the hilla lift up their green heads and spread out their broad shoulders with all the strength and vigour natural to industry. There are a few farms About Harbottle and High Alwinton in a high state of agriculture, and SURVEY OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 69 there could not be a more sweetly sequestered spot than Clennell, if its grounds had more wood upon them: but sheep-farms are fatal to wood. '' At Biddlestone, under the mountain Lownden, great and success^ exertion has been employed to rear wood. When I got to Netherton, in the parish of Alwinton, a very thick fog set in, and had I not been told that the road was direct to Whittingham I had not ventured to this place yesterday evening. My upper coat however was good company. &quot;If you could send me a line but it is impossible to say where you should direct it to me; and I must be content to speak and not hear. I am beginning to tire, and wish to be at home, though I find I shall not have seen more than half the county when I reach it. Yours, dear Jane, very affectionately, &quot;J. Hodgson, 80th Sep.** &quot; To Mrs. HODGSON. &quot;Mr DEAR Jane, Comhill, Sunday Evening, 80 Sep. 1810. Though I wrote to you from Whittingham this morning, I am someway apprehensive that the letter may not reach you ; and, as I am neither fatigued nor busy this evening, I hope I shall not be emploj^d unworthily in dedicating an hour to you. &quot; I set off from Whittingham a little before nine o'clock, with an in- tention of getting to Wooler, which is twelve miles from Whittingham, by eleven o'clock to church : I did not however reach Wooler before twelve o'clock, and on that account feel quite out of humour with myself for having missed going to church. This will I trust be a solitary instance in my life of spending the Sabbath in an unworthy manner. &quot;When I left Whittingham the same thick fog prevailed which accompanied me thither the evening before. The day did not clear till I left Wooler. My view, however, in my ride, before twelve o'clock was sufficient to shew me both the features and fertility of the country through which I passed. In many places there are very few hedges, not even on the sides of the highway, and I confess that inclosure here seems less to be desired by the admirer of the features of the country than in any other place I ever saw. Except here and there, where a rivultit or brook runs amongst the hills, the whole country is a confused but beautiful series of hiUs, never rising high, but winding in all directions, and appearing one past the corner of another, in undulating forms, as if they 70 UEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON^ were a sea of fields in fine cultiyation. Sometimes to a great distance nothing appears on the hills but com ; at others lai^ tracts are covered with clover or turnips. Bat amidst all this profusion I cannot think there is much praise due to the husbandman. The land is bj nature generous, and, being only lately brought into cultivation, repays the &amp;rmer well. I walked from the inn into Wooler at about a quarter past twelve. It is only a small place, about the size of SwalwelL I cannot tell how many places of religious worship there are at Wooler, but you cannot go fifty yards in any part of it without hearing either singing or preaching. I counted five different sects. I stopped a moment at the door of one place: it was much crowded: the preacher spoke a language so Scottish it was to me almost unintelligible. The air issuing from the door was so hot and unpleasant as to make me almost sick. ** From Wooler to Comhill the ride is interesting, both to the agricul- turist and the historian. I am sure that no country can be in a higher state of cultivation than the whole tract of country from the head of Milfield Plain to the river Tweed. On the Milfield Plain, my dear, there are yet to be seen the camps where the English army lay before the battle of Branxton, or Floddon Field; and, if I remember right, the Scots lost upwards of 500 men here in a skirmish before the battle. As I passed the foot of Floddon hill, it was impossible not to suppose I hSad the last words of Marmion *' Charge, Chester, charge; on, Stanley, on !*' and after I came in sight of the Tweed, and the dark hiU on which Wark Castle formerly stood was gilded by the setting sun, and relieved by the gleaming of the river, it was as difficult not to remember the beginning of that poem — '* Day set on Norham^s castled steep, And Tweed^s &amp;ir riyer, broad and deep. And Cheviot's mountain lone, In yellow lustre shone.*' &quot; When I got here I was shewn into a room where the merchantmen's clerks sit. You may guess I did not much like the idea of being the evening companion of one of these gentlemen ; and, as £ could not have a promise of being unmolested in the other parlour, I have taken up my quarters in my lodging room, where I am both unmolested and com- fortable. I had not been long here. before I recognised the handiwork of Mary Mills upon the walls of the parlour in fine gilding, &amp;c. &amp;c. SURVEY OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 71 The landlady is a good-looking fat body, very like her brother Charles, especially about the ejes. She is very civil, and seemingly very clever. &quot; I can now in a very little time walk over into Scotland: and if I be spared till morning, and in the good health I am at present, I shall go thither before breakfast. I wish your father had been with me from Wooler to this place; he would have enjoyed the ride. &quot; Amidst the fertility of this country there is one very striking feature of poverty. At Wooler, Etal, and Milfield the cottages are most miserable, especially at the two latter places : they are dirty thatched hovels, the walls built with mud, and smaU round stones of whin or granite gathered from the fields. I am sure of getting scolded by Betty when I get home ; my boot tops are bad, bad indeed. Have the cabbages been put into the garden yet, and how is the celery taken care of? &quot; I forgot to tell you one part of the tale about Risingham in my letter this morning. When I sat down at the corner of the station, a fine game cock came close to me, and as I was writing, with all the fami- liarity of an old acquaintance, looked at me first on one side, then on another, marching about with the ease and assurance of perfect safety. As the people supposed the old man to use an art not very common, I felt a little queerish in this cock*s company, but when I recollected I intended no injury or disrespect to Mr. Ridley, and had a letter of reconmiendation to him in my pocket, I took courage and continued to write, even though it were Mr. Eidley before me in that form. &quot;If the weather continues fine I hope I shall see all the distant parts of the country before I set my face homewards. In another week I could have perfectly satisfied myself; but I am determined to be back to the parish. I hope John is alive yet ; and if you see him tell him I asked about him. I have never had time to make any sketches, but such as merely to assist my memory in remembering the features of places. My colours have therefore been of no use. I have not come to any more losses, and may now perhaps bring all I have home with me. I shall not, my dear Jane, forget you, nor any part of our good family in my prayers. Remember me, &amp;c. Thine, dear wife, &quot;J. Hodgson.&quot; &quot; Monday morning. — I have just returned from my walk to Coldstream. The Tweed is a fine clear, broad river, and has much more fresh water in it than the Tyne. I saw two salmon taken at the bridge. Cold- stream is only a small town. The kirk, though it is a new building, and has a handsome steeple, has broken windows, and lies open to the street. Large heaps of wood and accumulations of filth lie piled up 72 MEMOIR OF TH£ BEY. JOHN HODOSON. against its walls. There are two or three goocUsh houses in it; but the streets are not paved, and manj of the houses, though they have been long tenanted, are not finished. The sinks and dunghills in two rows on each side of the streets are very offensive, especially before break&amp;st. Thick fogs this moming.** In one of the above letters is mentioned, for the first time in these memoirs, the name of the Eeverend Anthony Hedley, a gentleman with whom Mr. Hodgson formed, during his survey, an acquaintance, which soon afterwards ripened into a friendship sincere in itself and of long duration. Until the death of Hedley in 1835, there were few events affecting the welfare, or the contrary, of the one, at which the other did not rejoice, Ipr grieve; and in their mutual exultations and sympathies there was every character and proof of the most hearty and affectionate sincerity. As Hodgson has left behind him a pleasing memoir * of his friend, whose untimely death he deeply and truly lamented, I enter not into Mr. Hedley's history, except so far as it concerns the subject of these pages; and here I must express my regret that I have before me only one part of the long-continued cor- respondence which was so faithfidly kept up between the two. Hodgson's letters to Hedley, with the exception of one or two only, cannot be found. Hedley's letters to Hodgson have been carefully preserved ; and they are of such a nature as to justify me in bringing a few of them to light in this biography in their order of time. I am writing a memoir of Hodgson and not of Hedley ; and if the letters of the former had been preserved, judging from those of the latter, they would have been very valuable for my purpose. Hedley appears, from his communica- tions, to have been a plain, straightforward, well educated man; with a strong touch of antiquarian feeling about him, and a well- marked but gentlemanly leaning in politics to what has been * Vol. iii. pt ii. p. 330, &amp;c. At a later period of his life it appears to have heen Hodgson's intention to enlarge this short, but excellent memoir, and publish it in a separate shape. I have before me various papers which seem to be compiled for the porpose. In the Life of his friend, already before the public, Hodgson says, &quot; In Sept. 1810, the writer of this article, desirous of examining the architecture and* antiquities of the church of Hexham, had letters of introduction to its incumbent for that purpose. I instantly found his mind responding with my own. My wishes brought from his eyes a gush of gracious expressions.'** — ^-1 REV, ANTHONY HEDLET. 73 called the liberal side. In his personal appearance and demeanour he was robust, frank, and open-hearted ; just for all the world the kind of man to have been looked up to in his native vale of Beed- water in days of old, as the best planner and leader of a foray, or the best fighter when it became a matter of blows. I well re- member the hearty way in which he joined a few of us at House- steads in 1831, with somewhat to encourage us in our explorations, &amp;r as we were from bodily comforts. His residence was at Chesterholme, a place of his own creation, at the distance of a few miles in the valley below, and his horse mounted the hill with difficulty, so laden was he with his master and the good things which he was bringing to our relief. Antiquaries do not always feed upon old Roman altars and monastic ledgers. Let any one look upon the portrait of that &quot; fine, fat, fodgel wight&quot; Captain Grose, and he will come to the conclusion that that well fed gentleman Uved upon something more congenial to his taste than &quot; auld nick-nackets,&quot;* Dr. Caius the founder of the college in Cambridge which glories in his name, and the author of a learned book on the antiquity of that imiversity, was famous also for his invention of a' sauce for sturgeon. Mr. Hedley was probably for several years the only one of Hodgson's correspondents to whom he wrote with freedom and ease, not merely on topographical pursuits, to which the former was passionately devoted, but on the ordinary topics of the day. Hedley's first letter, written at the period in Hodgson's life at which I have arrived, is as follows. From this time his commu- nications are numerous, and for any extended memoir of himself they would be of great value to his biographer. &quot;Dear Sir, Hexbam, Nov. 19, .1810. &quot; Mr. Greenwood's delay in bringing the book must form my apology for not answering your favour sooner. Your poems I read with infinite pleasure ; and, that I may indulge myself with a second perusal, I must beg leave to detain them a little longer. &quot; Along with an abstract of the population of the town (for the country part of my parish I shall not be able to survey till spring) I have on the other side given you an abstract of our registers for the last ten * Bums. 74 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. years ; but little that is accurate or useful can be deduced from them, as they do not all embrace the same portion of population. &quot; The current tradition here respecting the field of the battle of Hex- ham is, that it was to the south of the Linhills, a farmstead on the southern bank of the DeviVa Water » It is in some histories called the Battle of the Levels y supposed to be a corruption of LinhilU, I shall be very happy to receive a set of the Statistical Queries, and remain, dear Sir, yours very sincerely, &quot;Anit. Hedlet.&quot; The account of Northumberland for which the above survey was undertaken was published in the &quot; Beauties of England and Wales &quot; in its due course of time. It consists of not fewer than 243 closely printed octavo pages, and is written with great judgment and spirit. The antiquities of the county, especially those of the Boman period, are touched upon with a masterly pen. A detailed account is given of mines and minerals ; and especially of coal, the staple of the lower districts. In the higher portions of the coimty the wild scenery, which almost everywhere meets the eye, is described in a tasteful and feeling way ; and, in short, enough is said of each district and place to prove that the author of the con- tribution was capable of greater things. The book, illustrated by a map and eleven engravings, of which Hodgson was per- mitted to select the subjects, was afterwards, like those of the other, counties comprised in the work at large, published in a separate shape, and is most unquestionably the best in the series. It must be added that Hodgson's engagement to supply a com- pendious history of Northumberland for the above publication, and his having publicly solicited information through the news- papers on the subject, led to his forming other acquaintances besides that of Mr. Hedley above mentioned, such as Mr. Spear- man of Eachwick, Mr. Ealph Patterson of Berwick-upon-Tweed, Mr. Challoner of Morpeth, and Mr. John Britton, who all of them kindly offered him their assistance and good wishes. To Mr. Britton, who has only now been called away from us, the architectural antiquaries of the kingdom are under great obliga- tions. He was the first to combine and encourage accuracy and elegance in architectural draughtsmen ; and the result was the POETRY. 75 &quot; Cathedral Antiquities of England/' and other publications of equal taste and beauty on our domestic architecture. In this same year, 1810, Mr. Hodgson again appears before the world as a poet. A small duodecimo volume of thirty-two pages contains *' The Nativity of Jesus Christ, a poem; a Sonnet to the Moon; and an Ode to his Mother on his twenty-sixth birthday.&quot; This ode has been noticed above, under Lanchester, where it was composed.* The sonnet to the moon is subjoined, deserving as it does to be brought forth from the obscurity into which it has fallen. It was composed upon the seashore at Newbiggin in Northumberland. *^ A Sonnet to the Moon. O moon, how well I love thy heams, That all night flow, like silver streams, O'er banks and waves that thy dominion own ! O, tell me, in thy vales if Grod be known, Or if thy people feel the change of clime P Hast thou a spring — a rapt'rous time, To lift with love their passions high ? And does a summer lighten in their eye ? An autumn smite them, and a winter's breath Their bodies wither with the frost of death ? Or are they angels, guarding men from ill, And all thy fruits and flowers of endless bloom ? Thou wilt not tell me; but thou art lovely still, O circlet, as the seas and sails thy beams illume !&quot; The poem on the Nativity contains many fine passages, but in sacred poetry how few have succeeded? Indeed it may be doubtful whether it should be attempted, except by a master- hand. The Holy Scriptures themselves are poetry, and why should they be divested of their garb of inspiration and clothed in the verbiage of unskilful rhyme? True devotion is not often benefited by such attempts; not unfrequently a contrary feeling may be excited. Let it not be said however that Mr. Hodgson's &quot; Nativity &quot; is without its merits. The following extract will perhaps prove the contrary. The poet is describing the descent of Peace. * See p. 82. 76 MEMOIR OF THE BEV* JOHN HODGSON. &quot; The ftngel Peace, that flew from man When first the reign of Bin began, On lustrous wing, descending light. To Hebrew shepherds bent his flight. At first a meteor dim he seemed, And then a halo round him gleamed. Far-distant music, swelling, dying, Advancing slowly, swiftly flying; Now winding sweetly round and round With all the melting charms of sound; Now high in heaven, and now more near. Descended on the listening ear. A pleasure mingled with surprise. Bewildering, filled the shepherd&quot;^ eyes. They listened, gazed, and silent stood Like statues in a rapturous mood. The circle widens, and the shout Harmonious louder floats about : It widens still, and sudden light In glances plays on psaltries bright; And, as the harpers nearer come. The rural band, with terror dumb. Fall down on earth, and, trembling, hide Their fiices from the effulgent tide; While all the storm of music rolls Tempestuous o*er their ravished souls.*' Tliis little volume was dedicated &quot; to Mrs. Isabella Ellison, of Hebbum Hall, with sincere gratitude and respect/' Hodgson now sits for his portrait to Nicholson, a Newcastle artist, who afterwards settled in Edinburgh, and became well known. The picture is in a sitting attitude and of the full size, developing much character and, with one or two trifling defects, strongly resembling him, as it is said, at that period. It indicates deep thought, with a tinge of melancholy ; and gives the idea of a person labouring under feeble health, which with Hodgson was unhappily too often the case. This portrait the painter took with him to Edinburgh, where it hung for a considerable^ time in his studio, and by its character and merit helped him to the name which he afterwards justly acquired. The following letter, from the pen of Mr. Hodgson, next pre- sents itself in the order of time, which I follow, and I cannot but congratulate myself upon having access to such a document for A B.BOTHEB. 77 the purpose upon which I am engaged. It is overflowing with good christian advice and brotherly kindness, and who knows what may have been its happy effects upon the heart and mind of him to whom it was written ! Isaac Hodgson was a younger brother of the subject of our memoir, and was at the time this letter was addressed to him just sixteen years of age, and upon the point of leaving the Tyne, on his first voyage to sea as a sailor- apprentice. The poor youth died soon afterwards, far from home, and upon his death the letter was sent back, by some kind and considerate person, to its writer, as, in all probability the only memorial which his poor brother had left behind him. Its present condition proves that it had been faithfully preserved in the pocket of the boy and read apparently over and over again, till in some of its foldings it has become worn away. The address on the back is also illegible from the daily wear of a sailor's pocket. The boy had perhaps not received much education , and it is therefore written in a large legible hand for his benefit, and it is as plain in its advice and exhortations as words can make it, to suit his comprehension, and by its simplicity and earnestness lead him to follow after that which is good. I know not that I shall have to deal with a more affecting document. &quot; To ISAAC HODGSON. &quot; My DEAB Brother, Heworth Shore, Feb. 23, 1811. &quot; You would receive the letter I sent by Mr. Peacock ; and, as I find Mr. Akenhead purposing to visit the ship, I cannot refrain firom again shewing to you that I do not forget you. Indeed, dear brother, your situation occupies a great deal of my thoughts ; for, when I reflect upon your youth, and how much easier it is to get into a wrong conduct than to do right, I frequently lament that I cannot at times be with you, to guard you from many of the idle folies which persons of your years are apt to fall into, and against many of the vices which too frequently make the character of sailors very absurd and guilty; which otherwise is certainly highly respectable. You must, in this, however, understand me, that I am not charging you with the follies I mention, but only pointing out to you that they are such as young people in all places are apt to run into, more particularly persons in your situation. Let me then, in the first place, caution you against idleness, as the 80 MEMOIR OP THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; Mem. — To get Mr. Cooper Walker's Sermons, and to write him a visitation sermon for Appleby.&quot; Mr. Cooper was the perpetual curate of Swindale,an(l the gentleman to whom he addressed certain poems in 1806, above mentioned. The sermon was duly written, and the preacher was doubtless highly complimented after dinner for his services. A request to print his discourse in all probability followed. &quot; To Mm. HODGSON. *^ Mt dear Jane, Temple Sowerby, 2 Bfay, 1811. 7 o*clock morning. &quot; We left Carr Hill very soon after twelve o'clock on the Monday. Before we were down Gateshead FeU the rain again commenced, and we had less or more of it till we arrived at Healy Field; where we found an excellent fire in the kitchen, and got dry coats and stockings. Mr- Arkless, of Tantovy, conducted us through the mist past Pontop-pike ; and when we got into the vale of the Derwent it was pretty clear. At half-past four we found it a fine morning, and were again on our march at five. At Stewart Shield Meadows we had a fillip of rum and milk, and, with a guide, set off towards Rookhope, a dale in Weardale. At eleven on Tuesday we got to St. John's in Weardale, and there made an excellent breakfast, but in council assembled with the land- lady we determined to halt there all day. At six on Wednesday morning, with our landlord for a guide, we set off for Grass-hills, a shooting-box of Lord Darlington, three miles from St. John's, and thought it the most dreary road by far of our journey. At Grass-hills we .were told it was ten miles to the top of Dunfell, which gives us the first prospect into Westmerland. AU was now thick dark mist. We prociu^ a guide, and had not advanced a mile before the mist began to break ; and directly over the confluence of Troutbeck with the Tees, where the counties of Westmerland, Cumberland, and Durham join, we saw a very fine rainbow. The mist, however, still hung on the heights of the mountains. At Troutbeck I, as purser, paid the guide ; and over these dreary heights we began to march with the brook of Troutbeck for our conductor. We lost not an inch. The compass was of great use, as the wind changed twice before we reached the height, which we obtained exactly at eleven. In a miner's shop we had our beef and bread and some excellent rum and water — rum made in Jamaica by Mr. A. nine years since. We were much gratified here by an immense metallic dike, which is nothing but one mighty mass of SURVEY OF WESTMEBLAND. 81 iron cinders. We got to Temple Sowerby at two. The spring here is three weeks more forward than with you. Mrs. Atkinson has apricots against a common stone wall as large as pigeon eggs, and the foliage of the trees is nearly in perfection, except on the oaks and ashes. We are very happy here, and perfectly well. Mrs. Atkinson, although 78 years old, is up every morning at six o'clock, a practice that she and her children have always pursued, as recommended as the very best pre- servative of health. Never, she says, let any person, on any considera- tion whatever, take a second sleep. We intend to take this day's rest, merely to saunter about the neighbourhood; and to-morrow to go to Ulswater; on Saturday to Ambleside, and there to halt the Sunday. On Monday to go to Keswick, and on Tuesday I go to my sister's. Be assured, dear Jane, I am completely well. We have now done break- fast, and it is not yet eight o'clock. There had been no rain here yester- day: the roads after we descended Dunfell, for we crossed farther south than Crossfell, were quite dusty : and, after experiencing the cold east winds and the thick fogs of the eastern sides of the mountains, we were greatly cheered with the benevolence of a mild south-west wind. This night much rain has fallen, but Mrs. A. says the day will be favourable. We are just going to see some fine pictures at Acornbank, and a Homan station near Kirby Thore; and thence to fish down Eden. &quot; Make my dearest respects to father and mother and Bessy and Abby ; and do, my dear, take much care of yourself. I trust Hilly [Hilda, his daughter] goes on well, and that she begins to be amused with her bells. You will, I hope, be going to the sea on Monday, and that W™. Jameson will caU and give you some money — or that you will, if he does not come, send to him for some. The duty, we hope, will proceed well. CoUinson does not now intend to be at home before Tuesday or Wednesday. With great affection, believe me thine, dear Jane, &quot; J. Hodgson. &quot; Direct to me at the King's Arms, Shap, Westm^.&quot; « To Mas. HODGSON. &quot; Mr DEAR Jane, Kendal, 10th of May, 1811. &quot;I promised to write to you very frequently, and I trust you will think I have hitherto realized my promise. After eleven o'clock last Sunday, till yesterday morning, we had very severe weather — a cold east G 82 HEMOIB OP THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. wind, accompanied with frequent showers, and corering the mountains with snow, having blown all that time. On Tuesday morning, as I informed you of my intention, I went to Shap, in the mail coach. After my arrival there I dined, and then walked to Swindale, with expectation of meeting with Cooper; and, after waiting till six o'clock, and not having the satisfaction of seeing his face, I walked back to my sister's, and stayed with her all night. I found herself and husband, and also my two brothers, very well. After breakfast I again went in quest of Cooper, and was fortunate enough to find him. While he was employed in the morning with teaching his few pupils, I sketched his chapel and school. We dined at one, and at three set out for Shap, where we both slept, and I had the satisfaction of receiving your very wel- come letter. Right glad, my dear Jane, was I to receive all the gratify- ing information you sent me — your own and the dear child's health — the health and good wishes of the family, and that the lodgings at Down Hill are likely to answer your purpose. When I tell you that I have seen the Western shores of England to-day covered with luxuriant herbage and fine trees, you will scarce credit me when you look about the naked cliffs of Marsden : but Marsden has its beauties — a rough sea, which I shall not see here. *' On Thursday morning Cooper breakfasted with me, and then left me. I walked out and examined part of the great granite monument, and called upon Mr. Holme the vicar. At twelve I took the mail to Kendal- Aft«r dining I spent the afternoon in viewing the ruins of the castle, at the museum, and the stationer's shop. The castle is a very singular building, seated on a hill somewhat like to an egg cut in two length- wise. It has a very deep ditch around it, but is all built of a very coarse unhewn stone: the walls are very massive. Some of the round towers and a part of the keep and its dungeon are pretty entire. It is on the opposite side of the river to Kendal, and from the town has a very fine appearance, especially in the evening. Alderman Pennington has been very civil to me, and has given me many pamphlets relative to the town ; has shown me the church, the hospitals, and schools of industry. Kendal is a well-managed town. Everything seems upon a system in it, and, while the magistrates are industrious in defending the system, the people are afraid of breaking through it. I have bought at a manufactory three pair of knit stockings, which I find very cool and pleasant. After seeing these things, I took a coach to Milnthorpe; and there for a guide had a barber, not a spruce or intelligent gentleman, though talkative enough. Perhaps there is not a finer country in the SURVEY OP WE8TMERLAND. 83 world than the neighbourhood of Mihithorpe : ships of about thirty-six tons, lighters from Liverpool, bring merchants' goods hither for Kendal. The day has however been miserably wet. After I had seen all about here which the barber could shew me, I set out for Kendal again. In my way, near a village called Heversham, where there is a fine church, I was overtaken by a very heavy shower, but found shelter from it. The sun, as the shower passed by, broke out, and certainly never was scene more enchanting than that I viewed as I passed by Levens Park. The hawthorn was just beginning to shew his crimson, the crab trees, almost as large as the beech trees in Park Lane, were a full sheet of blossom, and the apple orchards gave out a perfume rich as the per- ^mes of Arabia. But I had not walked more than two miles before I was again in a shower, which, as a man on the road called it, was &quot; like whole water.&quot; It continued till I got to Kendal, and well drenched I was ; but the rain was perfectly warm. I had instantly dry clothes, and my landlady and landlord are mighty civil. I am quite comfortable after &lt;iinner, and shall now be very soon in bed. As I have however got a slight sprain in my left leg I think I shall continue here till afler Sunday, well knowing that any long walk will be hurtful to it. I have got a bottle of opodeldoc to apply to it, and do not fear but it will be well by Sunday evening. On Monday morning I purpose going in the coach to Kirby Lonsdale, and after that I will write again. Thine, dear Jane, &quot; J. Hodgson.&quot; Hodgson's account of Westmerland is written with the same care and zeal as that of Northumberland. It extenda to 245 closely-printed pages in octavo, exclusive of a copious index, and gives further proof of the decided turn his mind was now taking to topographical inquiries and investigations. The county of Westmerland could most assuredly have had no better history on such a scale, and since its publication it has had no other history at all. I have repeatedly heard its author say that the only money he ever made by his pen was from these two surveys. From his account, they put into his pocket not less than 200Z. In his other topographical attempts he was tolled on, like many others, by public promises and allurements, and left a loser in the end. The completion of this volume terminated his connection with the editors' of the *^ Beauties of England and Wales.*' The work, when finished, was comprised in twenty-five volumes, and cost g2 84 MEMOIR OP THE REV. JOHN HOBGSON, its proprietors a sum amounting to above fifty thousand pounds* In process of time Messrs. Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, who had become possessed of the work, wisely published a few copies of the history of each county in a separate volume, for the use of those who were unwilling or unable to purchase the whole work, and even at the present day many of our English counties have no other history. The year 1812 was an eventful one in Hodgson's life. In the beginning of the year, the list of his friends was increased by the name of Mr. Ellis of Otterburn, the correspondent of Sir Walter Scott on subjects of border history. Hodgson was at that time engaged in putting a finishing; hand to his Northumber- land for the ** Beauties of England and Wales,&quot; and the information afibrded by Mr. Ellis in a kind and judicious way was probably for that purpose. The next friendship which he formed was one of which any man might have been proud, and one which any man gifted, as he was, with simplicity of character, in union with a moderate share of good sense and judgment, and a spirit of manly indepen- dence might have been sure to gain. The author has said much in another place of Mr. Surtees of Mainsforth ; and he will only add here that, as time rolls on, and the year in which that gentle- man was removed to another world is gradually becoming more and more distant and indistinct in the shade of obscurity, his recollections of such a man become yearly more vivid and lively, serving as a comfort in declining health, and a bright object to look back upon amid younger men with other pursuits and feelings. Mr, Surtees thus writes, in reply, as it seems, to an oflPer of assistance in his History of Durham, on the first volume of which he was now busily engaged. Mr. Surtees unfortunately preserved few letters. &quot; To THE Rev. JOHN HODGSON. « Sir, Mainsforth, April 29, 1812. ^ I feel myself much indebted to you for your kind communication, and shall be happy in any opportunity of your personal acquaintance, not only on account of the valuable assistance you promise me, but from * From the general introduction to the book. MB. SUBTEES OF MAINSFOBTH. 85 the great pleasure I have derived from your poems. I visited Lan- Chester for the first time last autumn, with your volume in my hand, and shall be glad to consider the antiquities of Jarrow under your direction. My knowledge of Roman antiquities is very trifling, and I have had few opportunities of visiting stations, Binchester being the only one with which I am at all familiar. It seems not improbable that something of a Roman road has crossed the Tees near High Dinsdale, and proceeded by Stainton-in-the-Street, through some route which 1 cannot ascertain, to joinWatling-street. We have perhaps more traces of the Danes and Saxons. The former may, I fancy, have had some sort of encampment in this neighbourhood: a hill on my estate has been seized on by Cade and others as a camp, but no reliques were ever discovered. The situation may have been very strong in the midst of a morass. Betwixt Mainsforth and Ferryhill the road is evidently forced across the morass, and the old records of the Convent (of Dur- ham) caH that portion of marsh land ** stagnum nostrum de Ferryhill;'* and swan-oats are regularly paid by the adjacent properties to the lessee of the old swan-house on the borders of the morass. The village of Bradbury is, in an old record, called Danesbury. Of inroads from the coast we have several traces ; and a few years ago a very singular discovery took place at Stranton. The ground near a blacksmith's shop became polished by continual attrition, and in a dry summer discovered the strange appearance of a multitude of human sculls, promiscuously thrown together, like vestiges of some bloody execution, which I think they doubtless were : other human bones were discovered, but not in proportion : no great search was made. &quot; I generally pass some weeks during the summer near Sunderland, and shall then hope to have the satisfaction of visiting you at Jarrow ; but if you would be kind enough to favour me with an interview here, I shall be glad to talk more at large on these and similar topics. After th^ present week I shall be pretty constantly at home for a fortnight op three weeks; but purpose being in York to explore the wills of some Durham prelates in May. I will add that I have a small cabinet of medals, which I shall be happy to show you, and that our marsh grounds afford several rare plants. &quot; I have a copy of Hugh Pudsey's charter to the Burgesses of Gates- head, and some other records which I cannot just now lay my hands on. My attention at present is engaged in compiling Easington Ward and some introductory papers for the press. Of Chester Ward I know less than of any other district. 86 MEMOIB OF THE REY. JOHK HODGSON. [The ''pedigree of EOuon, as entered at Dugdale's Visitation of Northnmberiand in 1666,&quot; is here giTen in the letter ] ^^ No doabt tiie above may be moch improred bj a reference to wills and reguten. I hare the descent of Nathaniel Ellison, 8.T.P.y preben- dary of Dorham, &amp;c; bnt hare no regolar ccmtinnationof the chief line from Boberty who I suppose married ... daughter of Sir H. Liddell, aboot 1696. I hare a few other Northumberland pedigrees, of which, if of any nse to yon, I shonM be glad to send copies. If I have the pleasure of se^ng yon here yoa will choose for yourself. My papers are so mingled I can scarcely select them at present, or would send you them with this. I hare Idlbnme, Grey, Jennison, He, Bogers, all of Newcastle; Bewick of Close House; all dated 1666. Mr. Spearman of Eachwick has a volume of mine of elder Hodgson, Forster, Fenwick, Witherington, Ogle, Delaval, Satcliff, &amp;c., which I desired him some time ago to send to you, if he thought it would be of any use. I am, with sincere respect, your obedient servant, **». SUKTEES.&quot; A few days afterwards Hodgson received the following kind letter from Mr. afterwards Lord Barrington, his ecclesiastical superior whilst master of Sedgefield School. Hodgson had re- quested him to gain for him access to the Castle of Lowther for his account of Westmerland. ** Deab Sib, Sedgefield, May 7th, 1812. ^ I have this day heard from Lord Lonsdale upon the subject of your letter, in which he says, ' I have not the least objection to Mr. Hodgson's applying to Mr. Smirke for any sketches of this house he may wish to have, for the purpose of embellishing his work. I am sorry it is not in my power to supply them.' He goes on to state the shortness of the time, and that he has nothing prepared, but refers you to Bum's History of Westmerland for the account of the family — ^that he has no catalogue of the pictures, many of which are not himg up, and none arranged with any list of reference either to their character or subject. He desires to be understood not as having any unwillingness to supply you with materials, but from the fact of his not haying the means of doing it. &quot; I had flattered myself with some hopes of seeing you here this week, as I had heard from Mr. Surtees that there was a probability of your coming to Mainsforth. I hope that visit is only deferred, and that I shall still have the pleasure of seeing you here. Perhaps you had better PICTURE OF NEWCASTLE. 87 copy the extract I have given jou of Lord Lonsdale^s letter as far as it concerns Mr. Smirke, and send it to him directed to Smirke, Esq., architect, London, and it will be sure to find him. I remain, Dear Sir, most truly yours, &lt;&lt; George Barrimoton.*' In the commencement of the year 1812, or perhaps a while earlier, Hodgson entered into an engagement to prepare for the press a new edition of a Guide to Newcastle, which had been pub- lished in 1807 by his friend Mr. David Akenhead, the printer of his poems of '* Woodlands, &amp;c.&quot; in that same year. This task he duly performed, but in his edition little of the former publication was retained. Breaking through the common-place fetters in which it would have confined him, he determined to write a Guide of his own, availing himself only here and there of such matters of fact contained in the previous edition as were useful. This book in due time was published with the following title. &quot; The Picture of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, being a brief historical and descriptive Guide to the principal Buildings, Streets, Public Institutions, Manufactures, Curiosities, &amp;c., within that town and its neighbourhood for twelve miles round; and including an Account of the Roman Wall; and a detailed History of the Coal Trade ; the whole illustrated by a Map of the various coal mines on the rivers Tyne and Wear, a Plan of New- castle, and other engravings. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : printed by and for D. Akenhead and Sons, Sandhill. Sold also by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster Row, London. 1812.&quot; If this little book had not been acknowledged as the work of Mr. Hodgson, the question of its authorship would at once have been settled by the advertisement, which, as it is very character- istically descriptive of the contents of the book, may be here transcribed. It must be repeated that this short preface would of itself have established the paternity of the production, however carefully it might have been concealed. &quot; The first edition of this work appeared in 1807, and was rapidly sold. Since that time nearly the whole of it has been rewritten, by a different hand, and a great variety of new matter added. In its group- ing and general design, the main attention has been paid to simplicity and accuracy. As a Picture, however, it aims at no higher pretensioui 88 M£MOIB OF THE R£V. JOHK HODGSON. than of its being an outline—a rapid sketch, upon a small scale, and without local colours.* Newcastle, Crateshead, and the coal trade are placed in the foreground ; the Roman Wall occupies the offskip ; and the towns, villages and country seats in the neighbourhood diminish into aerial perspectiye, according to their size or importance in history. &quot; The utility of works of this nature is sufficiently proved by their number. Almost every town of consequence has its picture or guide — something to conduct the traveller to places worthy of his attention, and to answer the garrulous and time-beguiling purpose of a living chronicler. '* Encouraging a hope that this little performance will be equal to the pretensions of its title-page, the editor presents it to the reader, in the language, but not with the confidence of the city mouse in the fable — ' Carpe viam, mihi crede, comes.' &quot; This little book, so far as Newcastle and its neighbourhood are concerned, contains much curious and valuable information on the usual subjects of inquiry, and the manner in which it is written proves it to have been the work of one who could think for himself, and not copy from others. It contains however two subjects of greater local and general interest than the ordinary topics of a guide-book, the Roman Wall and its history, and the his- tory of the Coal Trade ; the former occupying forty, and the latter not fewer than sixty-five, closely-printed pages. On the subject of the Eoman Wall and what Hodgson has done for its history I shall have an opportunity of making a few remarks in a subsequent page. His accoimt of the coal trade, when it made its appearance, must have been read with great interest. It is historical, theo- retical, and practical, with a few cuts, rude but expressive, in illustration of the subject; and it is probable that in the year 1812, when it was published, it was received with welcome by many to whom the coal trade was a subject of interest or investigation. Frequent references are made in this essay to the geological experiences of its writer in Westmerland and other districts; and we may conjecture that this account and Hodgson's well-grounded * The local colours, if they be colours at all, are the united smokes of pits and manufactories, with not unfrequently a thick dash of denigrated fog from the river. These accompaniments were surely better away. But he probably does not allude to such pigments as these. PICTUBB OP NEWCASTLE. ' 89 knowledge on the subject of coal mines led to his being deputed by the coal trade to survey the Dudley coal-field in 1815, an expedition to be mentioned in a subsequent page. Such was the employment of Hodgson's leisure hours in the spring of 1812, when his sympathies and energies, as a man and a parish priest, were in a moment called forth by one of those sad calamities which were then of but too familiar occurrence in the coal districts of the North. The Picture of Newcastle, which had made considerable progress in the press, was thrown aside, and it was not resumed till autumn, when a place was found in its pages for a brief account of this afflicting visitation.


The Felling Ezploeion — First acquaintance with the Author — The Society of Anti- quaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Mr. Hodgson had been now for four years settled in his prefer- ment, and had been actively engaged in the conscientious dis- charge of his duty. His population consisted in a great measure of persons employed in coal mines, and, fortunately, since the commencement of his incumbency there had happened none of those sudden and destructive blasts by which persons so occupied are liable to be swept away in a moment into eternity. But in the month of May in the year 1812 an explosion took place of so dreadful a nature as to surpass in its awful consequences, with perhaps only one exception,* any calamity of the kind which had previously occurred either in his own parish or in the whole mining district of the North of England. In the heart of any one with a mind and feelings so constituted, this sad event would have excited deep sorrow, even if it had been merely an occur- rence in his neighbourhood, among people with whom he had no connection save that of common humanity and its sympathies. But the accident took place not merely in the parish of which he was the minister and friend of his people, but at his very door. He was well acquainted with the mining part of his population. He paid them frequent visits, even in the dark chambers of the earth. It was his custom to go down from time to time into the pits within his parish, and talk kindly to the men and boys, and make himself familiar with the nature of their work, and the dangers to which they were daily exposed. To this pit in par- ticular, and its various workings and machinery, he was no * I gather a note of the explosion to which I allude from Hodgson^s MS. folio of local words, under the word Cramei; a tinker or mender of broken china, &amp;c. *' Itinerant cramers (says he) formerly lodged in sunmier at Cramer Dykes, near the head of Gateshead, where there was a great colliery, in which above 100 persons were killed by an explosion in the year 1700.^ w THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 91 stranger, and towards the persons employed in it and his pa- rishioners at large he was at all times overflowing with kind- ness and sympathy. To give he had not; but such as he had — kind advice and exhortation^ a soothing word, and a sincere feeling for his people in their distresses — were always at his dis* posal; and the manner in which such friendly and heartfelt services were tendered gave them a value which was appreciated and remembered. On this awful occasion there was need of aU his kindness, and his energies too. His presence was almost con- stantly required either at the mouth of the pit, to comfort and console the widow and the fatherless in their affliction, or at the door of his church, to bury the mangled bodies of the sufferers, as they were brought up from day to day for seventeen long weeks, from the bowels of the earth. And then came the afterwards, and its troubles and anxieties — the commencing and conducting a subscription for the destitute survivors of the men and youths whom he had buried, and the apportioning to each what had been, chiefly by his exertions, contributed for their benefit. The explosion took place on the 25th of May, when not fewer than 92 men and boys lost their lives in the Felling Goal-pit in his parish. The bodies of 91 were brought up from time to time and buried. The body of one was never found. The first funeral took place on the 27th of May, the last on the 19th of September. The greatest number of interments was on the 17 th of June, when the mangled remains of not fewer than 14 poor fellows were consigned to the earth. On the 9th of August, when nearly all the bodies had been discovered and buried, Hodgson preached a funeral sermon in his chapel of Heworth from the texts John xi. 35 and Luke xix. 41 ; and to this ser- mon, when printed, he prefixed a full account of the accident itself in all its bearings, written in that plain and intelligible style which the case required. This was no occasion for the orna- ments of the pen, and the little book was read by thousands. This preface, with the book of which it forms a part, is now of very rare occurrence, and as it not only affords a full account of this awful calamity, but also is closely connected with Hodgson's own personal history, giving, as it does, a perfect insight into his own true sympathetic and energetic character, when placed in a 92 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHK HODGSON. situation in which no clergyman of the North of England had ever stood before that time, it becomes to all intents and purposes a portion of his biography, and, in consequence, it is my intention to lay the whole of it before my readers. I have already said that the book can now Ibe procured with difficulty, and the preface may well accompany a memoir of him by whom it was written. But fiirther, independently of any consideration which connects it with Hodgson's own personal history, its style proves how feelingly and graphically he could write on such a distressing subject. K recent discoveries prove that much has been done, they lead also to the conclusion that much more will be done by the intellect of man, for the benefit of mankind. The time will arrive when science will have mastered mining and every other difficulty now standing in the way of himian progress, and the narrative which I am about to submit to my readers will then perhaps be read more as a romance than as a piece of real history. Besides, I am placing upon record a second sketch of the mode of working a coal-pit at that period; and that by the pen of Mr. Hodgson. (See p. 88 above.) But there is a better reason than any hitherto adduced for reprinting this publication. Let me earnestly beg of my reader to give his serious attention to the following extract &amp;om a letter to be printed in the sequel under the year 1831, and consider the object which Hodgson had in view in this publication and the difficulties with which he had to contend in thus advocating the cause of humanity. It appears, I fear too plainly, that the coal- owners of the day were adverse to publicity, and that, if in the end they took measures for the safety of their men, it was to some extent by compulsion. May we not therefore attribute the safety-lamp and the lives of thousands upon thousands of men to this identical publication —and if so, ought it, on its own account, all other considerations apart, to remain in the obscurity into which it has been suffered to fall? &quot; Before the terrible accident at Felling CJolliery, I had visited many of the collieries in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, but that appalling calamity determined me, contrary to the feelings of the coal-owners at the time J to make it as public as I could ; and therefore I did not for many weeks, after that explosion had in one moment taken away the THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 93 lives of 92 of my parishioners, cease to write notices respecting it in the Newcastle Courant, but also wrote and published a particular ac- count of it and its consequences, and accompanied it with a plan of the mine and the mode of ventilating it. This I did with the hope of rousing the sympathies of scientific men to investigate the causes of explo- sions in mines, and finding some mode of preventing them. A part of the work, unknown to myself, was published in the &quot;Annals of Philosophy '* before the whole of it was ready for sale ; and I have been told that it was also published in journals both in France and Germany; so that its circulation in extent exceeded my expectation. In the same year I also read before the Literary and Philosophical Society of New- castle * Some Account of the Strata which form the Surface of the Globe;' but, as I then imagined that my hearers were indifferent to the subject, in the manner at least that I was able to handle it, I did not finish the essay on the plan I had formed it : and I never yet had either leisure or inclination to resume the subject.&quot; The book was publisbed with the following title : &quot; An Account of the Explosion which killed Ninety-two Persons in the Brand- ling Main Colliery, at Felling, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on May 25, 1812; with a Plan and Description of that Colliery; a brief Statement of the Fund raised for the Widows of the Sufferers; Suggestions for founding a Colliers' Hospital; and a Funeral Sermon on the occasion. By the Kev. John Hodgson. Newcastle: Printed by Edward Walker, 1813. Price 2s. sewed.&quot; &quot; I have,&quot; says he in a short preface,&quot; endeavoured to make the subject of my narrative intelligible. Many names are men- tioned, and many circumstances related, of little moment to the world, but perhaps of interest to the surviving relatives of the sufferers. Should any profits arise from the sale of this performance, I intend them to be applied towards erecting a plain monument in memory of the ninety- two persons whose unfortunate exit from the world I have here attempted to record. The largest portion of the materials was derived from minutes I made in the mine, about a fortnight before the accident, and from memoranda of conversations I had with the workmen who attended the funerals and were employed in recovering the bodies of the sufferers. — J. H. Heworth, January 4th, 1813.&quot; 94 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. « A DESCRIPTION OF FELLING COLLIERY PBEVIOnS TO HAT 25, 1812. &quot;Felling is a manor in the chapelry of Heworth, and parish of Jarrow, about a mile and a half east of Gateshead, in^e countj of Durham. It has been a possession of the Brandlings of (^osforth since about the year 1590. It contains several strata of coal, the uppermost of which were extensively wrought in the beginning of last century. .The stratum called the high-main was won in 1799, and continued to be wrought till the 19th January, 1811, when it was entirely excavated. &quot; The present colliery is in the seam called the low-main. It com- menced in October 1810, and was at full work in May 1811. Messrs John and William Brandling, Henderson, and Grace, have each a fourth share, both in its royalty and in the adventure: they have also a lease from the dean and chapter of Durham of a large extent of coal lying on the south and east of the manor of Felling. '' The working or down-cast shaft, marked A on the annexed Plan, is called the John Pit, and is situated on the north side of the Sunderland road, and half way between Felling toll-bar and Felling Hall. It is 204 yards deep, and furnished with a machine or steam-engine for draw- ing the coal, and with an engine called a whim-gin, wrought by horses, and of use in letting down and drawing up the workmen, when the machine chances to be crippled, or repairing: and when it lies idle on pay-Saturdays or Sundays. Here is also a high tube of brickwork, employed in assisting ventilation while this shaft was sinking, and till the communication by the narrow boards and the drifts was opened between the two shafts : since that it has been of no use. '' The up-cast, or air-furnace shaft, is called the WilUam Fit. It is on an eminence 550 yards south-west of the John Pit, and is dis- tinguished by a whim-gin and a lofty tube of brick-work. This shaft is 232 yards deep. &quot; Over each pit two iron pullies were suspended on a kind of scaffold, called the shaft-frame. In these ran the ascending and descending ropes. The pullies over the John Pit were six feet in diameter, and weighed nine cwt. a-piece. Those in which the rope of the gin of the John Pit ran were fixed on a crane, which turned them over or from the shaft, as occasion required. &quot; As there are no feeders of water in the strata below the high-main, the low-main coal is kept perfectly dry by tubbing the watery seams with a circular casing of oak wood, formed into pieces representing the fellies TH£ FELLING EXFLOSION. 95 of a wheel: tliis contrivanoe has the appearance of the ashlar-work of a well, and saves the expense of a steam-engine for drawing water. ^'The white lines on the Plan represent the excavated parts: the broadest of them are called hoards^ and those that cross them at right angles are walls, '^ The two narrow lines which run north and south, on the east side, are called double winning head-ways^ and the narrow lines between them, atentinga: the two lines on the west side of the William Pit are also double winning head-ways. &quot; The two boards on the north are termed the narrow boards : they were the parts first excavated, and were made for the purpose of open- ing a communication for the atmospheric air between the two pits : the lines between the west end of the narrow boards and the William Pit are called drifts. The inclined plane board is marked P P on the Plan. '^ The parallelograms formed by the boards and walls are called pillars: they are solid masses of coal lefb to support the roof of the mine, and are each twenty-six yards long, and eight yards broad. ^* The single black lines in the walls and stentings represent stoppings, and the double lines trap-doors, each of which are placed to divert the current of atmospheric air through proper channels. The stoppings are made of brick and lime, and in this colliery were strengthened on each side with a wall of stone. The trap-doors are made of wood : eac}i of them is attended by a boy about seven, eight, or ten years old; and they are seldom used but in the avenues leading from the working shaft to the workings. At the circle N the air crossed the waggon-way, and at M the way to the stable, over arches of brick. The walls which have stoppings in them are called sheth-wallSf and those that are open loose-walls, ^' In all large collieries the air is accelerated through the workings by placing a large fire, sometimes at the bottom and sometimes at the top of the up-cast shaft, which in these cases is covered over, and con- nected with a fumace-tvhe or chimney by an arched gallery of brick from forty to sixty feet in length. In this colliery the furnace was about six feet from the bottom of the tube. &quot; The first course of the air, after descending the John Pit, was under the arch M, up the inner narrow board, and the stable board S, to the trap-door at the head of the narrow boards ; then down the board next south of the stable board ; and so afterwards up two boards and down other two, till it traversed the newly-formed sheth or set of workings, branching from the southern-most part of the double headways on the I I 96 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. east: from thence it passed oyer the two arches up the outer board of the narrow boards, to the most westerly sheth of boards, and, after fanning them, found its way down the crane board, along the drift, to the William Pit, through which it ascended into the fonace, and thence, charged with noxious vapours, into the open air. *' Prom this explanation it will easily be perceived that the purity and wholesomeness of a coal-mine has no reference to its depth. If the air be conducted through all parts of a mine, as here described, and no falls from the roof occur to prevent its visiting every comer, the old excavations, which are called wastes, will be constantly ventilated by as pure air as the boards in which the men are at work — each part of the mine will be uniformly wholesome ; but when obstructions occur, and are not speedily removed; when the fire in the fumace-shafl is neglected ; or when care has not been taken to place the stoppings and trap-doors in proper places, or the trap-doors are carelessly lefl open, or stoppings fall down, — ^in all these cases accumulations of fire-damp, or hydrogen gas (called stythe by the colliers), immediately commence in places deprived of the atmospheric current, and continue to train their dread- ful artillery, and grow strong in danger, till the wcute-men or ventilators of the mine discover them, and wash them off, or they ignite at the workmen's candles. Blasts occurring in partial stagnations, as in the face of one or two boards, though they generally scorch the persons in their way, seldom kill them; but when the air has proceeded lazily for several days through a colliery, and an extensive magazine of fire-damp is ignited in the wastes, then the whole mine is instantly illuminated with the most brilliant lightning the expanded fiuid drives before it a roaring whirlwind of flaming air, which tears up every thing in its progress, scorching some of the miners to a cinder, burying others under enormous heaps of ruins shaken from the roof, and, thunder- ing to the shafts, wastes its volcanic fury in a discharge of thick clouds of coal-dust, stones, timber, and not unfrequently limbs of men and horses. &quot; But this first, though apparently the most terrible, is not the most destructive effect of these subterraneous thunderings. All the stoppings and trap-doors of the mine being blown down by the violence of the concussion, and the atmospheric current being for a short time entirely excluded from the workings, those that survive the discharge of the fire-damp are instantly suffocated by the after-damp, which immediately fills up the vacuum caused by the explosion. &quot; Where persons suffering this kind of suspended animation are in situations that can be visited immediately afler the eruption ceases, and THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 97 the air is again suffered to enter the workings, they have frequently been brought up and restored to life by means similar to those recom- mended by the Humane Society; but as the air, after the stoppings are blown down, always passes from shaft to shaft through the most direct avenues it can find, 'and as neither lights will bum nor man can breathe in places deprived of its visits, all attempts to save the persons lying out of its track would not only be ineffectual, but fatal to the lives of persons entering upon so dangerous, though benevolent, an enterprise. &quot; This after-damp is called cAoaA:-(femp and surfeit, by the colliers, and is the carbonic acid gas of chymists. While the mine is at work, it lies sluggishly upon its floor, and suffers the atmospheric air, as a lighter fluid, to swim upon it : fire-damp, being the lightest of the three, floats upon the atmospheric air, and therefore occupies a space, according to its present quantity, nearest the roof of the mine. &quot; The coals from the boards on each side of the William Pit were con- veyed in strong wicker baskets, called corves, to the crarie, on trams, a narrow frame- work of wood mounted on four low wheels : this work was done by putters and harrow-men, the latter pulling before, and the former putting or thrusting behind : boys about fifteen or sixteen years old are employed in this department of the colliery. The crane at the time of the accident stood eleven pillars up the crane-board ; it had been removed from the several piUars which have their upper- most comer canted off, and a period fixed in the vacancy. The use of the crane is to lift the loaded corves off the trams, upon waggons which differ little from the trams, except in their being larger and stronger. From the crane, about four waggons, each carrying two corves, and chained together, were taken to the bottom of the crane- board near number 86, by the machine, called an inclined-plane, which draws up the empty waggons by the weight of the loaded ones : the person who regulates this machine is called a brake-man. From the bottom of the inclined-plane, the coals were conveyed on the same waggons to the John Pit. &quot; This mine was considered by the workmen a model of perfection in the purity of its air and orderly arrangements. Its inclined-plane was saving the expense of at least thirteen horses ; the concern wore the fea- tures of the greatest possible prosperity, and no accident, except a trifling explosion of fire-damp slightly burning two or three workmen, had occurred. Two shifts or sets of men were constantly employed, except on Sundays. Twenty-five acres of coal had been excavated. H 98 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. The first shift entered the mine at four o^dock am,, and were relieved at their working-posts by the next at eleven oVlock in the morning. The establishment it employed tmder gronnd, as will be seen in the succeeding narrative, consisted of about one hundred and twenty- eight persons, who, in the fortnight from the eleventh to the twenty-fifth of May, 1812, wrought 624 scores of coal, equal to 1300 Newcastle chaldrons, or 2455-|^ London chaldrons. &quot; A LIST OF THE PERSONS KILLED BY THE EXPLOSION. Noa. on the Plan. Name. Day of Burial. Years old. Employment. 1 John Knox May 27 • Trapper 2 Robert Harriflon » 27 14 Waggon-driyer 8 John HarriBon „ 27 12 Waggon-driver 4 George Ridley ,. 27 11 Waggon-driyer 5 Robert Hutchinson » 27 11 Trapper 6 ThomaA Robson July 8 18 Putter •m7 John Pearson ,, 8 58 Shifter 8 Philip Allan ., 8 17 Putter 9 George Bainbridge, unknown ., 8 10 Putter 10 Isaac Greener « » 24 Hewer 11 James Craigs ,. 18 13 Waggon-driyer 12 Edward Bell „ 15 12 Putter mis Ralph Harrison „ 16 89 Horse-keeper mU Matthew Brown „ 16 28 Hewer 16 James Kay ., 16 18 Putter 16 George Bell „ 16 14 Putter 17 Thomas Richardson ,. 16 17 Putter 18 Henry Haswell „ 16 18 Putter 19 Joseph Anderson » 16 23 Putter 20 Joseph Pringle „ 16 16 Putter 21 Dobson, unknown « 16 a boy Trapper 22 George Pearson » 16 26 Hewer 23 Robert Hall „ 16 13 Putter 24 Gregory Galley ,, 16 10 Trapper 25 Benjamin Thompson « 17 17 Craneman 26 George Mitoheson n 17 18 Putter 27 Matthew Pringle „ 17 18 Putter 17128 Nicholas Urwin „ 17 58 Braking inclined-plane m29 John Wilson „ 17 32 Hewer mSO Thomas Young „ 17 • Putter 81 John Jacques, unknown „ 17 14 Putter 82 Edward Pearson „ 17 14 Putter 88 William Richardson M 17 19 Putter 34 Christopher Culley » 17 20 Putter 35 William Boutland n 17 19 Crane on-setter 36 Jacob Allan ,. 17 14 Putter «i37 Isaac Greener ., 17 65 Hewer 38 Thomas Bainbridge, unknown „ 17 17 Putter m89 John Wilson „ 18 80 Hewer 40 Matthew Bainbridge „ 18 19 Putter * Those marked m were married men; the rest single. THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 99 LIST OF PERSONS KILLED (continued J. N08. on the Plan. Name. Day of Burial. Tears old. Employment. 41 John Surtees July 18 12 Trapper 42 Ralph Hall ,, 18 18 Putter 43 Paul Fletcher „ 18 22 Hewer 44 William Galley „ 18 22 Putter 45 John Uiinter „ 18 21 Hewer m46 Thomas Bainbridge „ 22 53 Hewer m47 John Wood „ 22 27 Hewer m48 Jeremiah TumbuU „ 22 43 Hewer m49 John Haswell „ 22 22 Hewer 50 John Bumitt » 22 21 Hewer 51 George CuUey » 22 14 Trapper m52 Joseph Wilson „ 23 25 Hewer m53 John Boutland „ 23 46 Hewer 54 George Reay » 24 9 Trapper 55 William Gardiner „ 24 10 Trapper m56 Thomas Craggs „ 24 36 Hewer 57 Thomas Craggs „ 24 9 Trapper 58 John Greener » 24 21 Hewer m59 Edward Richardson „ 24 39 Hewer 60 Robert Dobson „ 24 13 Trapper m 61 William Dixon „ 25 35 Hewer 62 George Robson „ 25 15 Putter 63 Andrew Allan „ 25 11 Trapper m64 John Thompson „ 25 36 Hewer m66 John Pearson n 25 64 Hewer m66 Thomas Bears ,, 25 48 Hewer 67 Charles Wilson „ 26 20 Hewer m68 Michael Gardiner ,. 25 45 Hewer m69 James Comby „ 26 28 Hewer 70 Joseph Gordon „ 25 10 Trapper w71 Robert Haswell „ 25 42 Hewer «72 Joseph Wood M 27 39 Hewer w73 John Wilkinson „ 27 35 Hewer m74 John TumbuU „ 27 27 Hewer m75 Matthew Sanderson „ 27 33 Hewer m76 Robert Gordon n 27 40 Hewer 77 Thomas Gordon „ 27 8 Trapper m78 Christopher Mason » 27 34 Hewer 79 Robert Gray Lock „ 28 15 Putter m80 . William Jacques „ 28 23 Putter 81 William Hunter „ 29 35 Deputy 82 Thomas Ridley „ 29 13 Putter m83 William Sanderson „ 30 43 Hewer 84 George Lawton ,. 30 14 Lamp- keeper 85 Michael Hunter „ 30 8 Trapper 86 William Dizon „ 31 . 10 Waggon-driver 87 Edward Haswell Aug. 1 20 Hewer 88 Joseph Young M 3 30 Trapper 89 George Kay „ 26 16 Putter 90 Robert Pearson Sep. 1 10 Trapper 91 John Archibald Dobson „ 1» 15 Trapper 92 Not yet discovered. H 2 100 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. AN ACCOUNT OF TBE ACCIDENT, AND OF THE BECOVERT OF THE BODIES OF THE SUFFERERS. *^ About half past eleven o'clock on the morning of the 25th of Maj, 1812, the neighbouring villages were alarmed bj a tremendous explo- sion in this colliery. The subterraneous fire broke forth with two heavy discharges from the John Pit, which were, almost instantaneously^ followed by one from the William Pit. A slight trembling, as from an earthquake, was felt for about half a mile around the workings; and the noise of the explosion, though dull, was heard at three or four miles distance, and much resembled an unsteady fire of infantry. Immense quantities of dust and small coal accompanied these blasts, and rose high into the air, in the form of an inverted cone. The heaviest part of the ejected matter, such as corves, pieces of wood, and small coal, fell near the pits ; but the dust, borne away by a strong west wind, fell in a continued shower from the pits to the distance of a mile and a half. In the village of Heworth, it caused a darkness like that of early twilight, and covered the roads so thickly, that the footsteps of passengers were strongly imprinted in it : the heads of both the shaft-frames were blown off, their sides set on fire, and their pullies shattered in pieces; but the pullies of the John Pit gin, being on a crane not within the influence of the blast, were fortimately preserved. The coal dust, ejected from the William Pit into the drift or horizontal parts of the tube, was about three inches thick, and soon burnt to a light cinder. Pieces of burning coal, driven off the solid stratum of the mine, were also blown up this shaft.* ^ As soon as the explosion was heard, the wives and children of the workmen ran to the working-pit. Wildness and terror were pictured in every countenance. The crowd from all sides soon collected to the number of several hundreds, some crying out for a husband, others for a parent or a son, and all deeply affected with an admixture of horror, anxiety, and grief. &quot; The machine being rendered useless by the eruption, the rope of the gin was sent down the pit with all expedition. In the absence of horses, a number of men, whom the wish to be instrumental in rescuing their neighbours from their perilous situation seemed to supply with strength * There is a long note here in which Hodgson describes the eruption as &quot;« feeble representation of the subterraneons labour of Mount iEtna/' and reten to Pindar, LucretiuSy Virgil, Aulns Gellius, and others. THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 101 proportionate to the urgency of the occasion, put their shoulders to the starts or shafts of the gin, and wrought it with astonishing expedition. By twelve o'clock, thirty-two persons, all that survived this dreadful calamity, were brought to daylight. The dead bodies of two boys, numbers one and four, who were miserably scorched and shattered, were also brought up at this time : three boys, viz. numbers two, three, and five, out of the thirty-two who escaped alive, died within a few hoiu*s after the accident. Only twenty-nine persons were, therefore, left to relate what they observed of the appearances and effects of this subterranean thundering. One hundred and twenty-one were in the mine when it happened, and eighty-seven remained in the workings. One overman, two wastemen, two deputies, one headsman or putter (who had a violent toothache), and two masons, in all eight persona, came up at different intervals, a short time before the explosion.* &quot; They who had their friends restored hastened with them from the dismal scene, and seemed for a while to suffer as much from the excess of joy as they had lately done irom grief; and they who were yet held in doubt concerning the fate of their relations and friends filled the air with shrieks and howlings, went about wringing their hands, and threw their bodies into the most frantic and extravagant gestures. &quot; The persons who now remained in the mine had all been employed in the workings, to which the plane-board was the general avenue, and, as none had escaped by that way, the apprehension for their safety began to strengthen every moment. At a quarter afler twelve o'clock, Mr. Straker, Mr. Anderson, William Haswell, Edward Rogers, John Wilson, Joseph Pearson, Henry Anderson, Michael Menham, and Joseph Greener, therefore descended the John Pit, in expectation of meeting with some of them alive. As the fire-damp would have instantly ignited at candles, they lighted their way by steelmUls, small machines which give light by turning a plain thin cylinder of steel against a piece of flint. Knowing that a great number of the workmen would be at the crane when the explosion happened, they attempted to reach it by the plane-board : but their progress was intercepted at the second pillar, by the prevalence of choak-damp: the noxious fluid filled the board between the roof and the thill ; and the sparks from the flint fell into it like dark drops of blood. Being, therefore, deprived of light, and, nearly poisoned for want of atmospheric air, they retraced their steps to the shaft, and with similar success attempted to pass up the narrow-boards : * A list is here given of the names and employments of the twenty-nine persons who escaped. 102 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. in these they were stopped at the sixth pillar by a thick smoke, which stood like a wall the whole height of the board. Here their flint-mills were not only rendered useless, and respiration became extremely difficult, but the probability of their ever reaching the places where they expected to meet with those they were in search of, or of finding any of them alive, was entirely done away. To the hopelessness of success in their enterprize should also be added their certainty of the mine being on fire, and the probability of a second explosion at every moment occurring, and burying them in its ruins. &quot; At two o'clock Mr. Straker and Mr. Anderson had just ascended the John Pit, and were gone to examine the appearance of the air issuing from the William Pit. Menham, Greener, and Rogers, had also ascended. Two of the party were at this moment in the shaft, and the other two remained below, when a second explosion, much less severe than the first, excited more frightful expressions of grief and terror amongst the relatives of the persons still in the mine. Rogers and Wilson, the persons in the shaft, experienced little inconvenience by the eruption: they felt an unusual heat, but it had no effect in lifting up their bodies, or otherwise destroying the uniformity of the motion of their ascent. Haswell and H. Anderson, hearing its distant growling, laid themselves down at fiill length on their faces, and in this posture, by keeping firm hold of a strong wooden prop, placed near the shaft, to support the roof of the mine, experienced no other inconvenience from the blast than its lifting up their legs and poising their bodies in various directions, in the manner that the waves heave and toss a buoy at sea. As soon as the atmospheric current returned down the shaft, they were drawn to bank. &quot; This expedient of lying down and suffering the fury of the blast to roll over them is mentioned in the Life of Lord Keeper North, under the year 1676. It is most efiicacious where the mine is wet, for atmospheric air always accompanies running water ; but, the warning of a blast being usually sudden, it requires a degree of experience and coolness not commonly united to exercise any precaution against it. The miner, knowing its irresistible power, instantly sees the inefificacy of every attempt to escape, and, like a physician attacked by some incurable complaint, and conscious that his art is unequal to its cure^ makes no struggle to save his life. &quot; Mr. Straker was viewer of the coUiery ; Haswell was its overman, and had three brothers; Wilson was a wasteman, and had three sons; Pearson had his father and two brothers ; Rogers was a deputy, and had THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 103 • several near relations in the mine. H. Anderson went down with strong confidence that he would be able to reach his partner, number eighty-seven, Pearson, Eogers, and H. Anderson, had also escaped from the first explosion. These all entered the pit from a combination of motives — ^from duty, humanity, parental or brotherly affection. Greener was keeper of the adjoining toll-bar, and had his father, two brothers, a brother-in-law, and two nephews. Mr. Anderson and Mr. Menham hazarded their lives from the single and meritorious motive of assisting to rescue a number of their fellow-creatures from death. &quot; As each of the party came up, he was surrounded by a group of anxious inquirers. All their reports were equally hopeless; and the second explosion so strongly corroborated their account of the im-. pure state of the mine, that their assertions for the present seemed to be credited. But this impression was only momentary. On recollection, they remembered that persons had survived similar accidents, and when the mine was opened had been found alive. Three had been shut up during forty days in a pit near Byker, and all that period had subsisted on candles and horse-beans. Persons, too, were not wanting to infect the minds of the relatives of the sufferers with disbelief in the accounts of the persons who had explored the mine. It was suggested to them, that want of courage, or bribery, might be inducements to magnify the danger, and represent the impossibility of reaching the bodies of the tmfortunate men. By this species of wicked industry, the grief of the neighbourhood began to assume an irritable and gloomy aspect. The proposition to exclude the atmospheric air from the mine, in order to extinguish the fire^ was therefore received with the cries of &quot; murder,'' and with determinations of opposing the proceeding. &quot; Many of the widows continued about the mouth of the John Pit during the whole of Monday night, with the hope of hearing the voice of a husband or a son calling for assistance. ** On Tuesday the 26th of May, the natural propensity of the human mind to be gratified with spectacles of horror was strongly exemplified. An inmiense crowd of colliers from various parts, but especially from the banks of the river Wear, assembled round the pits, and were pro- fuse in reproaches on the persons concerned in the mine, for want of exertion to recover the men. Every one had some example to relate of successful attempts in cases of this kind — all were large in their pro- fessions of readiness to give assistance; but none were found to enter the inflammable jaws of the mine. Their reasonings and assertions seemed indeed to be a mixture of those prejudices and conceits which 104 M£MOIR OP THS RET. JOHN HODGSON. deare to workmen to whom expezience has affoorded a partial insight into the nature and peculiarities of their prolessifHi, and not to be gioonded on anj memorjr of fiu;ts, or to result frcm a knowledge of the connection between causes and effects : and on this account, as soon as the leaders of the outciy could be brought to listen with patience to a lelanon of the appearances that attended this accident, and to hear the reasons assigned for the conclnsi&lt;m that the mine was on fire, and that the persons remaining in it were dead, thej seemed to allow the impracticability of reaching the bodies of the sufierers till the fire was extinguished, and consequently the necessitj of smothering it out bj excluding atmospheric air from the mine. • ** The proprietors of the mine gave the strongest assurances to the crowd, that if any project could be framed for the recoveiy of the men, no expense should be spared in executing it ; if any peison could be found to enter the mine, every facility and help should be afforded him ; but, as they were assured by the unanimous opinion of several of the most eminent viewers in the neighbourhood that the workings of the mine were in an unapproachable state, they would hold out no reward for the attempt : they would be accessory to no man^s death by persua- sion or a bribe. *^ The mouth of the John Pit had continued open since the accident: the William Pit was to-day almost wholly muzzled with planks. '' On Wednesday the 27th of May, at the clamorous solicitation of the people, Mr. Straker and the overman again descended the John Pit, in order to ascertain the state of the air in the workings. Immediately under the shafl they found a mangled horse, in which they supposed they perceived some signs of life ; but they had only advanced about six or eight yards, before the sparks of the flint were extinguished in the choak-damp, and Haswell, who played the mill, began to show the effects of the carbonic poison, by faultering in his steps. Mr. Straker therefore laid hold of him, and supported him to the shafb. As the baneful vapours had now taken possession of the whole of the mine, and they found it dificult to breathe even in the course of the full current of the atmospheric air, they immediately ascended. But the afflicted creatures, still clinging to hope, disbelieved their report. Wishful therefore to give as ample satisfaction as possible to the unhappy women Mr. Anderson and James Tumbull (a hewer of the colliery who had escaped the blast) again went down. At thirty fatlioms from the bottom they found the air exceedingly warm: to exist without apoplectic symptoms for more than a few yards round the THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 105 bottom of tHe shail was found impossible, and even there the air was so contaminated as to be nearly irrespirable. When they ascended^ their clothes emitted a smell somewhat resembling the waters of Gils- land and Harrogate, but more particularly allied to that of the turpen- tine distilled from coal-tar. &quot; The report of these last adventurers partly succeeded in convincing the people that there was no possibility of any of their friends being found alive. Some, indeed, went away silent, but not satisfied; others witli pitiable importunity besought that measures to recover their friends might even yet be adopted and persevered in ; and many, as if grief and rage had some necessary connection, went about loading the conductors of the mine with execrations, and threatening revenge. Some were even heard to say they could have borne their loss with fortitude had none of the workmen survived the calamity : they could have been consoled had all their neighbours been rendered as misera- ble and destitute as themselves I From such a multitude of distracted women unanimity of sentiment could not be expected — no scheme of proceedings could be invented fortunate enough to meet with the approbation of them all. In the evening of the day it was therefore re- solved to exclude the atmospheric air from entering the workings, in order to extinguish the fire which the explosion had kindled in the mine, and of which the smoke ascending the William Pit was a sure indica- tion. This shaft was accordingly filled with clay about seven feet above the ingate or entrance from the shaft into the drift; and the John Pit mouth was covered over with loose planks. &quot; On Thursday the 28th of May, both the pits continued in the state they were left in on the preceding evening ; but early on the morning of the 29th, twenty fothers of additional thickness in clay were thrown into the William Pit, in order to insure its being air-tight; and on the same day, a scaffold, at twenty-five fathoms and a half from the surface, was suspended on six ropes, each six inches in circumference, in the John Pit. Upon this, ten folds of straw were thrown, and twenty-six fothers of clay, namely, fifteen fothers on Friday, five on Saturday, and six on Simday, on which day the scaffold was found sufiiciently air- tight, by its holding the water poured upon it. ** On the 1st of June, one of the ropes of the scaffold gave way, and on the next day, about five o'clock in the afternoon, the whole of it fell to the bottom of the pit. Immediately after this a second scaffold was suspended: but when eight fothers of clay had been thrown upon it, it also broke its ropes and fell to the bottom, about eight o^clock on the 106 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. evening of the same day. At ten o'clock another expedient was resorted to : three beams of timber were laid across the mouth of the shaft, a little below the surface, and these were traversed with strong planks, upon which, on that evening, and early next morning, a body of clay was laid four feet thick, and firmly beaten together. At the same time a ten-inch stopping of brick and lime was put into the tube drift of this shaft : this drift had long been closed, but the additional stopping was added, for greater security against the fire-damp escaping. &quot; Preparations now began to be made for re-opening the mine. For this purpose a brattice or partition of thin deals began to be put down the William Pit, of which and its furnace-tube and whim-gin the annexed figure is a section.* The black line down the shaft represents the brattice, which in this case was made to assist the workmen in raising the clay thrown down the shaft on the 27th and 29th of May. ''About this time many idle tales were circulated through the country, concerning several of the men finding their way to the shafts, and being recovered. Their number was circumstantially told — how they subsisted on candles, oats, and beans — ^how they heard the persons who visited the mine on the day of the accident, and the Wednesday following, but were too feeble to speak sufliciently loud to make themselves heard. Some conjurer, too, it was said, had set his spells and divinations to work, and penetrated the whole secrets of the mine. He had discovered one famishing group receiving drops of water from the roof of the mine — another eating their shoes and clothes, and other such pictures of misery. These inventions were carefully related to the widows, and answered the purpose of every day harrowing up their sorrows afresh. Indeed, it seemed the chief employment of Some to make a kind of insane sport of their own and their neighbours' calamity. ** On the 19th of June, it was discovered that the water oozing out of the tubbing of the William Pit had risen to the height of twenty- four feet upon the clay. On the 3rd of July, this being all overcome, the brattice finished, and a great part of the clay drawn up, the sinkers began to bore a crowhole out of the shaft into the north drift. On the next day the stoppings in the tube drift of the John Pit were taken down, and the bore-hole finished, through which the air passed briskly into the mine, and ascended by the John Pit tube. &quot; Some experiments made on the fire-damp, by collecting it in * There is here in the margin of the pamphlet an explanatory woodcut, which it is not necessary to transfer to our pages. THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 107 bladders in the John Pit tube, before the bore-hole was opened, proved that it would not ignite previous to its mixture with atmospheric air. This shaft became an up-cast at Ihtee in the afternoon of the 5th of July ; at seven on the same day, the fire-damp exploded on its being exposed to the flame of a candle. From the 6th to the 8th, it continued in the same state, and ailer became so saturated with atmospheric air as to lose that property. ** On the 7th of July, the workmen pierced through the clay in the William Pit into the drift; and at forty -five minutes past eleven o'clock in the morning the John Pit tube emitted a thick continued volume of vapour, alternately of a blackish and gray colour: at five in the after- noon it was of alight steam colour, and the next morning scarcely visible. &quot; The morning of Wednesday the 8th of July being appointed for entering the workings, the distress of the neighbourhood was again renewed at an early hour. A great concourse of people collected — some out of curiosity — to witness the commencement of an imdertaking full of sadness and danger — some to stir up the revenge and aggravate the sorrows of the relatives of the sufferers, by calumnies and reproaches, published for the sole purpose of mischief; but the greater part came with broken hearts and streaming eyes, in expectation of seeing a father, a husband, or son &quot; brought up out of the horrible pit.&quot; &quot; As the weather was warm, and it was desirable that as much air might pass down the shaft as possible, constables were placed at proper distances, to keep off the crowd. Two surgeons were also in attendance in case of accidents. ^ At six o'clock in the morning, Mr. Straker, Mr. Anderson, the over- man of the colliery, and six other persons descended the William Pit, and began to traverse the north drift towards the plane-board. As a current of water had been constantly diverted down this shaft for the space of ten hours, the air was found to be perfectly cool and whole- some. Light was procured from steel-mills. As the explosion had occasioned several falls of large masses of stone from the roof, their progress was considerably delayed by removing them. Aft«r the plane- board was reached, a stopping was put across it on the right hand, and one across the wall opposite the drift. The air, therefore, passed to the left, and number Hx was found. &quot; The shifts of men employed in this doleful and unwholesome work were generally about eight in number. They were four hours in and eight hours out of the mine: each individual, therefore, wrought two shifts every twenty-four hours. 108 MEMOJB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. &lt;^ When the bodj of number six was to be lifted into a shell or coffin, the men for a while stood over it in speechless horror: thej imagined it was in so putrid a state that it would fall asunder by lifting. At length they began to encourage each other •* in the name of God &quot; to begin ; and after several hesitations and resolutions, and covering their hands with oakum to avoid any unpleasant sensation from touching the body, they laid it in a coffin, which was conveyed to the shaft in a bier made for the purpose, and drawn to ' bank ' in a net made of strong cords. ** It is worthy of remark that number six was found within two or three yards of the place where the atmospheric current concentrated, as it passed from one pit to the other; but that he was lying on his face with his head downwards, apparently in the position into which he had been thrown by the blast. The air visited him in vain. '^ When the first shift of men came up, at ten o^clock, a message was sent for a number of coffins to be in readiness at the pit; these being at the joiner's shop, piled up in a heap, to the number of ninety-two (a most gloomy sight), had to pass by the village of Low Felling. As soon as a cartload of them was seen, the howHngs of the women, who had hitherto continued in their houses, but now began to assemble about their doors, came on the breeze in slow fitful gusts, which pre- saged a scene of much distress and confusion being soon exhibited near the pit; but happily, by representing to them the shocking appearance of the body that had been found, and the ill effects upon their own bodies and minds likely to ensae from suffering themselves to be hurried away by such violent convulsions of grief, they either returned to their houses, or continued in silence in the neighbourhood of the pit. &quot; Every family had made provision for the entertainment of their neighbours on the day the bodies of their friends were recovered ; and it had been generally given out that they intended to take the bodies into their own houses ; but Dr. Ramsay having given his opinion that such a proceeding, if carried into effect, might spread putrid fever through the neighbourhood, and the first body when exposed to observation having a most horrid and corrupt appearance, they readily consented to have them interred immediately after they were found. Permission, however, was given to let the hearse, in its way to the chapd-yard, pass by the door of the deceased. &quot;From the 8th of July to the 19th of September, the heart- rending scene of mothers and widows examining the putrid bodies of their sons and husbands, for marks by which to identify them, was THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 109 alinost daily renewed; but very few of them were known by any per- sonal mark : they were too much mangled and scorched to retain any of their features Their clothes, tobacco-boxes, shoes, and the like, were therefore the only indexes by which they could be recognized. '^ After finding numbers seven, eighty and nine, the operations of the first day ceased, about ten o'clock in the evening. At six the next morning the workmen began to put deal stoppings into the stentings of the double headways, west of the William Pit. In the afternoon number ten was found, and the third board south of the plane-board discovered to be much fallen : carrying a brattice nearly to its face was the last proceeding of the 9th. &quot; Early in the morning of the 10th of July the air in the William Pit was discovered to be casting up with a current so feeble as nearly to approach stagnation. This being supposed to be caused by the water, collected about the bottom of the John Pit, approaching the roof of the mine, the machine was put in readiness for drawing it. A collection of water amounting to about 4,500 gallons, was twice a week raised from a sump or well, immediately under the John Pit shaft. This sump was made for the purpose of receiving it, as it oozed from the tubbing. The dip of this colliery being about one yard in twelve to the south-west, the lowest parts of the colliery were conse- quently at this shaft, and the little water that the mine produced collected here. The double headway was nearly water-level. The annexed section may assist in giving a clear idea of the appearance of the water where the circulation of air through the mine began to stop. A represents the shaft, and B the inner narrow-board.* &quot; Hitherto the air had descended into the mine by the John Pit tube: but now the clay laid over the mouth of this pit on the evening of the 1st of June was removed, and the settle-boards, or frames, upon which the corves were loaded, were refixed. At forty- five minutes after four o'clock this afternoon, the water began to be drawn in buckets, each containing ninety gallons. Thirty buckets were drawn in an hour. &quot; On the morning of the 11th, a larger stream of water than had been hitherto used was diverted down the William Pit, with the expectation of forcing the air to descend with it. This was a desirable point to effect, as the bodies of the sufferers might be more readily obtained by this pit than the other; but as the water fell * This cut is omitted as of no importance to our narrative. 110 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. about the John Pit, the atmospheric current set more stronglj down it: the attempt was therefore abandoned as hopeless. &quot; The machine was constantly at work drawing water, till Monday the Idth, when the rubbish occasioned by the falling of the two scaffolds on the first of June, stones blown from the roof by the blast, and the body of a horse began to be raised. As the body of the boy, number eleven, had lain a long time in water, it was perfectly white. &quot; On Tuesday the 14th of July, as the workmen were clearing out the water-sump at the bottom of the John Pit, a gust of fire-damp burst from the workings, and ascended the shaft. This caused so great an alarm, that the cry &quot; Send away a loop 1 &quot; from the bottom, and &quot; Ride away, ride away ! &quot; from the banksmen, were heard together. Seven of the men clung to the rope, and arrived safe at bank ; and two old men threw themselves fiat upon their faces, in expectation of an explosion ; but, after a second and similar eructation, the atmospheric current took its usual course. No alteration was perceived at the William Pit. This phenomenon was aftierwards ascertained to proceed from a large fall at that time taking place in the stable-board, and forcing back a foul admixture of the two damps and common air. The banks- men's cry so alarmed the villages of High and Low Felling that all the inhabitants, young and old, hastened to the pit. At two o'clock in the afternoon the work was resumed. &quot; On the 15th of July, the bottom of the plane-board was reached, where the body of a mangled horse and four waggons were found. Though these waggons were made of strong frames of oak, strengthened with hoops and bars of iron, yet the blast had driven both them and the horse with such violence down the inclined plane-board, that it had twisted and shattered them as if they had been shot from a mortar against a rock. Number twelve^ though a putter, at the time of the accident was employed at the meetings of the inclined-plane to keep the ropes in order as the waggons passed each other. Number thirteen, from the position in which he was found, seemed as if he had been asleep when the explosion happened, and had never after opened his eyes. He was seen, about a quarter before eleven o'clock, smoking his pipe on the place where his body yas found. He attended to the five horses, and had the charge of keeping the waggon and inclined plane-ways free from obstructions. &quot; Aft«r obtaining number fourteen, the crane was visited. Here twenty-one bodies, from number fifteen to thirty-six, lay in ghastly THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 1 1 1 confiisioii: some like mammies, scorched as dry as if they had been baked; one wanting its head, another an arm. The scene was truly frightful. The power of the fire was visible upon them all ; but its effects were extremely various : while some were almost torn to pieces, there were others who appeared as if they had sunk down overpowered with sleep. *' Number twenty-eight was married at the age of twenty-three to Isabella Greener, aged twenty-two. They had eleven children, first seven sons and then four daughters, successively. The oldest and the youngest of the boys were bom deaf; the rest were bom with all their senses. Both of these were sent to school, and were taught to write and cast up sums. WilUam, the eldest brother, after leaving school, was employed about the skreen of the colliery, and in different kinds of work about its bank, but never wrought under-ground. Until he was twenty-one years old, his sight, according to his mother*s account, was quick and strong ; but about that period a dimness, occasioned by a heavy lift, suddenly came over his eyes, and has gradually increased to total blindness. He was a good writer, and understood enough of the power of numbers to reckon up his own earnings in figures. Once the agent of the colliery deducted eight shillings from his fortnight's pay, thinking him too yoimg and infirm to work for the wages assigned him: this grieved him much, and he long remembered it as an act of injustice. His observations on the characters of his comrades, written with chalk on doors about the engine houses, were frequently humourous. He has a contemptible opinion of his brother's attainments as a scholar. £Us health has always been good, and since he lost his sight he has been maintained by the owners of Felling Colliery. He is thirty-two years old. Nicholaa^ the youngest of the seven, is twenty years old, and follows the trade of a shoemaker, in which he is reckoned to have considerable expertness. His sight and health are good. Their mother has a language of signs by which she holds a communication of thought between them and herself: and they frequently spend whole evenings together, deeply and most affectionately engaged in conversa- tion with each other. By the various passions which these conversations draw forth, and the quick changes of expression in their countenances, it is evident that their intercourse of ideas is nearly as rapid as they could be by oral language. William, notwithstanding his uncommon privations, can still express many of his wants by writing, at which exercise he is more ready and expert than could be expected. ^' It is difficult to quit this place without reflecting on the riotous 112 MEMOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. scenes constantly exhibited at the crane of a large collieiy. The place is lighted with a lamp, just sufficient to make ' darkness visible/ and to give one faint glimpses of series of joaths snccessivelj hurrying irorn the wall of the fuU-way board, and hastening back to the workiog- boards with the empty corves, up the crane-board. In many pits the coals are brought from the hewers by horses, which, from the great speed at which they are driven, make the bustle still more hideous. The thousand tricks of a crowd of boys in high health and spirits, each anxious to commit some frolic while his corf is under the crane — ^their bodies half naked, and black with coal dust — ^their laughing, fighting, loud swearing — these, joined to the incessant noise of iron-wheeled trams running on iron plates, and to the great heat and offensive effluvia of the place, make it indeed a ' horrible dungeon.' Such in all proba- bility was the picture here when these twenty-one persons were -' overwhelmed * With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire.' &quot;The bodies of numbers thirty-niney forty % and forty-one, were obtained on the night of the 17 th of July. Thirty-nine, being challenged about daybreak next morning, before the other two could be recognized, was therefore, though last in being found, the first in order of burial. &quot; From an apprehension that the great body of fire-damp confined by the stoppings newly put into the walls immediately south of the plane- board might burst forth if kept perfectly tight, the atmospheric air was thrown into the full-way board, by a stopping placed across the plane- board, a little above the crane. As soon as numbers forty-two, forty-- three, and forty-four, were coffined, the air was conducted to number forty-five. Afler this, the stopping above the crane was taken down, and the workmen were employed from the night of the 18th to the morning of the 22nd of July, in making a brattice from the north- west comer of the fourth right-hand pillar above the crane, to the south- east comer of the pillar next above the drift to the William Pit. By this contrivance, the fire-damp on the south side of the plane-board was not only pent in by two rows of stoppings above the crane, but it was lefl at liberty to escape into the drift on the south side of the brattice. &quot; July 22. Numbers ybrfynsw; and forty-seven, as well as thirty-nine, had probably attempted to make their escape ^om the blast: they were lying on their faces, their heads downwards, and their hands spread forwards. Forty-six was working idl^ forty-eight; and thirty- THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 113 nine, forty-seven, forty-nine, and fifty were blasting stone from the roof at forty -nine. &quot;Little progress was made on the twenty-third, for, after J?/^-(?n« was found, the day was chiefly spent in removing two heavy falls under y^hiQh fifty-two Audi fifty-three were buried. The last of these had his employment in the second board south of the plane-board; he had therefore at the time of the accident either not commenced his work, or left it to talk with the young men at forty-nine. &quot; About ten o'clock this evening, the piece of solid coal between the face of the first board, south of the William Pit, and the double head- ways on the west of it, began to be pierced. Aft«r being bored through with a miner's auger, the hole was kept perfectly tight by a wooden plug, while a passage for the men was opened. Iron picks were used till the coal was thin, when it was battered down in the dark with a wooden prop. Then picks of oak and lignum vitae, hardened in the fire, were used in widening the avenue: and the steel-mills not suffered to play till the air took a regular suck past fifty-four, seventy-nine, seventy- eight, and behind the brattice, into the William Pit drift. This work was finished a little aft«r twelve o'clock, &quot; Before two o'clock in the morning of the t wenty -fourth, number ^/?/?y- four was reached. It is worthy of remark, that nearly the whole of the men found in this line of boards had fallen on the very spot where they were employed. In the progress of obtaining the bodies from fifty-four to sixty^ nothing particular occurred except a large fall, under which vxxmher fifty-nine was found. &quot; On the twenty-fifth of July, eleven bodies, from sixty -one^xy seventy-one, were interred. Number sixty-four was under a large fall. This man was keeper of the Heworth poor-house, and a class-leader of the Wesleyan sect of Methodists. A pamphlet has been published, con- taining twenty-four pages, and entitled &quot; A Short Account of the Life and Christian Experience of John Thompson, &amp;c. compiled chiefly from his own Journal. By Theophilus Lessey, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Printed by J. Marshall, 1812. The profits of this pamphlet will be faithfully applied to the relief of his widow, and five orphan children.&quot; &quot; The boards of fifty-nine and sixty-four were the only ones fallen in this sheth ; each board here was bratticed nearly to its face, more &quot;vsdth a view of rendering them pure and clean, than of giving assistance in obtaining the bodies; for the workmen, out of anxiety to recover them, became fearless of danger, and ventured into the repositories of foul vapours before the brattice was long enough to convey sufficient atmo- I 114 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. spheric air into them to render them wholesome. The twenij-sixth of July, being Sunday, was a day of rest. &quot;On the twenty-seventh of July, seven bodies were obtained. Seventy-two and seventy-three were much burnt, but not much mangled. Seventy-fovr^ seventy-five^ seventy-six^ and seventy-seven were found buried amongst a confused wreck of broken brattices, trap-doors, trams, and corves, with their legs broken, or their bodies otherwise miserably scorched and lacerated. Before seventy-eight was found, the brattice represented in the last figure was taken down; a stopping put across the plane-board at number forty-one; and the air thrown past seventy- nine and fifty-four, through the aperture (which had been partly made by battering down the coal with a prop), and thence into the William Pit. This wall, on account of the prevalence of fire-damp where forty-five was found, had not been crossed till now. *&gt; The twenty-eighth of July was chiefly spent in putting up stoppings along the waU from seventy-eight to seventy-nine. Number eighty had been blown through a stopping. '' Numbers eighty-one and eighty-twoj the latter under a fall, were found on the twenty-ninth of July. ** On the thirtieth of July, the fall, which commenced a little east of eighty-two, was found to continue, and eighty-three and eighty-four were dug from beneath it. Eighty-five kept the sheth down-going door opposite the William Pit on the east : his hair, which was of a light colour, had l)een burned off; but had grown again to the length of an inch or more. '^ As all the upper parts of the mine, in which there was a likelihood of meeting with any bodies, had been once carefully gone over, and it was known that three persons had not escaped from the newly-formed boards on the south-east, the air on the thirty-first of July was diverted, and thrown up the head-ways from the plane-board. Number eighty- six perished by the first explosion ; for as H. Anderson escaped, he felt his body under his feet ; but having a living boy in his arms he was unable to bring him out. He was employed in driving a waggon from the south crane at number eighty-eight. His horse, which was lying near him, had been turned round and thrown upon its back, by the force of the blast: its skin, when first visited, was as hard as leather, and, like the bodies of all the men, covered with a white mould : it was dragged whole to the shaft, and sent to bank in a net. Afler the atmospheric air acted a short time upon it, its skin and flesh soon lost their solidity, and became putrid. THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 115 ** August the first. The men who had been working on the two boards north of number eighty-seven made their escape up the wall in which he was found to the crane-board, and thence down the head- ways. They called on him as they passed his board, but he made no answer. As he had been late up the night before, he is supposed to have been asleep when the accident happened. He was not at the place in which he was found, when the men alluded to passed it: it therefore appears that he made a struggle to escape after it was too late to be successfiil. A day or two before his death, he told some of his friends, that he had a strong presage upon his mind that he had only a very short time to live ; but who has not many times predicted his death before it arrived ? &quot; Number eighty-eighty discovered on the third of August, had the charge of a trap-door in the wall, in which eighty-seven was found. Nature had left something deficient in his brain, which caused an employ- ment to be assigned him in which little memory and contrivance were required. He was found close to the crane, under a very heavy fall. **A11 the trap-doors and stoppings in this part of the mine were standing when the workmen escaped. The lamp at the crane was still burning. They found no falls in their way out, nor saw any injury done by the first explosion. But when it came to be explored af this time, the stoppings and trap-doors were blown down, the roof fallen, and as great marks of destruction as in any other part of the mine. It is therefore probable that the atmospheric current, passing each way along the double head-ways, intercepted the progress of the first explo- sion, and prevented its igniting the fire-damp here. But the choke- damp, pressing up the head-ways to occupy the space of the atmospheric air, threw a train of fire-damp hence into some part of the mine where the coal was burning, and this little magazine was blown up. Perhaps this may serve to explain the cause of the second explosion. &quot; The workmen now began to be employed in carrying on a regular ventilation through the wastes of the mine, by stoppings of brick. '* On Thursday, the sixth of August, they foimd that the stable-board had been on fire, and that the solid coal was reduced to a cinder, two feet in thickness. As far as the fire had extended, the roof was more fallen than in any other part of the mine. At this time it was ascer- tained that this fall occurred on the fourteenth of July. The fire here had probably been caused by the hay igniting at the explosion, and communicating to the coal. The air, too, while the pits were open, would have its strongest current up this board, and consequently keep the fire alive. This was the only place in which the solid coal had I 2 1 16 HEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. been on fire. In other parts, the barrow-waj diut was bnmt to a cinder, and felt under the feet like frozen snow. ** Number eighty-nine was found under six or seren feet of stone. From this time the yenti]ation,and search for the remaining bodies, were uniformly persevered in, till September the first, when number funety was discovered; he had been narrowly missed by some persons who visited this part in the dark, on the eighteenth of July. ^ The ventilation concluded on Saturday the nineteenth of September, when number ninety-cne was dug from under a heap of stones. At six o*clock in the morning, the pit was visited by candle-light, which had not not been used in it for the space of one hundred and seventeen days ; and at eleven o'clock in the morning the tube-furnace was lighted. From this time the colliery has been regularly at work ; but the body of number ninety-ttoo has never yet been found. ** All these persons (except numbers one, four, five, and fifty, who were buried in single graves,) were interred in Heworth Chapel Yard, in a trench, side by side, two coffins deep, with a partition of brick and lime between every four cof&amp;ns.* Those entered as unknoum, in the burial register, have had names added to them since the search was discontinued. ** I pass over the many theories and absurd suppositions invented to explain the cause of this calamity. The power that destroyed raised and marshalled its forces in secrecy — it left no evidence to show from what corner of the mine it issued out to battle. In its effects it indeed proved that it either availed itself of the delusive security, the inac- tivity, or the want of strength in the means employed to keep it in sub- jection: but let us, with that charity which *^ thinketh no evil,&quot; refrain from inquiry into causes which commenced and wrought in darkness, and concerning which the clearest information that can be collected will amount to little more than conjecture and uncertainty. * The monument which Hodgson speaks of in the pre&amp;ce to his account of the Mcident, the expenses of whieh it was his wish to defray out of the profits of the book, was soon afterwards erected in the south-west comer of Heworth Chapel-yard upon the •pot where the poor men and boys had been buried. It consists of a neat plain obelisk nine feet high, fixed in a solid base of stone, and has four brass plates let into it on its four •ides, on which are inseribed the name and age of each of the nine^-one sufferen aJphabetioally arranged. The following inscription runs along the head of the plates : * In Mbmort of thb 91 Pebsoxs killed in Felling Colliert, 24 Mat, 1812.&quot; I find the following bill among Hodgson^ papers. ** Rev. Mr. Hodgson to M. Lambert, Newcastle, Dr. 1817. Ap. Four brass plates, and engraving do. for Felling •ttfferars, 18^ l$s, Qd. Feb. 3, 1818. Settled, M. Lambert.'* THE FELLING EXPLOSION. 117 &quot; The following synopsis may serve as a kind of recapitulation of the preceding relation. It shews the number of men employed in the mine on the day it exploded, distinguishing the number in each occupation that were killed, escaped, or came up before the explosion. * Occupations. No. In the mine when it exploded. Came up before the Exploiiion. • Killed. Escaped. Qyennaii 1 • • • • • • 1 Deputies 5 1 2 2 Wastemen 2 • • • * • • 2 Hewers 50 84 16 1 Putters SO 28 1 Trappers 22 17 5 Waggon-drivers 8 5 3 Horse-keeper 1 1 Cranemen 2 1 1 'Shaft-onsetters 2 • ■ • 2 Grane-onsetter 1 1 Brakeman 1 1 Shifter 1 1 Lampkeeper 1 1 Masons 2 • • ■ • %• 2 130 92 30 8 A meeting was held at Heworth, two days after the accident had taken place, to promote a subscription for the relief of the widows and children of the sufferers ; and Hodgson was requested to draw up a circular embodying the leading circumstances of the accident and the bereavements it had occasioned. It was ascertained, as has been above stated, that the total number of poor women whom it had made widows was forty- one, ten of whom were pregnant, and that sixty-three girls and nine boys, with about six other dependants, in all one hundred and thirty- nine persons, were deprived of their ordinary means of subsistence. Hodgson was appointed treasurer of such contributions as should be made ; and from that day he was incessantly engaged in soli- citing, personally or by letter, the gentry and clergy of the whole North, of England to exert themselves in alleviating the distresses of his poor parishioners. He has preserved the letters which came to hand in reply to his application, and has carefully bound * H. Anderson, a hewer, should be added to the list of those that escaped, and the person whose remains have not been found to that of killed. 118 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. them up in a thick volume, as a melancholy record of the cata- strophe. The total sum subscribed amounted to 2806/. 158, 6id. and along with his Sermon and his Account of the Accident, he has published a statement of the manner in which it was ex- pended* The very first guinea was given by the master of a collier, as he was sailing up the Tjme, within sight of the pit in which there were at that moment 4he dead bodies of ninety-two men slain by &quot; the pestilence that walketh in darkness.&quot; I subjoin his letter, and also another proof that all classes of persons in the neighbourhood felt themselves called upon to lend a helping hand to the fatherless and the widow. ** Deab Sm, Felling Hall, 30th May. 1812. &quot; I beg leave to send you the donation of a real aflfectionate sailor,* who in passing heard of the great misfortune, and the number of widows and orphans left. He sent for me and insisted upon giving his mite — said he was an orphan himself and could feel for others. I thought it advisable to receive it. You will have the goodness to make what use of his name you may deem proper. I am, dear sir, yours most truly, &quot; John Robson. •* FOR THE NEWCASTLE BANK. •&lt; South Shields, Aug. 7, 1812. &quot; Where hase William Rusby Grand Master of the Mariner's loyal and independent lodge of odd fellows held at Walter Mack farling sine of Mason harms in South Shields hopnd a Subcrpson a mongst the the offcers and Brothers of Lodge for Benfit of the wedes and childem of the fallon colrey pleas to send a Recat By the Bearer. d^ 8 d pad ^ 1 .. 5 .. &quot; With respect to Mr. Hodgson's extraordinary exertions in this melancholy case, there seems to have been an unanimous opinion in the North of England. I give an extract from a single letter, as a specimen of many which he received. The Rector of Whit- burn will, I hope, forgive me for making public what he in all probability intended to be merely a private communication : &quot; Whitburn, June 22. 1812. &quot; The cause of humanity has been highly benefitted, and the admiration of all ranks of persons in this neighbourhood greatly ex- * &quot; Andrew Ryan, Master of the Princess of W^ales, Brighton. ^^ THE FELLING EXPLOSION, 119 cited, by your very zealous and benevolent exertions on this melan- choly occasion. We have all much to thank you for; as you have afforded us an excellent opportunity of calling forth the charitable feelings, and making a strong appeal to the consciences of our respec* tive flocks; and have also bestowed unwearied pains in a proper distribution of the money collected. ** Thos. Baker.&quot; • The owners of the colliery, however, took no notice of Hodg- son or his services till the end of the year, seven months after the accident had taken place. On the third of December they begged him ** to accept their sincere thanks for the very great anxiety and trouble his very humane exertions had relieved them from,&quot; and made him an offer of his coals. They at the same time begged of him to thank the gentlemen who had acted with him on the Committee. All this appears to be explained by a preceding page. What a pity that his circumstances at the time made even such a present as this acceptable ! The explosion of Felling Colliery led to the immediate for- mation of a society for the prevention of accidents in coal mines ; and to this society we owe the safety-lamp and its happy consequences : we shall see that Mr. Hodgson not only took an Interest but a very active part in the investigations which paved the way to this fortunate discovery. It was in the summer of the year 1812 that the writer of these pages first became acquainted with Mr. Hodgson, during a visitation held at Durham by the official of the Dean and Chapter, which Mr. Hodgson was attending as belonging to the jurisdiction. This might not, perhaps, be an unfit opportunity for a few remarks on his personal appearance and general demeanour, at that period of his life and afterwards ; but, upon consideration, it is deemed ad- visable to defer this subject to a future page. I would only here remark that the friendship at that time entered into lasted without interruption till it was terminated in death, and that nearly two hundred letters in the hand-writing of my departed friend, on topographical, and other subjects of deeper Interest to us both, remind me, in a forcible way, of the loss which I then sustained. Of these letters some will appear at length, others in an abbreviated form, in the following pages. 120 MEMOIS OP THE REV. JOHX H0DG80V. The sammer and automn of the yesr 1812 had been to Hodg- son a period of toil and affliction. The dose of the year finds him engaged npon a subject more congenial to his mind than that of burying daily by tens and twenties the scorched and mangled bodies of his parishioners. I know not whether he* was the first to suggest, but certainly he was among the first to plan and mature, an institution which has flourished since that period in Newcastle, and was never perhaps in a more vigorous state than at the present time. In November 1812, a circular was issued fiom Newcastle, suggesting the propriety of establishing a Society of Andquaries in that place for the usual objects of such institutions, and re- questing such gentlemen in the town and neighbourhood as fiivoured the design to communicate their approbation to Mr. John Bell junior, bookseller. Quay Side. The suggestion being approved of, the society was established at a numerous meeting on the 6th Feb. 1813; rules and office-bearers were agreed upou; and by way of explanation of the objects which it contemplated, Hodgson read at its second monthly meeting, an essay on *^ The Study of Antiquities,*' extending to a considerable length, and very characteristic of his style and sentiments on such a subject. This essay, which occupies ten very closely-printed quarto pages, was, as we have heard him say, almost entirely composed one morning in the vestry at Jarrow whilst waiting there upon duty. As it is published in the first volume of the Transactions of the Society, I refrain from entering into any detail of its character and merits. To evince the interest which Hodgson took in this Society, firom its first establishment till more weighty engagements began to occupy his thoughts, it may be well to enumerate in this place the various papers which he communicated to its pages fi:om time to time. ** I. Some account of Graj^s Chorographia, with additions extracted from the author's own interleaved copy.* *^ 11. On the Study of Antiquities, read before the Society at its second monthly meeting. Vol. I. pt. 1. p. ix. 19 pages. * This oontribntion Appears in the First annual Report. SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE. 121 &quot;HL Some account of a Set of Gold Beads presented to the Antiqua- rian Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne by his Grace the Duke of North- umberland. lb. p. 1. ** IV. An Inquiry into the -^ra when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron is now applied. lb. p. 17. 87 pages. &quot; V. An Inquiry into the Antiquity of an Ancient Entrenchment called Wardley, in the parish of Jarrow, and County of Durham. lb. p. 112. 6 pages. &quot; VI. Observations on an Ancient Aqueduct and certain Heaps of Iron Scoria in the parish of Lanchester. lb. p. 118. 4 pages. &quot; Vn. An Account of a Saxon Coin of Ecgfrith, King of Northumber- land, lb. p. 124. 2 pages. . &quot; VUI. An Account of an Inscription on Fallowfield Fell, in the County of Northumberland. lb. p. 126. 2 pages. &quot; IX. An Account of an Inscription discovered at Walwick Chesters, in the County of Northumberland. lb. p. 128. 3 pages. &quot; X. Papers relative to the Plot in the North in 1663. lb. p. 143. 6 pages. &quot; XI. Calendars of the Prisoners confined in the High Castle in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, at the assizes in 1628 and 1629. lb. p. 164. 35 pages. *' Xn. Indentures between Sir Francis Brandling and Sir Thomas Swinburne in 1627, and Sir Thomas Swinburne and Thomas Carr, Esq., for delivering over the Gaol of Northumberland. lb. p. 164. 7 pages. **Xin. Papers relating to the General History of the County of Durham in the time of Charles II. lb. p. 187. 4 pages. &quot; XIV. Some Account of an Ancient Plan of Tynemouth, in the County of Northumberland. lb. p. 216. 3 pages. &quot; XV. Observations on the Roman Station of Housesteads, and on some Mithraic Antiquities discovered there. lb. p. 263. 57 pages. &quot; XVI. Some Notices respecting an Inscription on the Bell of He- worth Chapel. lb. App. p. 6. &quot; XVII. Observations on an Ancient Roman Road called Wrekendike, and particularly of that Branch of it which led from the mouth of the Tyne at South Shields to Lanchester in the County of Durham. Vol. II. p. 123. 14 pages. ** XVin. An Account of the Life and Writings of Richard Dawes, M. A., late Master of the Royal Grammar School, and of the Hospital of St. Mary in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. lb. p. 137. 80 pages. 122 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; XIX. Account of aa old Inscripdoa at LanercoBt, in Cumberland. lb. p. 197. &quot; XX. An Account of the Chartulary of Brinkbum, with some notices respecting those of the Abbeys of Newminster and Alnwick, Lanercost and Shap. lb. p. 214. 10 pages. **XXI. Explanatory Letters on Papers relative to the Murder of Lord Francis Russell, at Hexpeth Gate Head, in the Middle Marches between England and Scotland. lb. p. 287. &quot; XXIL Note on a Rental of the Principality of Redesdale. lb. p. 326. &quot; XXIII. Ancient Charters respecting Monastical and Lay Property in Cumberland, and other Counties in the North of England, from originals in the possession of William John Charlton, of Hesleyside, Esq. lb. p. 381. &quot; XXrV. An Account of the Ancient ruined Chapel of East Shaftoe, in the parish of Hartbum, and County of Northumberland. lb. p. 412. &quot; XXV. Testamentary and other Evidences respecting Persons and Property in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, chiefly in the fifteenth century. Vol. in. p. 77. 5 pages. To some of the above contributions reference will be made hereafter, under the years in which they were composed. The first portion of the Transactions of the Society was published in 1815; and, a few copies having been placed at the disposal of the Secretaries, Hodgson presented one of those which thus came into his hands to Thomas Thomson, Esq., Deputy Keeper of the Records preserved in the General Registry of Scotland. In return for the compliment, he received from Mr. Thomson, under the authority of the Record Commissioners, copies of such Record publications relating to Scotland as had issued from the press up to that time, and also such as were published afterwards in their order of time. These valuable books, as they reached his hands, he presented to the library of the Newcastle Antiquaries; who, as an acknowledgment of the gift, passed an order that he should for the future be discharged from the payment of his annual subscription. With respect to his connection with the society, one more fact must be mentioned. Upon his quitting the neigh- bourhood of Newcastle to reside at Kirk-Wbelpingtoii, in 1823-, distance prevented him from attending its monthly meetings; and upon his resignation of the office of Secretary, the compliment SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OP NEWCASTLE. 123 was paid him of placing him upon the list of its Vice-Presidents. That he continued to take great interest in the prosperity of the society is proved by a letter to Mr. Woodman in 1831, to be hereafter mentioned, and also by the following entry in his journal : &quot;1838, 13 Aug. Compiled, at the request of Mr. John Bell, Librarian of the Newcastle Antiquarian Society, an account of the Roman inscriptions and carvings in the society's collection, and wrote to him on the subject.&quot; CHAPTEB VL 1813-1814. History of Jarrow — Northumberland— Sir John Edward Swinburne, Bart. — Experi- ments on Coal~ Journal — Cowper's &quot; Votum &quot; — Another Explosion — Journal — Lines in Sickness — Correspondence — Another Explosion. To ROBERT SURTEES, Esq.* '* DeAB Sm, ' Heworth, near Gateshead, 4th June, 1813. &quot; I have often lamented my inability to avail myself of your kind invitation to visit Mainsforth during last April,| and after the con- clusion of May the accident at Felling Colliery, and a literary engage- ment,} together with the sole care of two very extensive cures, entirely prevented my stirring from home during the season I could hope to see you at Hendon. '^ Mr. Ellison sometime since shewed me the pedigree of his family, and offered me the liberty of copying as much of it as was suitable to your purpose. It begins with Cuthbert Ellison, who was a Member for Newcastle in the Healing Parliament, nearly at the time of Dugdale's Visitation, whose certificate of their pedigree is entirely omitted. I understand it was made out by the late Mr. Ellison, in whose hand- writing it is. &quot; I have lately met with a few other evidences of Jarrow being occupied by the Romans, especially the remains of a paved road along the border of the salt marsh and apparently stretching towards Learn Lane. &quot; Concerning the derivation of Leam, if you have not already dis- covered its import, I could furnish you with several notes. I consider * Along with this letter is an official announcement by Hodgson and his brother secretary that Mr. Surtees had been elected a member of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle on the 2nd of June preceding. t April 1812 is here referred to. See p. 85 above. Hodgson had had but too good an excuse for his long silence. X The Picture of Newcastle. JARROW. 125 it as a sure indication of an ancient made-way wherever it occurs; and I believe there are few Roman roads in England, which have not either some town or farm or field upon them of which Leam or Leming does not make up a part of its name. &quot; The Antiquarian Society have resolved to republish Gray's Choro- graphia, and the council seem to be inspired with a strong desire of re- editing Horsley's Britannia Romana, with additions. &quot; Rooms, I trust, will be very shortly ready for the reception of the collections and papers of the Society in the Castle of Newcastle. '^ The papers respecting Gateshead are still in my study ; and you will meet with a few particulars respecting that town which were never before published, in a work printed by Akenhead of Newcastle last year, and entitled a * Picture of Newcastle, being a brief Historical and Descriptive Guide,' &amp;c. I mention this title, as a former work was pub- lished nearly under the same title in 1807. I am, dear Sir, with great respect, your obedient humble servant, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; After the anxious summer and autumn of the year 1812, and the establishment of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- upon-Tyne, Hodgson began to tuna his attention in earnest to a History of Northumberland upon a more enlarged scale than that of his contribution to the &quot; Beauties of England and Wales.** In his various journeys through the county in 1810 to collect materials for that publication, he had been struck by the abun- dance of its natural beauties and its richness in subjects of histo- rical interest, and he now began to make further progresses from place to place within its limits for a purpose peculiarly his own. It does not exactly appear in what way he had become acquainted with Sir John Edward Swinburne, Bart, of Capheaton, a well- known patron of historical inquiries; but, as the founders of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle had placed themselves under the presidency of that gentleman, we may assign that judicious choice as the origin of the acquaintance between him and Mr. Hodgson. In July 1813 Hodgson seems to have paid a visit to Capheaton, and on this occasion Sir John entrusted him with a large collection of ancient documents illustrative of family and local history which in the following year he arranged in cases for their better security and preservation, and afterwards pub- 126 MEMOIR OF TH£ BEV. JOHN HODGSON. lislied many of them in the fiist portion of his History in 1820. In sending to Hodgson a Bomewhat which he had left behind him, Sir John writes in a very kind manner and hopes he will not forget his promise of returning to Capheaton, where he shall always be gladly received. He asks at the same time a question respecting the precise meaning of the word drengage^ and I have before me Hodgson's letter in reply, in which he answers Sir John's inquiry in the best way he could; not over correctly, perhaps, as he had not previously studied the subject, and had few books at hand to help him; and assures his correspondent that he feels great gratitude for the attention and kindness he had received, hoping to pay another visit to Capheaton in the ensuing autumn. ** The book (he continues) you requested me to order for your charters is in forwardness; but, though they have followed the instruction I gave about binding it in vellum, they have marbled its edges; which in some degree destroys its law character. But, as the edges of paper are always strengthened by either colour or gilding, I trust it will have in use that which it wants in consistency.&quot; At this period (1813), Hodgson began to make more frequent and copious memoranda of his daily proceedings than in previous years. A book which has been preserved contains copies of many of Sir John Swinburne's charters, succeeded by notes at a con- siderable length made during a course of lectures delivered at Newcastle by Mr. Robert Bakewell, on geological and minera- logical subjects. These he has illustrated with neat pen-and-ink sketches, and many remarks of his own on kindred subjects. The book further proves that, in that and the following year, he was intently occupied in attending the meetings of the Society for the Prevention of Accidents in Coal Mines, held at Sunder- land ; in drawing up advertisements and reports ; and in privately making experiments of his own on the subject. The following account of one of those experiments is printed here from the geological letter of 1831 so often referred to. &quot;In my note-book for 1813, between the dates September 22 and October 12, I have the following minutes: &quot;Has Science no re- sources to control this dangerous element, carburetted hydrogen ?'' It EXPEEIMBHTS ON COAL. 127 is a fiuid that escapes from tlie coal, and we hear of coal affording by distillation light of a brilliant and beautiiul kind.&quot; &quot; Apparatus to pound coal to procure gas; — a, a piston of iron. b, a bladder tied to the piston at the top and at the bottom to c, a beil-ahaped glass nith a neck and hollow at its top. d, a piece of coal with- in the glass. e, a lute of clay to prevent any escape of gas from the glass. /, a tube through the lute, with a cork in it. g, a quill with a cork &quot; Sometime afler the coal had been pounded on a marble slab, the bladder became distended, and on applying a caudle to that quill when the cork was taken out and the bladder squeezed the gas inflamed. On making a second experiment, ailer exhausting the bladder and glass of aii through the tube at /, and another piece of coal was pounded, the gas ' burnt at g, which shews that in the trial at Felling Pit, the mine must have been full of pure gaa when it would not bum in the bladders.' This inference relates to a passage in my account of the accident at Felling, in which it is observed that ' some experiments made on the fire-damp by collecting it in bladders in the John Pit tube before the bore-hole was opened proved that it would not ignite previons to its mixture with atmospheric air ;' in which expression ' would not ignite ' should have been, vjovM hum, but not explode.&quot;* Parochial matters are frequently mentioned, in the Journal 128 MEMOIR OF THE BEV. JOHN HODGSON. above referred to, such as private baptisms, visitations of the sick, &amp;c. Boom may be found for a few memoranda of a more general nature. ** Sept. On Marsden Hills Mr. Sa!vin * and I found the face of the earth, i.e. the soil and claj, interspersed with coal, porphyry, red sand- stone, hornstone, granite, and different kinds of other stones. &quot; Mr. Atkinson f informed me that five or six of the Blair Athol larches sold for 65. per foot, and some of them measured 200 feet=60Z. besides bark and branches. All the gentlemen's houses in the neigh- bourhood furnished with larch, which is never painted.&quot; On the 12th of October, Hodgson paid a visit of a few days to his friends in the vale of Lanchester, the Whites of Woodlands, and the Green wells of Ford, with whom he had kept up a friendly intimacy since the year 1806, in which he had removed to the curacy of Gateshead. Many letters from both families prove the regard in which they held him. Here he made sketches of altars lately discovered in the Eoman camp, and took measurements of a station at Humber Hill. ** Oct. 15. Mr. Marshall, of Satley, gave me some specimens of schist of quartz from the top of Skiddaw, and Mr. Greenwell promised me some the evening before from the Strontian n)ines. &quot; Nov. 18. To-day I gave Mr. Atkinson my written report respect- ing the coal of Honey Pot, near Edenhall, the property of Lady Mus- grave. I recommended them to sink to the seam in two or three places by bore holes; the holes to be equidistant with each other, and the * The Rev. Hugh Salvin. This gentleman will be frequently mentioned in these pages. He was a younger son of the family of SaWin, of Sunderland Bridge, near Durham ; and, having devoted a portion of his youth to the profession of medicine, OTentually entered into Holy Orders. At this time he was, I believe, curate of Gateshead. He afterwards became chaplain in a ship of the line, and upon his re- turn was appointed to the living of Alston, where he died a few years ago at an ad- vanced age. He was a man of a very active and energetic mind, much given to philosophical inquiries, and an excellent scholar. His acquaintance with ancient and modem languages was very considerable. The friendship between Hodgson and him began at Qateshead, and lasted without interruption for many years. With Mr. Hedley, already spoken of, Mr. Salvin was also long and intimately acquainted. f Mr. Matthew Atkinson, of Carres Hill, a neighbour of Hodgson, the gentleman with whom he made an expedition on foot into Westmorland. Mr. Coliinson the rector of Gateshead was also of the party. .-^ JOURNAL. 129 place where lihe coal crops. I also gave him certain queries respecting the situation of the coal there, accompanied with two sections illustra* tive of the queries/' « 1813. Nov. 23. Walked this morning to Coaly Hill in the parish of Newburn, with Messrs. Salvin and Atkinson, and brought home from the d j^e specimens of several impressions from the schist there ; also specimens of the coal burnt into coke. The basalt is fre- quently thrown up into the schist in whirling masses, which resemble the head of a wave as it curves against a cliff, and in this case it is surrounded with a coat of coke, the tenderest parts of which are formed into square pyramids, placed closely and regularly side by side ; each pyramid (or semicrystal) being bound by parallel lines, quadran- gular, and each side about a quarter of an inch broad. In some places where the dyke is fresh opened and the air has not injured the schistose sides of the dyke they are beautifully smooth and perpendicular.** [A pen-and-ink drawing.] &quot; 1813. Nov. 24. Went with Mr. ThornhiU* and Mr. Falla,t jun., to the old ballast-hills at Jarrow, to obtain specimens of minerals. Foimd, among a variety of other things, fine specimens of Cornish hellas and a very fine piece of madrepore. ^ We found in the alumi- nous shale, thrown out of a drifl at Jarrow Colliery, impressions of a small freshwater mussel, the [&amp;Zan^]. AH the impressions were ex- ceedingly fiat, as the shale which contains them Hes at the depth of 130 or 140 feet.&quot; '^ Nov. 26. Beceived from Mr. ThornhiU a specimen of impressions of shells in sandstone, from the alluvial soil on Tanfield moor, and one specimen of madrepora.&quot; '^ Dec. 23. Mrs. Pickering, of Carr Hill, is in want of one shilling a week parochial relief. She has a daughter at home with her, and they are employed in washing and getting up linen. The house-rent is one shilling a week ; her husband was a sort of manager in the pottery of Warburtons. She has had a son in the Fusileers. She is a decent, respectable, religious woman of the Roman Catholic persuasion. Mrs. Atkinson's recommendation.&quot; ** Dec. 22. Wrote a translation of * Votum' by Cowper.&quot; This translation, which is remarkable for its fidelity, and of considerable elegance in itself, was communicated to the &quot; New- * Mr. ThornhiU was Hodgson's clerk and schoolmaster, and an eminent naturalist, t llr. Falla was an enterprising nurseryman in Gateshead. K ISO MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. castle Advertiser'* a few days afterwards, and ia here printed &amp;om a copy cut out of that journal and pasted into one of his books by its author. &quot; VOTUM. Covper. ** O matntini roree, Mineqne salnbres, O nemora, et betse rivis felioibui herbae, €bamiiiei ooUes et amoBiUD in TaUlbns nmbm I Fata modd dederint, qoas olim in nire patemo Deliciasi procul arte, proonl formidine, novi. Quam yellem ignotus, qnod mens mea semper avebat, Ante larem proprium plaoidam expectare seneotam; Tnm dem&amp;m, exactis non infeliciter annis, Sertiri taciturn lapidem, aut sub cespite oondi ! '* (tiunslation.) *' O morning dews, and health-dispenaing gales, O groves and flowers, by happy broolu that live, O grassy hills, and shadows sweet in dales ! O that the Fates the cheerful hours would give Which on my fkther^s land I once enjoyed, From g^ile afar and intriguers fearful strife, What still I loved— my longing soul employed — At home to wait a placid close of life; And then, at length, my days not idly gone, To lie *neath grassy turf or silent stone !'* Another dreadful colliery accident in the chapelry of Heworth, in the same pit as that of 1812, closes the year 1813. On this second occasion twenty-two persons lost their lives; many were very severely burnt, and out of twelve horses eleven were de- stroyed. If the accident had happened ten minutes later, the loss of lives would have been immense. In Hodgson's Journal I find a very minute account of the facts of this sad event, which he embodied in a paragraph of considerable length for the local news- papers. One or two very touching extracts may be made, as they were not communicated to the press. It must have been extremely- painful to Hodgson to be taken by surprise with such a message as that to which the following entry refers, and which must have turned his Christmas into a time of gloom instead of happiness and joy. &quot; 1813, Dec. 24. Soon after eight o'clock this morning, Andrew Thompson came to inform me that Mr. Robson (the colliery steward) ANOTHER EXPLOSIOK. 131 requested me 'to provide graves for ten people; that the colliery had again blasted, and that upwards of twenty people had been killed.' I in- stantly requested the sexton to get Mr. KelFs men from the quarry to assist him, and saw them set to work on th$ aide of the trench of the ninety-one. '&lt; This accident happened at '' Galling Course,** about half-past one^ when the men were going to work. Ten minutes later the greater number of the workmen would have been down. By report, Mr« Haswell (one of the overmen) was much shattered. Some say his head was blown off or nearly so, and that he was thrown out of the shaft mouth.'* He proceeds to give details of the names^ circumstances, and families of the sufferers. Some of his notes are very affecting. &quot; Martin Greener of Ouston, where he had been an overman, had only been at work here a fortnight. He and two sons have perished. '^ Mrs. Atkinson informed me that William Haswell, yesterday night, in the hearing of his wife, gave strict orders to Martin Greener not to widen a certain hole; that he could not always be down to see that nothing imprudent was done, and that he had seen evil consequences enow the time before by not attending to a similar place. Mrs. Haswell had lately persuaded her husband with much entreaty to seek some other employment. u Love (or Reed) had his clothes packed up and sent to Gosforth to spend his Christmas, and his wife wished him to have gone away this morning. '' ■ ■ in Young*s house told me that he found the horse-keeper and four or five boys among the horses. It was quite dark, the horses all but one killed, and that much burnt: he called upon them to speak, and with difficulty dragged them to the shaft. '^ Orricks was the son of a soldier^s wife. She married the soldier, her present husband, about two years after Orricks's birth. Her name Ray; his Other's Orricks. Before her marriage she sold the child to one Laws of Gateshead, who sold him at about five years old to a chimneyHSweeper, who called him Laws for a nick-name. What a life of misery this poor boy must have led, and what a deatb to terminate his sufferings I But enough on this painful subject. It will be recollected that, since the great explosion of the preceding year, Hodgson had been constantly co-operating with k2 132 MEMOIR OF THE BEY, JOHN HOD6SOK. the Society for the Prevention of Accidents in Coal Mines, towards the formation of which he had been so signally instrumental. The coal-owners had been at first, as it appears, disinclined to give publicity to such sudden and appalling calamities; but nature had again made her voice to be heard de profundisj and all attempts at concealment were now in vain. This second calamity in the self-same pit must have redoubled the exertions of those who were really in earnest in the sacred cause of humanity. &quot; 1814. 14 Jan, Kepainted, to-day, one of Mr. Clayton's defaced Dutch pictures. « 1814. 4 Feb. Went to pray with Richard Bell's wife in the High Lane, She was very ill and deaf. The house filled with all kinds of fiimiture, and containing three beds ; only one room. The hoodstone used as a table very broad on one side. The old man eating hasty-pudding and milk, and having several tea and other vessels on the hoodstone with his breakfast; a most picturesque sight; a checked fiannel cap on grey hair small clouted strong apron, buttoned from near his chin. [Here a drawing'] . He has a house of several rooms, (aU of which, but one, he lets off,) a stable, a garden and field, and withal parochial aid from Newbrough. &quot;1814. 17 Jan. Rode on Mr. Kell*8 mare to Jarrow, to a marriage of two Quakers, Robert Charlton and Martha Evans.'' Hodgson now began to write an essay on Meteoric ^Stones; and his journal contains a list of authorities on the subject, to which he appears to have referred. No copy of this essay is preserved. The original, as he elsewhere informs us, was given by him to his friend Mr. Salvin. Mr. BakewelFs Lectures in the preceding year had probably directed his mind to this subject. &quot;1814. Feb. 10. Ill at home of a stomach complaint, which has been increasing for the last three weeks. 11th. Mr. Murray came to see me to-day, and recommended me to take calomel for some time, and to drink barley-water made palatable by oranges or a little port wine; and to keep my feet dry.&quot; The above extracts will serve to introduce the following pathetic Invocation, which stands in Hodgson's journal as having been composed on the 12th of Feb., during this afflicting illness, and- which appeared a fortnight afterwards in the Newcastle Adver- tiser, with the signature Y.Z. CORRESPONDENCE. 133 LINBS WBITTEN DURING SICKNESS. As captives sigh for friends and home, Or maids for youths that distant roam. Or crew, whose vessel strikes a sand, For morning long and sight of land; Spirit of life, I wait for thee, From sin and pain to set me free ! O come, and let me feel thy power. As daylight wakes the sleeping flower; Or freedom''s unexpected voice The woe- sick captive makes rejoice; Or transports that the heart pervade Of youth returned to faithful maid; Or morning breeze to crew, that find Their bark securely court the wind, And night and danger left behind. Eternal spirit, let me feel Thee breathing round, my limbs to heal ! And making all within me move With faith and hope, and holy love. Y. Z. &quot; 1814. Feb. 22. Richard to-day, while I was at Jarrow and Jane at Newcastle, took a convulsion fit. How slight a thread our life hangs upon ! O God, make me, O give me grace, to live, to think, and act as becometh a man and a minister of thy word. O let not the world choke the proper effects of the word of God in my mindl To Sib J. B. SWINBURNE, Bart. Dear Sib John, Heworth, 9th March, 1814. I have just returned from spending a few days in company with Mr. Surtees of Mainsforth at the CoUege in Durham. In our conversa- tion on the different resources for county history, I mentioned to him your deeds respecting Hadham of Seaham; and he seemed quite delighted to hear of their existence, as he had found great difficulty in drawing up the pedigree, and a regular history of the possessions of that family. He has therefore requested me to beg your permission that he may use them, and that I may transmit them to Dr. Fenwick's of Durham, for his perusal. Should you think it proper to entrust them for a few weeks to Mr. Surtees's hands, I will pledge myself for their being safely returned. It is of importance that he see them soon, as the neighbour- hood they belong tois at present in the press. Mr. S. also told me that 184 HBMOIB OF THE BEY. ^OHN H0D080K. he has a few original charterB respecting your fiunilj, wliich he will be happy to add to your collection. I will make an inventory of them after I have your permission and instructions about sending them. I hope you will excuse me in taking this liberty, but, knowing your desire to promote the cause of literatorei I felt less hesitation in addressing you on the subject. ^'I am at present engaged in copying your Edlingham charters. They are exceedingly curious and valuable. ^'I am, dear Sir John, with much obligation, your most obedient servant, &quot; John Hodgson.'* &lt;«Fboh Sib J. E. SWINBURNE. '' Deab Sib, Orasrenor Place, 12th March, 1814. &lt;&lt; My time is at this moment so much and so very impleasantly taken up by the melancholy event that has occurred in the family (if you see Dr. Fenwick, pray tell him Lady Swinburne's father * was buried yesterday), that I can only say in a few words that Mr. Surtees is perfectly welcome to any documents of mine that can afford him the least information. I don't know whether his work is publishing by subscription ; if it is, pray put my name down, and pray return liim my best thanks for the charters he is so good as to offer me, and which I have no doubt will be a valuable addition to my collection. I shall write to Mr. Bum, your secretary, in a day or two. Believe me, ever very sincerely yours, ** J. E. SWINBUBNE.&quot; Fboh 1^ SURTEES, Esq. '' Dear Sik, Mahuforth, March 31, 1814. &quot; I believed you would be glad to hear that the deeds have arrived safe. I find they will afford a much better account than I had before. I shall be very glad to return with them any scraps I have connected with Swinburne; and when you can find leisure to leave home 1 shoidd be very happy to shew you all my papers, with a view to select what might be useful for your own subject. With much obliga- tion, I am your very obedient, &quot; B. Surtees.&quot; • Richard Henry AlezaBder Bcnnet, Eaq. of Beekenhais, Kent. COBBESFONDENCE, 135 Fbom thb Rbt. R. G. BOUYER, Pbebbndabt and Official of the Dsan and Chapter of Dubhah. &quot; Reverend Sir, North Allerton, May 9,1816. &quot; I have duly received the letter in which you do me the honor to consult me on the interesting subject of the parochial school which you wish to establish at Heworth, and I rejoice in observing the un- abated zeal with which you pursue that salutary measure : at the same time that I cannot help lamenting to find you so feebly supported in so laudable an undertaking, on the supposition that Mr. Ellison's subscrip- tion (which I should hope would be very liberal) is included in the simi which you mention to be gathered. But, as you say nothing of having applied to that gentleman, I hope the addition of his bounty wiU bring you within a very fair chance of completing your good design by the help of the other sources to which you allude, and which certainly are all open to you ; and you may depend upon my best efforts to advocate the cause in each of those sources. With respect to the Dean and Chapter, and Lord Crewe's Trust, the application must be made by letter or petition from you, accompanied by a detailed account of the subcriptions entered, and such letter or petition must be lodged in the hands of Mr. Bowlby for the former, and Mr. Woodi- field for the latter; each being requested to produce them, the one at the July chapter, the other at the first Trust meeting. We have erected a school at Beadnell, nearly of the same dimensions, and on a plan similar to yours ; and, having seen the effect of ours, I would take the liberty to recommend this alteration, that the school be in the upper part, and the master and mistress's apartment on the ground-fioor. I apprehend they would experience great inconvenience from its being otherwise appropriated. &quot; Accept my best wishes for your success, and believe me, Reverend sir, your faithful friend and servant, &quot; R. G. BOUTER,&quot; &quot; 1814. July 6. After 3 o'clock pan. wrote my sermon for Thanks- giving: took till near 12 p.m. 12th. Sent Thanksgiving Sermon to print at Akenhead's. Aug. 2. At Visitation at Durham. A copy of my Thanksgiving Sermon to Drs. Gray and Prosser, and Messrs. Salvin and Rawes.* * No printed copy of this sermon has been found among Mr. HodgBon*B books or papers. 136 HEMOIB 07 THE BET. JOHN HODGSON. But Hodgson is again called upon to^take Us part in a visitation of another kind. Here is another painful colliery accident in his parish : To THE I^BV. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; D^AB Sir, Hebbum Colliery,^ag. 18, 1814. ** I am requested to beg of you, if you possibly can, to come down and inter those poor unfortunate men at Jarrow church to-morrow aflemoon, afler church-time at Heworth, as coffins, &amp;c., I am a&amp;aid, will not be got ready sooner. There is eleven of them ; but only eight found yet ; but we expect to get the others soon. Your answer will truly oblige, yours truly &quot; Geo. Fobsteb.&quot;


1814. Visit to Mounces, a shooting-seat of Sir. J. E. Swinburne, Bart — ^Tbe Durham iLdvertiser. In delineating Mr. Hodgson's life and character I now come to a portion of his Journal which is of singular use to my pur- pose. My plan has been to suffer him to draw his own portrait, and to put in with his own pencil such minute lines and touches as have a tendency to render it perfect. In other words, I have gladly availed myself, as far as possible, of such scraps of personal history or unintentional indications of personal character &amp;om his own pen as have fallen in my way ; not from any wish to avoid trouble, but from a conviction that inferences drawn from such sources are infinitely more to be relied upon than any surmises or speculations of my own. Much use has hitherto been occasion- ally made of such pieces of authentic evidence. From thi? period of his life they become more numerous and mote valuable, and towards its close, as we shall see, they so abound that selection becomes necessary, and calls for discretion and judgment in his biographer, increasing his responsibility if they diminish his labour. In the year at which we have arrived, on the 22nd of August, at the commencement of the season of grouse-shooting, Hodgson visits his friend Sir J. E. Swinburne, at Mounces, a shooting-seat belonging to that gentleman, situated in the very highest part of Northumberland, on the border of Scotland, at the head of the North Tyne. He rides on a borrowed pony, and divides the distance into such stages as suit his convenience. He carries with him no gun or game-bag. At an earlier period of his life he had been selected as the likeliest boy in Bampton School to teach a friture Lord Chief Justice of England to shoot snipes on Bampton Mires, but he has long ago laid that amusement aside, and has now other objects in view. His absence from home is a 138 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHK HODGSON. short one, extending only over seven dap; but he does and sees much during that brief period. The following is a journal of his proceedings, with the omission of a few pages of church notes, epitaphs^ &amp;c. unimportant to our purpose. It must also be added that a few paragraphs containing admeasurements of early British camps, and some other details uninteresting to the general reader, are printed in a condensed form. It is apprehended that, with this journal before him, the reader will have little difficulty in ascertaining from it, as far as it extends, the general character of Hodgson's mind at this period, and his habits of minute observa- tion and careful reflection upon the subjects in which he felt an interest His intended History of Northumberland took him from home; but he travels as something more than a mere collecting antiquary, culling simples on old castle walls, or in damp churches or church-yards, the subjects which too many men of that class delight in. Here we have him not merely as an archaeologist or castrometer, but as an agriculturist, a planter of forest-trees, a geologist, a naturalist, and a devout admirer of nature and her scenery, which he describes with a poetic pen. They who knew him best will bear testimony that the style in which he here writes is in every sentence characteristic of his own simple but inquisitive mind. In this very manner he would talk for hours in the open air, in the society of those in whom he took a delight, and with whom he was at his ease. But, before we proceed, it may be well to give him an oppor- tunity of announcing his arrival. « To Mbs. HODGSON. &quot; Mt dear JanK, Mounoes, August 28, 1814. &quot; I take the opportunity of Sir J. Swinburne's servant returning to Capheaton to say I have arrived here safe and well but such a torrent of rain is at present (10 o'clock at night) pouring down as I think you never witnessed. When I arose this morning at Bellingham, I was much grieved to see a damp east wind set in ; and, just as I began to proceed up the Tjne, the rain began to fall briskly, and ccmtinued to do so till I reached Falstone, a place designated by the title of towrif though it only consists of a chapel, a meeting-house, a minister's hou8e&gt; -J VISIT TO MOUNCES, ETC. 139 a public-house, and an oldpeel inhabited by the Laird of Falstone* Sir John and the family arriyed here about 8 o*clock, half-drowned, drenched as if thej had been dragged through the Tyne. I write this merely to let you know where I am, and to have the opportunity of sending my loye to you and the dear children. The brook that passes the house roars like thunder. Let me beg of you to take care of your- self! Thine, dear Jane, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; Minutes of a Journey to Mounces, a Seat of Sir John Swinburne, Bart., in North Ttndale, Aug. 1814. [From MS. Materials, N. 263.] '' Came from home August 22, at about five o'clock in the morning. Arrived at C3iollerford Bridge at half past ten. The morning exceed- ingly fine. &quot; Two fossil-shells coated with chalk, from the limestone in the hill descending to Halton Ghesters. One small fossil from a stratum of limestone on the north side of the road, on the highest part of the hill before descending towards Mr. Tulip*s house at Brunton. '* The harvest commencing here. Some cut. &quot; On the west side of the brow of a hill, on the Bellingham road from ChoUerford, near the twenty-fourth mile-stone, there is whin overlaying limestone, dark blue, much decayed on the outside and brown, inside blackish. A plantation of beech and oak on the opposite side of the road, and a little fhrther north on the east side of the road in a hollow opposite water-troughs, and in the comer of a field, is a large round hill, apparently factitious, fifby yards perhaps in diameter. **Nunwick is placed in too low a site: the road should have come from the farm-house, Fairshaw, on the east side of the road to the lane- end, leading to Hall Bams and Simonbum; and the house to have been placed on the crown of the hill, a little north of * the present road, opposite to where it now stands. Chipchase then in front, &amp;c. On the green in the (town gaet) street, about two years since, was discovered underground a room fourteen feet square, without eith^ door or window to be seen, flagged with thick square hewn stones ; the walls all eight feet thick, no arch ; filled with earth ; built with mortar ; stones squared inside and outside. '' Lane from Simonbum close and narrow. Flies numerous. Much wood embellishea the imeven surface about Chipchase, and Mr. Ridley's house at Park-end, where is growing the (xtrnpanula major. 140 MBMOIB OF THE RBV. JOHN HODGSOK. &lt;' Wallis* was a kind man, very peaceable. One Sunday Wallb wad jnat beginning to read the morning prayers, when Dr. Scott, whose dogs had followed him to church, said to him &quot; Put ont those dogs,&quot; to which he replied *&lt; Let their owners pat them out.&quot; He began to read, bat was mach embarrassed and made mistakes, and as soon as he had finished left the charch; bat, the doctor having no sennon,the congregation had to wait till he went to his house for one. Wallis never again went into the charch. John Fhilipson says this, who at that time lived at the Gowpark, and was at charch that day. ^ In the camps in this neighboarhood, of which there have been many, John Philipson, who was a mason by basiness, has often foand small mill-stones about a foot in diameter, and both the nether and upper one all of the common rough grit free-stone. &lt;( Mote Hill, at Wark, is a large hill on the river-edge, with a farm- house, a garden, and a few cottages upon it: in the way to it, near the top on the north side, is an alluvial block of granite about a ton in weight. '*0n the north side of it is Giles Heron*s school, new built, with Grothic windows in front, and the master's house of two rooms at the end of it: the rent of the estate at present is about 2001, '^Archibald McDougal, an old soldier in Queen Anne's wars^f aged 103, lives in this village. The people have a tradition of their village having been a city. ^'Simonbum Castle, where the new wall is built, about eight feet high: the wall eight feet thick, and a passage in that space: it was arched below. '' The Hall-hill at Bellingham is a natural bank with a small tumulus upon it; and south-east, about a himdred yards, are traces of ruins traditionally pointed out as the seat of Bellingham. Sir Belling- ham told Mr. Fenwick that his family went hence to Levins in West- merland. He is one of the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital. A number of cottages formerly stood in the ground that is gardens at present, on the west side of the site of the house of the Bellinghams below the farm-house. [Several pages here of church notes, inscriptions, architectural sketches, &amp;c.] '^ Wark chapel (in ruins) has a tombstone in it to the memory of a mason. Only a small fragment of the south wall remaining: the * This was the Historian of Northumberland, and Dr. Scott was his lordly rector. See more on this subject in a future page. f Evidently a mistake. A VISIT TO MOUNCES, ETC, 141 foundations all high, overgrown with briers and nettles. A motmtain- ash on the site of the chancel to the north-east. A round hill, not unlike a factitious one, but probably one of those that have been formed by the agency of water, such as are common by river sides. The chapel and mound on the north side of a brook half a mile from Wark* •* The Burghers' chapeL The Catholic chapel. School. Subscrip- tion Library, &amp;c. '^ Tarset Hall belongs to Mr. Thompson, who bought it lately of one Mr. Somner. '&lt; On the south side of the Keelder, above the castle, there is a burial* place ; also at Bellsbum Foot, and it is thought there was a chapel there. '' There is a rocking-stone at Cranecleugh near Mounces. At High* field there have been many buildings, and there are remains of a peel| the arch still standing. ^^ At Daley Castle there is a moat marked Ruins on the maps. [More church inscriptions.] &quot; Hareshaw-linn is a waterfall over a sandstone rock about seventy feet high, in Hareshaw-bum. There are numerous jack-daws, hawks,^ &amp;c. about it, and ravens' nests every year. There, was much wood about it. The west side belongs to Charlton of Lee Hall, the east side to Charlton of Reedsmouth. They have cut the oak below it, which has spoiled it of its romantic appearance There are however still fringes of brushwood about it, bind wood clinging to the rock, aspen poplar, the trembling asp, ashes, and rowntree. Populus tremula, the tremble of the French. &quot; At Warksbum is a place called Rose*s Bower, a sort of spa, a mineral water of the kind of Gillsland. ^* In Hawkup is a mineral well of the chalybeate kind : it is on the road to Mounces, and belongs to Dixon Brown. '^Near Wanney Craigs also a spa, at the head of Wansbeck: it comes into Lisleburn at Woodbum: it is of the Gillsland kind. In a peat moss. Its course is white as milk for a great distance in dry weather. &quot; At Wellhouse, in the parish of ChoUerton, near the Watling street. On the Erring's side, is a spa much frequented formerly. It belongs to Mr. Riddell of Swinburne Castle : frequented by young people on the Sunday afternoons. &quot; The curious inscribed stone in Mr. Wood's possession was found at Hawkhope, in Mr. RiddeU's estate.* I think it has been brought from * Engraved in the Archeeologia ^liana, toI. i. p. 108, and described in the same Transactions, New Series, vol. i. p. 192. 142 MEMOIR OV THE RBV. JOHN HODGSON. some religioos edifioei and that it has been the ornament of a pilaster, lor the deyices upon it mneh resemble many to be seen on the tomb of Prior Bichard at Hexham. &quot; A hill with a craggy front to the west has rows of terraces npon it in this manner [a drawing with thepen]* This is the only appearance of this mode of cnltore I have yet seen in this district. '' At Smeal, about some three miles south of Falstone, there are ten or eleven oblong cairns, set up, as my informant supposed, in memory of some battle ; and the ground around them, although corered witli ling, has been ploughed. &quot; Falstone is a very small poor village, having a chapel belonging to the establishment, and a Presbyterian meeting-house of the Church of Scotland, rebuilt in 1807. Mr. Wood minister of it, and Mr. Hobbs of the other. Mr. Wood lives in the village, and has a tolerably good house, and a garden, fiiirly cultivated, in front of it. A school-house has been lately built, and has underneath it a large room called the common-stable, from being used by persons coming to the places of worship on Sundays. Besides these there is a cottage or two; a peel- house inhabited by the laird of the place, a Mr. Bobson; and a poor ale-house one story high, thatched, and having two rooms and a stable with three stalls. This village is seated near the Tyne, and has a few good meadow-fields in front of it, with goodly trees in hedge-rows. ** Tarset castle is in ruins. It has been a strong and great building, as large remains evidently testify. The ditch around it is about twelve feet deep and twenty broad. At the west side it has been defended by a declivity under which the Tarset runs. This bank has given way very much in latter times, and broken in the N.W. end of the ditch, but the S.W. end has in it marks of a bridge and foundations of a tower to defend it. The ruins afford vast quantities of hewn stones, and the hamlet of two houses, with the field-walls below, have been built out of it. At some distance from it I was told there are two or three ponds which are artificial. &quot; This vale from Bellingham to the neighbourhood of Falstone is very fertile in the meadows or holms by the river side ; growing wheat, barley, rye, oats, clover, turnip, and abundant crops of natural grasses in great luxuriance. Here and there woods embellish the scenery. The river runs in a sinuous course, and is at present, owing to long continuance of rain in the border mosses, very brown; but still contri- butes much to the beauty of the scenery, and to please the ear with its incessant though monotonous murmur. Strong brooks both from the A VISIT TO MOUNCES, ETC* 143 north- and south, at intervals, add to its strength; and at their junction the ground generally rises into knolls exceedingly green and enlivening. The landscape of the Tarset seems to be much diversified. &quot; The Tyne and its various branches run over beds of loose freestones much worn and roimded; which accounts for the quantities of sand which accumulate about its mouth and on its shores ; for their constant motion in floods and in rapid streams must cause them to wear away very fast. ^* I saw a roimded block of granite on the north side of the mote-hill at Wark : there was one lying within the area of Tarset Castle, and one on the road-edge, after I first entered Sir John Swinbume^s estate at Hxmtland. &quot; There are coals wrought in Mr. RiddeU's estate at Hawkup, and in Sir J. Swinburne's estate at , and behind his house at Mounces, where there is a thin bed of limestone of a black colour, with shells (coehlecBj &amp;c.) in it. '' In the ground about Mounces the young larch and beeches, which are not well protected, are much blighted and covered with a shaggy coat of lichens. But on the west side of the house there is a wood, in which the spruce-fir thrives exceedingly well, becomes tall, and bears very plentiful and luxuriant crops of cones. The larch also thrives uncommonly well about it ; and some of them have attained a very con- siderable height and thickness. This country certainly only wants draining and stimulating with lime to make it exceedingly well-calcu- lated to grow almost any species of forest-trees. In many parts there are oaks and ashes of a good size, and by natural growth, that is, not planted trees. &quot; Soon after I passed Bellingham I saw the young people going with- out stockings or shoes. The wetness of the moors renders shoes almost unnecessary to such as have to frequent them much. &quot; Were the application of lime, burning, and draining, much re- sorted to, vast tracts of land here might be rendered exceedingly pro- ductive in grass. Above Falstone there is certainly little ground, excepting a few flat fields by the river-side, anyway calculated for the growth of com. &quot; In the field before the house at Mounces there is a small plot of land formed into two regular terraces ; and on the opposite side of the river a wood of birch and oaks of natural growth. &quot; A cold fog drove from the east this morning, and at half-past eight, when I set ofi^ from Bellingham, a heavy rain began to fall, which 144 MEHOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. . continaed nearly till I reached Falstone ; where I fed my horse^ called upon the Kev. Mr. Wood, and then set off again for Mounces, which place I reached about one o^clock, the weather fair all the way until about five, when the clouds began to cross each other, some thunder was heard, and the rain fell in vezy heavy showers, which it still continues to do at six o^clock. &quot; The country here is much infested with the common summer-fly, and with the small gnats caUed midges. Indeed these latter insects, when the weather is hot, abound to such a degree, and bite so severely, that the labourers are under the necessity of wearing a sort of veil before their faces, which they call midgecaps. The number of insects ac^ counts for the great quantity of swallows which frequent this district in summer ; and the insects are perhaps assisted in breeding by the moist state of the ground and the immense quantities of stagnant water on the moors. ** I saw to-day near Moimees a small species of duck, a brown hawk^ a heron, and a wood-pigeon. &quot; On Broom Hill, between Falstone and Yarrow, there is the arch of an old peel covered over with sods and green: it was inhabited about two years since. &quot; The Romans, as far as I can learn, have had no camps above Garet Hut in South (? North) Tyndale. That camp was well chosen for ob- serving the movements of an enemy out of this district from the Wall. Redesdale being a straighter and more open vale than Tyndale, was better adapted for a military way into Scotland. This only leads to a mountainous district beyond the borders. &quot; Sir Edward Swinburne had this estate surveyed by miners, and a written report given of it. Sir John told me that his father and uncle, when young, came up hither to shoot, and lodged in a house three miles above this place, which was so miserably bad that it was scarcely drop-dry, — a low thatched hovel. &quot; Sir John has made seven miles of road within three years, and miles in all : also rebuilt the farm-houses in a good style, and covered them with blue slate, every ton of which costs him at least 7L [A neat drawing of the house at Mounces in Indian ink faces the above paragraph.] &quot;Plashets colliery belongs to the Duke of Northumberland. It adjoins Eennel Park. All the coals that go from it are taken by ponies on their backs. The Duke, from some suspicious motive about his game, refuses to mend the roads. When Sir John came to certify his VISIT TO MOUNCE8, ETC. 145 part of the road to the Quarter Sessions, Mr. Smith, the Duke's head cominissioner, who is a magistrate, was certain, as he expressed himself, that a part of the road, at the north-west end, which the farmers made at the expense of 15/., and which joined the new and old line of road, would have the duke's concurrence ; but his grace sent people and ordered that part to hav^ ditches cut across it at both ends. No appeal has however been made against the magistrates' order to shut the old road by Wellhave up. &quot; Eeelder Castle stands on a steep smooth green bank at the junction of the Eeelder and the North Tyne. It is castellated in front, not at the sides, built in a quadrangle, fronts the east, and has a view down the Tyne towards Bewshaugh. It has an enchanting appearance. The moment I saw it it was shaded with a cloud, and the next moment a beautiful gleam of sunshine burst upon it. Great plenty of wood about it, consisting of planted pines, natural birch and alder, fine old thorns, rowntree, &amp;c. Pearlfell towers up majestically behind it, and is fantas- tically adorned with three or four pikes, rude pillars of stones, built by the shepherds. &quot; The mountain of Bewshaugh forms a vast bow in the country. Its form is grand, and its colouring at every distance extremely fine. At the farm of that name, which was lately occupied by a Mr. Patters, an intelligent person, who died suddenly last spring while sowing oats, there is a garden well stocked with luxuriant crops of peas, beans, potatoes, carrots, parsnips, various sorts of cabbage and brocoli, rhubarb, &amp;c. &amp;c, all in excellent health and great luxuriance. *' Bells Chapel at Waterhead is a mean thatched building belonging to the Church of Scotland. '* I saw oats and luxuriant crops of potatoes growing at BeUs-bum foot, where the Tyne joins with that brook. There were limestone blocks in the river bank descending from Waterhead to the Tyne. Dead Water, so called from its stillness, commences at the junction of the Bells-bum and the Tyne. &quot; The head of the Eeelder is divided into two parts, and is about ten miles above the castle, in a vast amphitheatre of high boggy mountains. ** Sir John Swinburne built the bridge over the Lewis-bum, and has planted several acres of the sheep ground on its sides immediately above the bridge. ** Eeelder Castle was wholly built by the Duke of Northumberland. The place where it stands was formerly called Buttery Haugh. L 146 HEHOIS OF THB BEY. JOHN HODGSON. [A rough drawing of Keelder Casile faces the sacceeding page. It is in colours, with Pearl-fell and Mid-fell hf name in the background.] ^ There are still patches of wood on the banks of Oakenshaw- bum. '^ Christenbory CSrag, a high hill with huge shattered stones npon its top. The house to which the Capheaton fiimilj used to resort in the shooting season, about a mile up Oakenshaw-bum on the north side, has a garden before it in which are potatoes growing; also a few small fields. [A sketch of the house and vale with the pen.] The wood is on the south side of the bum, and its banks much broken ; a long range of mountain behind it. '' Fir Tree moss was set on fire about fifteen years since, and laid bare the roots of a vast quantity of fir trees, which had formed a thick wood and had probably been overthrown by winds, as the trunks of innumerable large trees stiU remain in the moss, and are often dug out for the purpose of making ladders of, and for making lows or fish-lights for fishing in the night. One was found in Black Cleugh up Keelder, and made into a table, now at Keelder Castle. It contained about twenty feet of wood, besides much that came down the riyer : the resin so strong that the saw could not work in it till it was greased with sbeep-ssdve, i.e. tar and butter: the bark underneath three inches thick: about two-and-a-half feet in diameter. [See Whitaker's Manchester, ii. 47, on the length of time these trees may have remained. This note added apparently long afterwards.'] The scenery rocky and romantic. At Grey^s Crag, the junction of the Craincleugh-bum and Little Whickhup, some wood remains, alder and birches, and one young trembling poplar. In Craincleugh-bum, at Marling Crag, a thick stratum of ironstone, the specimens marked. A mineral spring of the sulphuric kind at Otterstone Lee, also a small vein of lead near it. A stronger one at Dead Water, which stains the ground with a white mucus as it passes from it, and a house very miserable for a bath, which is an old wine-pipe. It is about twenty yards into Scotland. « There was a chapel at Bells-bum foot: the walls removed, but still vestiges of it: the font stone, and a burial-ground: graves marked with rough unhewn stones : some buried there within the last forty years. There is also a burial-ground on the east side of the Keelder, a short way from the castle. Stones of a chapel remaining: none buried there within man*s memory : some grave-stones unlettered remaining, VISIT TO MOUNCES, ETC. 147 and the traces of the wall of the bttrial-grouncl still very discernible. It is in the outfield ground. &quot; On the south side of the Tyne, a mile below Keelder, is a camp on Bells Hunkin, round, 60 yards in diameter, inclosed with stones in vast quantities, nothing led from it: large tree in it: a rowntree and birch: several compartments divided into some round, some square ; about 300 yards from the river. On the same side about a mile below, in Hitch Hill wood, another circular camp, but much less of stones, many led away : nothing known to have been discovered in it. At one mile ftirther down on Lowey Enoughs one of earth about 40 yards in diame- ter: at present faint. One on the Lewis-bum on Harpney Rig has been of stone, about 40 yards in diameter ; grown over much with wood — all about 800 yards from the river — of earth and stones, fair to be seen. About 800 yards ftirther down, on Well Haugh Moor, another, entirely of earth, still perfect, about 30 yards in diameter. ** On the opposite side of the river, opposite each of the above, is also a corresponding camp. The first one opposite Bells Hunkin. On Ryens Hill one of earth, about 60 yards, but of earth and very faint. Below Keelder one on Camp Rig, 50 yards over. Opposite the Hitchel Camp one of stones, mostly led away. Several mill-stones and spears and other pieces of iron, which fell in pieces from decomposition. On Hobs Know, opposite Lowey, of earth, 50 yards over, pretty fair. On Bairdales another, rather below that on Harpney Rig; of earth, 50 yards over; pretty perfect. One opposite Well Haugh, on Haws- knough, in Kennel Park ; of earth ; faint ; 50 yards over. Kennel Park, the property of Sir John Swinburne, the Duke, and Colonel Reed. It is on both sides of the Tyne. Mostly wall on the north side, and altogether on the south side: nearly round, and about three miles every way. It is wholly in sight from almost every part. In several parts of it mounds of earth have been thrown across dells to dam back the streams and form ponds, supposed by tradition to save the deer from the dogs. In the head of Sunny-side Rig in the park is a place called King Arthur's Round Table, a circular ditch inclosing an area about 4 or 5 yards over, with seats cut out of the earth on the outside of the ditch. &quot; Within a few yards of Keelder Castle on the north side, the earth was washed away by a drain brought to the house, and exposed three or four rings and two long round pieces of brass, very smooth ; about two inches over the largest, others less, clumsily soldered together with a whiter metal. Many deers' horns are found above Keelder Castle l2 148 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HOPaSOK. in the banks of the stream after floods, much decayed — red deer's horns. «&lt; Bobson, unto whose father Tarset Castle belonged, built a house at WoodhouseSy which is now dilapidated, and also the cottage of his gardener, which was a very excellent one. Robson's was the first good house on that high ground. Formerly the people lived low down below Falstone and came up in summer; lived in shiels, and drove th^ir stock back on the approach of winter. ** The increase of stock in this country is the cause of the destruction of the woods, which grow well on hained grounds. '&lt; The Plashett colliery seam is about five and a half feet thick. Bright, like the Newcastle coal, sells for 6d. a load, t.e. 8 bushels. The Hawk- up Hill at the same price, but an inferior coal. Just below the Plashetts a mile-and-a-half, Greenclough, belonging to Greenwich Hospital, not wrought, but excellent coal, another seam than the Duke*s. Sir John Swinbume*s coal at Shillburne-haugh is about 18 inches, but light, very inflammable, and reckoned excellent. '^ Heugh and Cleugh are the same, except that Heugh means a dry dale, Cleugh one with a stream in it. A sike, cleugh, and bum are gradations, rising till the term river be applicable. *^ Yeaming-^ass is appMed to curdle milk for cheese. Daisies uni- versally called the Ewe-gowan. '« From Woodhouse to Falstone, 40 years ago, nearly a thick con- tinued wood. Indeed the whole valley by the river side some 60 years ago was a thick wood of oak : further up the hills birch and alder. At Emmet Haugh, a hazel-wood ; to which people come fix)m Bellingham for nuts, and in many other parts hazel-woods. '* The population of late years by inlarging the farms has decreased. If they once saw a great man — so afraid, they went and hid themselves, or if near rolled themselves in their plaids and laid down close to the earth to avoid notice. &quot; Sir John Swinburne's grandfather and of in Scotland, were many years in dispute about their boundaries; and the expenses of law were great, as they had to pass through both the English and Scotch courts. &quot; General Roy surveyed between the most westerly point of North- umberland against Scotland and Berwick, which Robertson went over, and foimd it perfectly correct. Roy's drawings were given to the King, and lost a long time. Arrowsmith influenced old Dundas to ask re- specting them. The King remembered inspecting them at Buckingham VISIT TO MOUNCE8, ETC. 149 House, and on being asked gave permission for their being sought. They were found in a table drawer the lock of which was much rusted. *' Woodhouses is very pleasantly situated among fields tliat have been much cultivated, but now without fences and grazed upon. Bil- lingside is craggy and has two cottages and terraces on the upper side of the craggs: pleasant haughs on the right bank about Emmet Haugh. Vast quantities of slag in Hawkup. &quot; Dalley Castle is on the brow of a hill against the Girden : the stones of it all led away : the groimd on. the left side dry and fertile : on the right side rather swamped and wet, but inclosed and in grass. ''At the head of the haugh against a small birch wood, and on the right brink of the river Tyne, traces of a round camp of earth and stones 50 or 60 yards over ; and on Knopping-holm Hill, opposite Tar- set Castle, another, of earth, round and faint. Girden and Tarset bums meet the Tyne near each other. Tarset very fertile and delightful; variegated and uneven ground in knolls ; brooks with woody hems for four miles, in which district is Mr. Charlton's house of fiedheugh. Also further up for ten miles houses inhabited by farmers or shepherds. &quot; There is a mouldering pile of ruin on the east side of Bellingham, on the lefl bank of Bellingham-bum. Qu. its antiquity ? ** At the gate leading from Scotland Common there is a round camp- like place of large dimensions, which has been ploughed, and is excellent groimd. It fronts Hareshaw Common, and overlooks a long district over the Tyne and its extensive moors. ** The hill behind Tone Hall, called Low Shiel Green Crag, commands a view over the head of Redesdale and as far as Wheel-fell and Keelder on the Tyne, towards the mountains above Alston Moor and into York- shire. The limestone at the gate entering into the inclosed ground, on the west side of Tone, contains various fossils, specimens of one of which I brought away. '' Tone Hall is at present occupied by colliers. It is a large mansion with offices on the north, in this manner (a sketch), and is much in- closed in wood, which flourishes well enough around the house ; but in places behind to the north is stunted, though it has been planted on casts of earth, but in peat moss. &quot; The colliery at Tone employs about eight people. &quot; Carrycotes stands on rocky groimd on the east side of the turnpike road ; is surrounded with sycamore and other trees in health at present, but rather neglected. About seven years since it was inhabited by 150 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHX HODGSON. -Greorge Delay al Shaftoe, who died at Hexbam in the Langstairs prison, and was buried at Tbockrington, and bis wife too, wbo died at Gar- ry cotes. &quot; Sanderson lived about a year at it after be cbanged bis name to Hodgson. Tben bis fatber came and lived tbere till about tbe time of bis deatb. It bas been inbabited since by tenants, and now mostly by pitmen.&quot; [Several pages are bere devoted to monumental inscriptions, of one of wbicb, I believe from Stamfordbam, a copy may be given for the amusement of tbe reader:] &quot; * Edw^^ F. Scott filius Gul* Scott, M.D. de Stokoe, in North- UMBR. OB. ANHO 15 ^TAT. HuMAN. ReDEMS. 1786. ** GuL. Scott. MJ). ob. Nov. 10. 1802. ^t. 69. Vir eruditissemus et ACCOUCHEUR CELEBERRIMUS : EX FAMTTJA DE BUCCLEUGH. &quot; Mar. Scott, uxor Gul. Scott, M.D. ob. Oct. 26. 1806. ^et. 77. IlLA VIXIT MORI. &quot; Large open sbeep-downs east of Tone Pit and soutb-east. Excellent ground. Hay cbiefly procured from tbe moist land between tbe bills, wbicb flow in gentle undulations. Limestone stratum, full of shells and some madrepore or entrocbi, reacbes from Tone-fell down to the basalt rocks wbicb come from Gunnerton by Swinburne Castle, and on tbe north side of Bavington. Farm-bouses ruined, many of them, in tbe Carrycotes and Thockrington districts. The basalt rocks at Swinburne Castle, or as one ascends them from the brook which runs by Swinburne Castle, seem to range with the rocks above Walwick and towards Caervoran. There is, according to report of a quarryman I saw, a piece of whin- rock in the burn near Swinburne Mill below tbe level of the overlying whin, and which goes perpendicularly into the horizontal strata. &quot; Above tbe whin a blue limestone at Little Swinburne, a gray village with a ruined tower. &quot; At Five-lane ends sand heaps, which seem like tmnuli : one especi- ally on tbe north side of the road to Stamfordbam, and probably mankind have spared themselves the trouble often of making new tumuli by taking possession of natural round hillocks. &quot; HaUington Mill on limestone, and above it, on Erringburn Hal- lington Hall and village. Tbe hall a plain new building, roofed with blue slate. &quot; Bingfield east-quarter has south of it in a field three or four regular terraces. On Ryal west-side, from Bingfield east-quarter, on tbe east VISIT TO MOUNCES, ETC. 151 man J flights of terraces, rather irregular on the lower part of the hill, and a field above it has been terraced and ploughed across and the lines much erased. '* The Roman road from Bewlay past Ryal is called there CoVa Cawsey. Bjal chapel smaU. No monuments in the inside, and the village appears much decayed ; marks of cottages appearing on every side. '' A good house in Kyal, built by who married Alderman Blackett's daughter. ' It now belongs to Sir William Blackett by purchase. ''A field east of Bingfield east-quarter, on the south side of the lane opposite the terraced ground, has a round hill near its N.E. comer, partly on the E. destroyed: but probably a natural hill, as some of the ground below is thrown into undulations of a sweetish form. &quot; The pastures about Ryal good. The limestone stratum very thick. Ryal east-side, where the terraces are, is a limestone hill. Moot-law is about half-a-mile N« of Ryal on the west point of a hill. &quot; Whinstones scattered plentifully on the ground through all the district towards Errington and Stamfordham on the S. side of the whin- range in the brooks and land&gt; but none on the N. side of the range. They are found about the Moot-law and Ryal higher ground (more.) than any of the whin hills. &quot; Fenwick Tower. Little of it remaining, but partly converted into a farm-house and offices — large trenches of fences, and old waJls of a garden or orchard still point out the residence of a considerable family. &quot; School at Stamfordham. An old pile with the floor taken away and stone partitions added — ^larger windows made — the chimnies altered. The old chimney had been built upon corbels. ** The waU of the Each wick west lane is walled with basalt, which abounds here ; and there is gravel and sand in great quantities in the lane. &quot; The road from Eachwick towards Newcastle has been about three feet broad, paved, and is called the Salter's Way. It exists in many places; in the hill ascending toward Stamfordham and about Bimey HiU. &quot; Bimey Hill House, an old mansion in the King James' style of architecture, farmed by a Mr. Gilhespy. &quot; At the foot of the village of Eachwick, over against the Pont, there was a few years since a dyke of earth where watch and ward was formerly kept. Such dykes across lanes in Northumberland generally bespeak a similar intention. 152 HEHOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. '* South Dissington, a small mined mansion of the Delavals in the time of their adversity, '* North Dissington. Mr. Stanhope has pulled down the mansion of the Gollingwoods there. It was in the King James' style. Windows with stone mullions: the walls of the tower strong, a front standing yet (27 Aug). '&lt; Akenside*s &amp;mily still exist at Eachwick and have a very neat public-house. Mr. Spearman gave me their pedigree. '^ The Stamfordham road called the Street. (Ex inform. R. S.) See Border Laws, p. 194.&quot; In the autumn of this year Hodgson made another expedition from home in company with Mr. Kell (his father-in-law) and Mr. Bell, but the journey seems to have been undertaken more for pleasure than for any other purpose. His route was by Dur- ham, Auckland, Staindrop, Barnard Castle, Bowes, Brough, Appleby, Hawswater, Bolton, Morland, Newby, and Bampton, where he paid a visit to his old master, Mr. Bowstead, and gave him a copy of his Westmerland from the *' Beauties of England and Wales.&quot; The party next go to Penrith by way of Askham and Lowther Castle and so to Carlisle and Newcastle. Five days were spent in this expedition, but I find no notes of interest con- nected with it. In the autumn of the year 1814, the Newcastle Advertiser, to which Mr Hodgson had occasionally made small poetical and perhaps other contributions, was removed to Durham under a proprietaryship in which Mr. Francis Humble, its former owner, was the chief shareholder and the editor of the paper. Tlie address to the public which accompanied the first number of the Durham County Advertiser, the name by which the publication was thenceforward and is still known, was written by Hodgson, and is as follows : TO THE PUBLIC. The Proprietors of the Durham County Advertiser submit the first number of their paper to public inspection and patronage with great anxiety for its favourable reception. Independent of feelings connected with their own interest, they would gladly entertain a hope that they have commenced their work on a useful and amusing plan ; and, well THE DURHAM ADVERTISER. 153 aware that first impressions contribute more powerfully than anj other cause to the success or failure in undertakings of this nature, they cannot conceal that their best endeavours and abilities have been employed at the outset of their labour. '' They know that they are actuated by an honest and sincere desire of conducting it to the satisfaction of their readers, and of adopting in it any real improvement that may be suggested; and therefore stand forward with no boasting pretensions to unusual excellence or novelty in its arrangement or execution. To novelty, indeed, they most ardently aspire, but the liability of all human schemes to fall short of their ultimate aim, and the fear of raising expectations they may not be able to gratify, induce them to withhold any lengthened or flattering develop- ment of their plan. &quot; They cannot, however, refrain from declaring that in their political opinions they profess to be actuated by the purest motives of moderation and mildness. Agreeing with Tacitus that '* contemptu famsB contemni virtutes,&quot; they entertain a high reverence for popularity, and will seek it in the road of public favour; but they will never attempt to distort or hide the fair form of truth for the sake of countenancing any popular outcry; and, while they watch over the purity of the constitution and the rights and liberties of their fellow-subjects with caution and jealousy, they will constantly abstain from* needlessly irritating the community by systematically construing the measures of government into corrupt or unconstitutional motives. They wiU never close their eyes upon public crimes, however high their perpetrators may be in authority ; upon excess, extortion or oppression ; nor will they be the instruments of publishing mischievous libels, or of strengthening the hands of faction by assimilating their sentiments to the wretched and pestilential reasoning of those writers who earn their bread by spreading alarm, discontent, and unhappiness through the nation. They will not condescend to prepare food for the voracious appetite of party: their best judgment shall be assiduously employed in enabling them to set every circumstance in its proper light, and to distinguish between pure facts and the ignis fatuus of hearsays and reports, which in the London daily papers ** But leads to bewilder, and dazzles to blind. &quot; Though the interest which was felt in reading newspapers during the late war with France has greatly subsided, and their columns may not in a short time be expected to record events of such awful magni- tude as were exhibited in that desolating theatre; yet the face of 154 HEMOIB OF THE BEV. JOHN HODGSON. Europe is still marked with lines ominous of important occurrences, and our war&amp;re wilih America, while it is assuming obstinate and inveterate symptoms, is employing a force, which, twenty years ago, would haye been equal to the whole energies, and have called forth the anxious and undivided solicitude^ of the nation. &quot; They trust, however, that even in the profound repose of war, a liberal and enlightened people would never suffer a public journal, if respectably conducted, tof languish away in neglect: for publications of this kind not only present themselves with strong solicitations to our interest, curiosity, and desire of mental improvement, but their prayer addresses itself to our friendship and affections by a weekly detail of the occurrences, births, marriages, and deaths in the societies with which we are most intimately acquainted, and, while they minutely inform us of the state of mercantile and agricultural affairs in our own and a few neighbouring counties, they cheer us at our fireside with the narration of all the remarkable events that are transacting in every civilized region of the globe. &quot; The arrangements made for continuing the History of the County of Durham, which has been commenced in this number, will ensure its being drawn irom accurate and authentic sources, and will afford a population of nearly one hundred and eighty thousand persons an opportunity of gratifying one of the strongest and most xmiversal propensities of the human mind — that of being acquainted with every thing remarkable in the history and produce of the district they live in. &quot; The columns of the paper shall, moreover, be open to every species of useful and elegant literature; to the lessons of the Christian Religion, as the only strong foundation of morality and political strength: and inquiries into the nature and operations of the human mind, and the effects of virtue and vice upon individual and public happiness. &quot; The proprietors, too, will always feel delighted in strengthening the wings of youthful genius, and in removing that diffidence and timidity with which it is usually accompanied into the world, by transplanting its early blossoms out of the shade of neglect into the sunshine of public notice, and by publishing its more matured excursions into the regions of poetry, science, or literature in general. They also solicit papers on subjects connected with agriculture and commerce; communications calculated to illustrate the History of Durham ; and that early informa- tion may be transmitted to themselves or their agents of any remarkable occurrences, marine intelligence of interest in the adjacent ports, THE DUBHAH ADYEBTISSB. 155 ecclesiastical preferments, subscriptions to charitable institutionSy intelligence for sportsmen, births, deaths, marriages, &amp;c» &amp;c, &lt;' The advantages to be derived to gentlemen who preserve their game^ to land proprietors, merchants and farmers, in the extensive range of the circulation of this journal, hj favouring them with advertisements, are too obvious to need any lengthened explanation. It is particularly requested that all original communications and long advertisements may be sent in time to reach the Durham County Advertiser (Mce early on the Thursday morning, on which day the first and fourth pages of the paper will be printed off. Smaller advertisements and short paragraphs of local occurrences will be received up to ten o'clock on the morning of Fridays, but after that time they cannot be inserted. The greatest attention will be paid to all letters which may be received post-paid, and the utmost care will be taken in forwarding the newspaper punctually to the several subscribers ; to whom the proprietors offer their warmest tribute of thankfulness and gratitude for the very liberal encouragement with which they have favoured them.''* * Three short paragraphs of a buiinesB character were added by Mr. F. Humble, the editor, and eventually the sole proprietor, of the newspaper. The first number of the newspaper was published in September 1.814.


The History of the Parish of Jarrow — GorreBpondenoe on that subject —Saxon Coins. The three following letters require a few words of introduction. After the commencement of my acquaintance with Mr. Hodg- son in 1812, we had not seen each other till the spring of 1814, nor had there been to the best of my recollection any epistolary intercourse between us. In the latter year, however, we had had an opportunity for much conversation at Lord Barrington's house in the college, where Hodgson was upon a visit, and certain pro- mises of assistance on my part had been made to'my friend in his topographical proceedings. One result of this conversation was the first of the letters below, reminding me of an offer, which certainly could not have been made to the extent in which it had been understood. At that period, and for many years afterwards, the only portion of time at my disposal for private purposes amoimted to little more than twelve hours per week exclusive of Sunday ; and the work which was required at my hands for a history of the parish of Jarrow would have been a labour of at least three months, witness the Jarrow and Monkwearmouth KoUs, &amp;c. lately published by the Surtees Society. I felt, how- ever, every inclination to assist an absent friend; but had certain doubts, which my letter to Mr. Surtees will explain. Upon the receipt of Mr. Surtees^s letter in reply, I communicated to Hodg- son, from time to time, copies of various records from the Durham books, to which he had obtained access through the kindness of Lord Barrington, and from that time there was always the most friendly intercourse between us. To THE RsY. Mr. RAINE, Durham. « Rev. Sir, Heworth, near Gateshead, 1 Mar. 1815. &quot; I have engaged to write for the Antiquarian Society of New- castle a History of the Antiquities of the parish of Jarrow, which are chiefly British, Boman, Saxon, and Monastic. HISTORY OF JABBOW. 157 &quot; On tihis subject I shall feel greatly obliged by your allowing me to take advantage of your kind offer of transcribing such materials out of the Durham Chartularies as you may judge to be admissible into my narrative. '' I remember seeing a Boundary Boll in which White Mere was mentioned. The present names of the villages in the parish are — Jarrowi Hebbum, Hedworth, Monckton, Westoe, anciently Wivestowe, Shields, Heworth, Wardley, Felling. The minutest particulars respecting any of these will be acceptable. I shall also thank you for any thing re- specting the Monastery of Monkwearmouth, as that house was con-- solidated with Jarrow. ** My Northumberland, since I had the pleasure of seeing you, has proceeded slowly. Within the last month I have however proceeded upon a regular plan of arranging materials ; and a few parishes are beginning to assume the appearance of readiness for the press. &quot; I am, dear Sir, yours very respectfully, &quot; John Hodoson.&quot; Key. J. RAINE to R. SURTEES, Esq. &quot; Deab Sir, March 1816. &quot; Will you favour me with your opinion on this letter. Is not Jarrow within your province ? If so, I think anything new would better appear in your History than in a publication like that of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle. It is totally impossible for me to extract from the Chartularies all that is said upon Jarrow; for since I made the promise my time has become still more occupied. If you, however, approve of Mr. Hodgson^s undertaking I will send him some extracts from. Kellawe's Register, and invite him to come to Durham, and give him all the time I can among the Chartularies. Pray let me know as soon as you can what you think of this. Yours very truly, &quot; J. Raine.&quot; R. SURTEES, E8(i. to Ret. JAMES RAINE. &lt;&lt; Deab RainE, Maroh 6, 1815. ** Many thanks to you for your adherence to your first colours — but I am very desirous to contribute every assistance I can to Mr. Hodgson, and shall forthwith rummage my stores for that purpose. 160 MEMOIB OF THE R£Y. JOHN HODGSON. deacon Thorp, the warden of the XJniTersity of Durham, an- nouncing a new plan, of which it may be enough to state that it also was never tarried into execution. &quot; Hartbum, 2 Sept. 1838. 1 miss out of the portfolio of mylong medi- tated History of Jarrow two letters of Lord Harrington, which form a note to the account of the reyenues of the present church. These I shewed to you at Syton some years since, and you requested to have the loan of them to lay before your Chapter: and I would now be obliged by your letting me haye them back. The work I haye aUuded to was known to Mr. Surtees, and is noticed in his account of Jarrow (vol. ii. p. 67, note i.). I do not, however, now think of making it a mere Parochial History, but a History of Education, under some such title as this — '&lt; The Monastery and College of Jarrow in Saxon Times; an &quot;Ae College and University of Durham in the Nineteenth Century; by one who for twenty-five years occupied the chair of the Venerable Bede.*^ It is not, I believe, much known that Germany was first con- verted to Christianity by missionaries educated at Jarrow.&quot; These statements may sufi&amp;ce to introduce as much of Hodgson's *' Account of the Roman and Saxon Antiquities &quot; in his parish as was written in the year 1815, the period at which we have arrived in his history. Some Account of the Roman and Saxon Antiqihties in the Pabish of JaBROW, m THE COUNTY OF DURHAM, BT THE Bev. JoHN HoDQSON, Secretary. '' Chap. 1. Sect. 1. That the barriers called the Soman Wall were erected to preserve the Boman colonies from the attacks of a people whom they were unable to conquer. '&lt; The Koman fortresses on the line of the Wall between Bulness and Wallsend, and the auxiliary stations on its northern and southern sides, in the counties of Durham, Northumberland, and Cumberland, bear a very peculiar and prominent feature in the early history of Britain. &quot; The courage and perseverance with which the northern tribes of Britain resisted the Boman arms; their inextinguishable love of liberty; their desultory mode of warfare ; and the natural difiSiculty of subduing a brave and firee people entrenched among rapid rivers, and walled about with steep and lofty mountains, seem to have been considered in- surmoimtable obstacles to the conquest of the Caledonian Nation, so early as the time of Hadrian. HISTORY OF JARROW. 161 &quot; Agricola, indeed, had conquered the country as far as the Firths of the Forth and Clyde, and even extended his arms considerably to the north of them. Early in the summer of his third campaign he reached the river Tay, but in his seventh he had penetrated little further. The fourth summer of his expedition was wholly taken up with building a chain of forts between the Forth and the Clyde, a line which he seems to have considered as the terminus of the Roman empire in Britain, and to which, in the reign of Antoninus Pius, it was a second time ex- tended; but, from Hadrian till the final desertion of this island by the Romans, the power of Rome seems to have been unequal to secure the regular and peaceful domination of the country further than Solway Firth and the Tyne. ** That Rome considered herself as physically unable to conquer the Caledonians, may, I think, be very satisfactorily inferred from the amazing quantity of labour employed at different periods in forming the barriers in this neighbourhood and in Scotland : and from the great and continual expense of garrisoning the several castles and stations on the lines of the barriers. One campaign, conducted with the usual decision and exterminating effects that attended the Roman legions, might, one would suppose, have destroyed the little population that could at that period have existed in the Highlands of Scotland. But some of their generals, in theory, and others in practice, saw the impracticability of the measure. The Emperor Severus came into Britain with the determined intention of destroying the very name of the barbarians ;* but, though in three campaigns he almost conquered natural impossi- bilities in clearing away woods, levelling hills, draining bogs, and building bridges,! yet he saw no enemy in numbers; he fought no pitched battles; but in hardships and skirmishes lost 50,000 of his men, returned to York, and there died without effecting his purpose. Some authors of dubious credit assert that he built the stone wall, and others that he only repaired the vallum of Severus C^icJt which had then become ruinous ; but, in which way soever the fact be taken, it affords strong presumptive evidence that experience began to convince him that his design of extirpating the Caledonian name out of this island was impracticable. § 2. That several of the forts between Solway Firth and Tynemouth were built by Agricola. * In the margin he has the name of Richard [of Cirencester] as his authority. He appears, however, to have soon afterwards lost all confidence in that publication. + Dio. Ziph. M 162 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. ** Tacitus informs us that Julius Agricola, in the progress of his campaigns in Britain, regularly secured his conquests with forts and garrisons, and that the sites of his forts were always so judiciously chosen, that no instance was ever known of any of them being ever stormed, deserted, or given up. All antiquaries, who have attempted to illustrate the Roman history of this neighbourhood, agree that several of the stations along the line of the Wall were built in his second campaign, which was made in the summer of the year 79 ; but their opinion has never been supported by any forcible train of evidence, or by the con- current testimony of any inscription or other object of antiquity. '* All the information we have respecting the eventful career of that general is afforded by his son-in-law and biographer, P. Com. Tacitus ; an author whose style, 'in rapidity and strength, bears a striking resemblance to the military character of Agricola. He hurries him through his conquests, without pausing to give us any knowledge of the geography of the country. It is indeed occasionally glanced at ; and a few incidental passages afford considerable light on the subject at pre-sent under inquiry. &quot; For the sake of clearness, it will be necessary to quote all that part of his narrative which describes Agricola's military operations about the time of his completing the conquest of the people in this neighbourhood. &quot; The name of Petilius Cerealis, says Tacitus, in the seventieth year of the Christian sera brought terror into Britain. He attacked the state of the Brigantes, which was accounted the most populous of all the provinces in Britain. Many battles were fought ; some of them bloody ones; and a great part of the country was compassed either with victory or war. &quot; In the latter part of the summer of the year 78, Julius Agricola entered upon the government of Britain. He marched immediately into North Wales; fell suddenly upon the inhabitants; routed them; and as suddenly reduced the Isle of Anglesea, which at that time was the great sanctuary of Druidism. As soon as the next summer opened, he drew his army together and commenced military operations. He chose the sites of encampments and explored the firths and woods for himself: and in the mean time harassed the enemy by such sudden irruptions that they never knew when they were in security. When terror was at its height he began to spare, and win the people by the blandishments of peace. By these measures, several nations, which tiU that time had stood out for liberty, were appeased, and gave hostages. BISTORT OP JARROW. 163 These he environed with fortt^esses and garrisons^ with such judgment and care that no part of Britain, hitherto unvisited, could deem itself secure. The succeeding winter was spent in the most wholesome coimsels. For, in order to accustom a rude and wandering people to the delights of tranquillity and ease, he praised the diligent and punished the supine: he encouraged them in private, and gave them public assistance (Qu. kind of assistfmce? not money but men) to build temples, courts of justice, and private houses. Thus contention for honour became a sort of constraint. Already the sons of the chieftains began to learn the liberal arts, and the genius of the Britons to soar over the attainments of the Gauls. They who, a little time before, despised the Eoman tongue, desired to become eloquent* The Boman habit grew fashionable. The toga was the rage. By little and little they sought the elegances of vice-porticos,* baths, and the luxury of banquets; and thus unsuspectingly to call that kindness which was only a part of the method of enslaving them. '* The third summer opened out new nations. The country as far as the estuary of the Tay was devastated. The enemy retired panic-struck, and, though the army had to contend with a severe season, the natives never hazarded an engagement: and time was found for building castles. '' The fourth year was taken up with securing the country that had been overrun. For this purpose a chain of forts was built from Glotta to Bodotria, places situated at the internal extremities of the Firths of the Forth and Clyde. All the succeeding operations were carried on to the north of these places. &quot; From the preceding narrative, and the present appearance of several Boman fortresses along or near the line of the Boman Wall, I think that arguments may be deduced sufficiently strong to establish the probability, beyond all possibility of doubt, that many of these fortresses were built by Agricola. &quot; The country of the Brigantes, which Petilius Cerealis contended with, extended across the island from the Humber to the Tyne; and, though it was a part of the Boman policy to leave strong garrisons in the countries that were regularly subdued, yet I think the expression of Tacitus, ' magnam Brigantum partem aut vktoria amplexua aut heUo ' (a great part of the Brigantes were either compassed with victory or with war,) makes it probable that the lesser part would have no stations built in it: and, as the invader marched from the south, we must suppose this lesser part extended along the northern frontier; and, therefore, that &quot; Qu. entrance porticos &quot; interlined, M 2 164 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. the country from the mouth of the Tyne, along the Trthing to Solway Firth, had not been visited by a Roman army previous to the coming of Julius Agricola. It seems probable that the extensive Roman works in the district of Richmondshire, which branch in one way toward Durham and the other over Stanemore, might be the work of the legions of Petilius Gerealis. *' Agricola, we have heard, entered Britain in 78, and in that year advanced as far as Anglesea. In the campaign of the year 80, he had reached as far as the Firth of Tay. The next summer was spent in building the forts between Glotta and Bodotria. '* It is therefore to the space between the conclusion of the summer of 79 and the commencement of that of 80 that our attention is to be directed, for discovering any correspondence between the narrative of Tacitus and the antiquities of this neighbourhood. ' ** The winter included in the years 79 and 80 was spent by Agricola's army somewhere between Anglesea and the Firths of the Forth and Clyde, for, though he skirmished in 80 as far as the Tay, I think it extremely probable that the wintft* quarters of his army occupied the strong position between these firths; especially as we find the whole operations of the succeeding year occupied in fortifying that line. &quot; Now, if we reckon upon any uniformity of progress between Angle- sea and the Tay, we may fairly conclude that the summer of the year 79 brought Agricola to the southern frontier of the province of the Meatae, which extended along the line afterwards occupied by Hadrian's Vallum : I would infer this from its being a medium distance between Anglesea and the Tay; from the circumstance of Petilius Cerealis not having conquered the whole of the Brigantian states; (because we cannot fairly suppose that less time than a summer could be occupied by Agricola in finally exploring and securing a province called by Tacitus * the most populous of Britain^;) from the probability of his not commencing operations against the Meatse, whose province was entirely unexplored, till the next spring; and from a General of Agricola's prudence and discernment taking up his winter quarters in a narrow and defensible part of the island, where the large fleet that composed a part of his armament might be of service to him, and where a chain of forts could be erected to be of the greatest present and ftiture advantage. &quot; Fixing, therefore, the main operations of the Roman army from the latter part of the year 79 to the beginning of the summer of 80 in this district, if our conjecture be right, we shall find, according to the account HISTORY OP JABROW. 165 of Tacitus, the remaiDS of fortified encampments on the northern frontier of the Brigantes ; for such I think the expression ' civitates cdstellis presidiisque circnmdatSB^ (states environed with fortresses and garrisons) implies. Temples, too, and market-places, private houses, porticos, and baths were erected in this period, of which the ruins must be dis- covered in order to substantiate the proofs of the hypothesis in question. [Note in margin: A centurion commanded 100 footmen: 600 made a cohort, and ten cohorts a legion, or 6000. So that the stations seem to have been adapted for 600 soldiers. &quot; If it should be contended either that the lapse of 1700 years must have mouldered away every* fragment of buildings erected in so short a space of time as Tacitus allows for them, or that the army was not sufficiently nimierous for that purpose, it should be recollected that the Roman armies were as regularly trained to building as to fighting; that the effects of the division of labour were as well understood and as highly practised by them in military architecture as they are in the most perfect of our modem manufactories ; and that, though the buildings they erected were rude, yet their remains bear undoubted testimony that they were erected with every consideration as to strength and durability. Josephus, an author who flourished in the time we are speaking about, describes the astonishing rapidity with which their encampments of mason-work were reared up, and tells us, that, though they might only be wanted for the security of a few nights, they were made as strong and complete as if they were to be the residence of ages. I have not been able to sum up more than about 27,000 infantry, and 3,000 cavalry, that composed Agri- cola's army; but even this number, judiciously disposed of, and mixed with the population of the coimtry, would be sufficient to complete (even supposing the season only allowed them about three months to work in) all the erections we contend for. And that the natives were pressed into this service is evident from the expression * he encouraged them in private, and gave them public assistance to build temples, market-places, and private houses ;' which assistance I should 'take to have been the instruction and labour of his soldiers. &quot; § The ruins of many baths and other edifices which were built by Agricola's directions are still remaining in Northumberland, Durham, and Cumberland. ** § That Jarrow was fonnerly a Koman station built by Agricola for the purpose of protecting ships moored in the river Don, at the head of Jarrow Slake. 166 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. '^ § Historj of the Roman station at South Shields. &quot; § Probable use of a square camp at Wardley. ^ § That it is sufficiently eyident from the channel of the Don at this time that light ships of 500 tons burden might lie there in security. '&lt; § Concerning the building and endowing of the monastery at Monkwearmouth. *' § Concerning the building and endowing of the monastery at Jarrow. '&lt; § Concerning the life and writings of the Venerable Bede. ^ § Account of some Saxon coins found at Heworth. &lt;' § The nature of the literature taught in the houses of Monkwear- mouth and Jarrow in Bede's time. '' § The sufferings and destruction of these houses by the Danes. There had been found in the latter part of the year 1812, in Heworth Chapel yard, an earthen vessel containing a few coins of Egfrid King of Northumbria f one of which, together with the pot or vessel itself, Hodgson soon afterwards presented to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, accompanied with a few historical notices which were afterwards published in the Arclueol. -ffil. voL i. p. 124, with engravings in illustration. The follow- ing letters prove that this discovery had excited considerable interest among numismatists. Mr. Carlisle's letter is in the true style of collectors. Mr. Ending makes a modest request, and is content with an impression. From NICHOLAS CARLISLE, Esq. '' Sib, March 4, 1815, Somenet Place, London. &quot; Among the donations with which you have obliged the Anti- quarian Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, you mention a Saxon coin of Egfrid King of Northumberland. The rarity of this coin is not over- looked by those who are conversant in this subject ; and I am requested by Mr. Combe, the Keeper of the Medals in the British Museum, to beg the favour of one to be deposited in that valuable and national collec- tion ; and, if your stock be not already exhausted, I should feel much obliged by one or two more, which I think might be placed with re- spectability to yourself in other cabinets of the curious. In thus SAXON COINS. 167 trespassing upon your kindness I must apologize for the liberty which I am taking; although I cannot but be sensible, from the elegance of your style, that liberality of sentiment is a predominant feature. I have the honour '* Nicholas Carlisle. &quot; Rev. John Hodgson, &amp;c.&quot; To NICHOLAS CARLISLE, Esq. '* Heworth, near GbLteshead, March 1815. &quot; I am very happy to have it in my power to gratify Mr. Combe with one of K. Egfrid's coins, and also to inclose one for the acceptance of the London Society of Antiquaries. I have added other two, which I will thank you to deposit in the cabinets of such liberal and well-in- formed gentlemen as you may think they will be most acceptable to. These coins were dug up in the latter end of the year 1812, in making a grave on the line of the old wall which runs between the new and old burial-ground of the chapel of Heworth, in the parish of Jarrow. [^Further particulars of the place, mth a drawing of the vessel in which the coins were found]. I hoped it would have afforded me more good specimens than it has done. The whole of them, good and bad, amounted in number to 23, all of which I have disposed of in the following manner. One to the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle, one to Mr. Adamson of Newcastle, one to Mr. John Bell of Newcastle, one to Mr. Brumell of Newcastle, one to Mr. Murray, one to the British Museum, one to the London Society of Antiquaries, two to Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., two which were either lost or mislaid by my children after the discovery : one to myself. Eleven destroyed on account of being decayed and illegible. Though much corroded, the rust that covered them was not hard. When I took them out of my drawer, after the receipt of your letter, they had liquid drops of vitriol upon them. Those given to the Newcastle Antiquarian Society, and to Messrs. Bell and Adamson, are the best; for they were given the first, and before I had any suspicion that the rest would turn out so indifferently in cleaning. I have had tempting offers of money for them ; but they cost me nothing, and I could not do violence to my antiquarian feelings by making a trafllic of them. I have the honour, &amp;c. &quot; J. H.&quot; &quot; N. CarUde, Eaq.&quot; 168 MEMOIB OF TU£ KEY. JOHN HODGSON. To THE Ret. JOHN HODGSON. &lt;&lt; Sib, Maldon Vicarage, near KiDgBton, April 22, 181 5« '^ As I know not how to apologize sufficientlj for this intrusion upon you, I shall throw mjself entirely upon your goodness, and trust to that to plead my excuse. &quot; I am now going to press with a large work on the Coinage of Britain, &amp;om the earliest times of authentic history ; and am, in course, much interested by everything relating to my subject. On Thursday last my Mend Mr. Carlisle pointed out to me the very curious Sfyca which is engraven in the Transactions of your Society ; together with your account of it, and the specimen which accompanied it. As the legend on the obverse on that coin, and also on that which is now placed in the British Museum, is much corroded, may I be permitted to ask whether any one of the specimens has the whole legend perfect on that side ; and whether the letter between L and X on the reverse has on all of them this peculiar form V? The earliest Styca of which I have an engraving is many years subsequent to this of Ecgfirid ; and was struck by Eanred, at the beginning of the 9th century. It is contained in a set of 83 plates of British and Anglo-Saxon coins, which were engraven under the inspection of Mr. Combe, and were purchased by me for the illustration of my work. If the set should be thought worthy of a place in the collection which your Society is forming, I shall think myself much honoured by being permitted to send it by any conveyance you shall be pleased to point out. I am. Sir, with great respect, your very humble servant, &quot; EOQBRS RUDING.&quot; To THE Rev. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; Sir, Maldon, May 8, 1816. &quot; Accept my best thanks for the impressions of the Styca, from which I have been able to make a drawing for my additions to Mr. Combe's plates. ' ^' I am highly gratified by the permission to add the name of so respectable a society to my list of subscribers ; and have great pleasure in placing Mr. Combe's plates in their collection. I have taken the liberty to add to them Mr. North's two plates of Coins of Henry III., of which some account may be seen in the Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth SAXON COINS. 169 Century. They are matters of some little curiosity, and are not to be purchased ; as, by the kindness of my late friend Mr. Gough, the copper plates are in my possession. The duplicates of all these I hope you will do me the favour to accept. &quot; The map of the several mints I will beg you to exhibit to the society, for the purpose of correction or addition ; and shall think it much honoured if it may be afterwards admitted to a place in their cabinet. *' If anything respecting the Mint at Newcastle has been discovered, since the publication of my late friend Mr. Brand, you will greatly oblige me by the information. '* As I have hitherto not possessed any means of circulating my pro- posals in the North, I presume to trouble you with a few of them ; and trust to your goodness to pardon the liberty I take in requesting you to disperse them for me. I have not separated them from my circu- lar to the Antiquaries of London, as possibly some of those who reside near you may not have seen it. The work is now in the press ; and my subscribers are so few that I print only 250, instead of 300, and limit the large paper to 50. &quot;I am conscious that I, a perfect stranger to you, ought not to trouble you with all this ; but the difficulty which, in times like these, a country clergyman meets with in getting an expensive work through the press, must plead my excuse. I remain, Sir, your obliged and very humble servant, &quot; EOGERS RUDING.&quot;


1815—1816. Expedition to the Dudley Coal Field — Sir Homphiy Davy and the Safety Lamp — Its first trial — Visit to Edinburgh — Correspondence. Fkom the time of the great Felling explosion in 1812, an event to which Hodgson had for a humane purpose given every publicity in his power, the Society formed in that year, chiefly through his instrumentality, for the prevention of similar accidents, had been indefatigable in its exertions to provide a remedy against the well- known cause of such misfortunes. Meetings had been held, plans proposed and discussed, reports read; and, in short, every advisable step had been taken to protect for the future the lives of the poor men whose occupation it was to earn their bread in the bowels of the earth. At length, in 1815, the third year of anxious experiment and investigation, there appeared on the banks of the Tyne a Mr. James Ryan, from the Staffordshire Coal Field, with the assurance that*he was in possession of a plan for securing the object which the Society had in view. This announcement was naturally received by the coal trade with considerable doubt and hesitation, and, in consequence, a deputation was despatched from the north to examine the Dudley mines, in which, as Mr. Ryan asserted, his method had been for some time in successful operation. The deputation consisted of Mr. Hodgson, Mr. John Buddie, and Mr. George Hill; to whom certain definite questions were sub- mitted, and ftdl answers were requested after a personal investiga- tion. These three gentlemen left Newcastle on the 16th of October ; and in due time submitted to the Committee of the coal trade their united report, proving that Mr. Ryan had made statements which, in point of fact, were any thing rather than correct.* And thus the labour of the deputation was fruitless. But Hodgson did more than assist in drawing up and signing * *' Our friend Ryan is again amongst us, and has flavoured me with a long letter in Walker's paper (the Newcastle Courant) of last week. I have not yet seen it, but understand it is very much of the old story over again. Geo. Hill told me OH Saturday that he had seen it, but did not think that it was at all necessaiy that I THE DUDLEY COAL FIELD. 171 a bare report, in reply to stated questions. I have before me a closely written quarto volume of nineteen pages, in his usual small and neat hand- writing, to which he has given the title *' On the Dudley Coal Basin. Miscellaneous Observations on the Dudley Coal Basin, from Minutes taken in October 1815.&quot; This treatise, for such in truth it is^ is illustrated with neat pen-and-ink draw- ings and measurements; and, as it appears to be of a very elaborate character, its publication would probably have excited at that time a considerable interest in the district to which it refers; and perhaps elsewhere. I may be permitted to transcribe &amp;om it a single passage, which proves that its author, in making his geolo- gical and practical observations, did not forget to notice such subjects as had a tendency to attract the attention of the painter and the poet. On these, as well as the more matter-of-fact points of inquiry in his commission, he was equally at home. &quot; In a pleasing and picturesque point of view, the caves formed by the old workings in the Hill of Dudley Castle, are much more interesting than those of the Wren's Nest HUL Daylight is admitted into them by apertures, through immense barriers of stone, left to support the roof of the quarry ; and the canal, which passes up the lowest part of the old workings, is perfectly invisible, excepting where gmall patches of reflected light play upon its surface. There is also something exceed- ingly pleasing in the sound of the barges passing through the smooth water. You can hear them, as they glide along, but so indistinctly that it requires you to stand and listen, to hear a noise which certainly would not be audible but in a place where the most perfect stillness and tranquillity prevail. The openings that admit the daylight are fringed with maple, and a variety of other trees. The sides of the cave are in many places encrusted with mosses and lichens of various tints : but it is in the length and capacity of this enormous excavation in which its grandeur consists; and in comparison of which the celebrated caves in Derbyshire appear to be only chinks and crevices of narrow dimensions.&quot; — p. 7. The following letter refers to the above expedition. Such authentic accounts of the slow travelling to which we in our flhould reply to it. The best way will be, probably, to treat him with silent contempt, and allow him to exhaust his venom. The trade will not again be humbugged by him.'' Letter from Mr, Buddie to Mr. Hodgton^ 21 Jan. 1828. 172 MEMOIB OF THE BEY* JOHN HODGSON. earlier days were compelled to submit, will eventuallj be read with interest. To Mbs. HODGSON. &lt;&lt; Mr DEAB Jane, Dodley, Staffordshire, 18th Oct. 1815. &quot; We did not leave Newcastle till about 5 o'clock. It was dark before we got to Durham ; and did not grow light till we were between Borough Bridge and Wetherby. We dined at Wetherby about one on Tuesday, and reached Sheffield about five : here we stayed all night at a very moderate sort of an inn; and set forward early next morning to Chesterfield, where we breakfasted. Our next stage was to Alfreton, and thence through a delightftil part of Derbyshire to Derby. The way from that place to Burton-upon-Trent is exceedingly flat. At Burton we dined to-day, and proceeded to Lichfield ; where we visited the houses in which the celebrated Dr. Johnson and Mr. Garrick were born, and walked to the cathedral, which certainly is in all points of view far more magnificent than Durham. The stage from Lichfield to Walsall was over moors, and lonely, but from the last place, it being night and rainy, the fires around this neighbourhood, and the immense number of large iron furnaces, similar to that at Lemmington, illumi- nated the country to a great distance. * The smoke of the coimtry goes up like the smoke of a furnace.'* We got here about ten minutes after nine. I have borne the journey without fatigue. &quot; I hope every thing goes on well with you at home, and that my darling little gibbering John begins to find ease in his ears. We hojie to be back about Thursday or Friday next week, and to return by York. My afiectionate blessing on the bairns. Love to all at the Shore, and my dearest regard to thee, dear Jane, from thine, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; But happier results were at hand, and the Society for the Prevention of Accidents in Coal-mines became in the end amply rewarded for their long-continued exertions in the cause of humanity. In the autumn of this year the great discovery was made, which has enabled the pitman to walk in safety through what had previously been to him the valley of the shadow of death; and in this discovery Mr. Hodgson had no mean part to perform; independently of what he had done in the year 1812, by compelling at that time the coal-owners and the public to ♦ Gen. xix. 28. THE DUDLEY COAL FIELD. 173 give heed to the tale of distress which he had brought before them, and combine to bridle, if it were possible, the demon of destruction. In the month of August, Sir Humphry Davy paid his first visit to the Northern mining district; and happily, Hodgson has placed upon record, in his History of Northumberland, an accoimt of that visit, and also of the subsequent proceedings and investiga- tions which led to the discovery of the Safety Lamp before the end of the year. This account is contained in a note in the last volume of his History of Northumberland which he lived to publish, imder his description of Wallsend, the residence of Mr. Buddie, and is as follows. [Part ii. vol. iii. 171.] ** Wallsend. The house of the colliery- viewer was for many years the residence of the late eminent colliery director John Buddie, Esq. and, since his death in 1806, has become memorable as the seat of his son and successor of the same name. Here, too, in consequence of the following letter from the late Bishop of Bristol, Sir H. Davy had his first conference (with Mr. Buddie and Mr. Hodgson of Heworlh) on the subject of lighting coal-mines. * To the Rev. Mr. Hodgson, Heworth, Newcastle. * BiBhopwearmouth, August 21, 1815. * Dear Sir, — Having been informed by a letter from Sir Humphry Davy that he is to be in Newcastle on Wednesday or Thursday next, I have felt desirous that he should have some conversation with you and Mr. Buddie on the subject of the accidents in the collieries, that he may be the better able to fiimish us with his opinion. I have therefore written to him to express the hope that he may see you ; and if, on the receipt of this letter, you would address a few lines to him at the post-office, Newcastle, saying where you might be seen on those days, it might contribute to promote the objects which the Society (for the Prevention of Accidents in Coal-Mines) has in view. I have written to Mr. Buddie with a similar design. Sir Humphry comes from the North. Whether he travels post or by mail I know not. With many apologies for giving you this trouble, I remain, dear Sir, your obedient humble servant, ' RoBT. Gray.* *P.S. I hope we shall sometimes see you again at our meetings. I mean to call one to meet Sir Humphry Davy while with me.* *'Mr. Hodgson waited upon Sir Humphry, on the 23rd of August, * At that time Rector of Bishop wearmouth, and prebendary of Durham, afterwards Bishop of Bristol. 176 MEMOIR OP THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. ▼intto the Nordi; and it is quite manifest that it was chiefly to him and his experience that Davy had recourse for most of his local infonnation. Hodgson has modestly informed us in the above extract how completely his theory satisfied Davy; and^ papers are in existence proving thatmich of his hints as bore upon the subject were instantly adopted, and followed out, by one ex- periment afler another, till the great discovery was made ; and well does Mr. Surtees put the question, &quot; What fidrer triumph, what brighter extension of the empire of science, has marked the annals of philosophy, than this victory over the swart demon of the mine?&quot;* It comes not within my province to enter into the question which for a while afterwards agitated both sides of the Tyne, but which long ago died away, — ^the question between the Mends of Sir Humphry Davy and those of the late Mr. George Stephenson and others, with respect to the real inventor of the Safety Lamp. It was Mr. Hodgson's firm conviction that the merit was due to Sir Humphry Davy, and to him alone. This opinion he man- fully, but temperately, defended in the local newspapers, under his own proper signature; and no attacks of anonymous but well- known partizans on the other side could convince him of the con- trary. Public opinion, which is seldom wrong, came to a speedy decision on the subject ; and time has confirmed its conclusion. To the miner his *^ Davy&quot; — he knows it by no other name — is now as necessary as his daily bread. With respect to his obligations to Mr. Hodgson I make the following extracts from papers on the subject of his discovery, communicated by Sir Humphry Davy to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. &quot; A very interesting account of this event (the Felling Explosion in 1812) has been published by the Rev. John Hodgson. I have named this gentleman among many others who obligingly gave me assistance in my inquiries ; and I cannot mention him again without again making my acknowledgments for the variety of information he afforded me during the visits that we made together to the collieries ; and for the general interest he has taken in my experiments on the subject.&quot; Paper in Phil, Trans, dated 31 Dec. 1815. * History of Durham, ii. 89. THE SAFETY LAMP, 177 ^* I cannot conclude this notice respecting the safe-lamp without stating, that in the practical application of my views I have received the most enlightened and liberal assistance from the Rev. John Hodgson and Mr. Buddie, who have been the first persons to put my principles to the test of actual experiment In the mines, and to confide their safety to those new resources of chemistry.&quot; New Researches on Flame, PhiL Trans, 1817. The above are testimonies to Mr. Hodgson's services which are already before the public. If the time shall ever arrive, and arrive it may, when the volume of papers, to which I have above alluded, shall issue from the press, as a record of proceedings touching one of the greatest discoveries in modern times, it will then be seen that Sir Humphry Davy's private acknowledg- ments of Hodgson's valuable services were numerous, and, as it may be presumed, sincere; and it will also be seen that Davy was not merely an abstruse philosopher, devoting his energies to the good of others, but that, in defence of himself and his dis- covery, he could write also. His letters to Hodgson are not fewer than forty in number, all upon the subject of the Safety Lamp, or the conduct and motives of those who would have deprived him of its glory. His lamp is the acknowledged pro- tector of the miner. His pen might at that time have not been without the power of that withering blast over which he had achieved a victory. That Hodgson was among the first to test the saving power of the lamp would naturally have been inferred, if even we had been in possession of no direct evidence of the fact ; but on this subject we are not left to inference or conjecture. We have Sir Hum- phry Davy's testimony above, that the subject of our memoir was one of those who were present when the experiment was made ; and, what is more to our purpose, we have the following long and interesting letter from himself to Davy giving the fullest particulars of his happy descent into the Hebbum Pit, another mine in his parish, to fetter in a thin web of wire-gauze the de- structive enemy which had annihilated its thousands. For four long years, at the very least, he had meditated day and night upon a preservative against these fatal explosions. A discovery had been made, of the eflScacy of which he himself entertained no N 178 MEMOIR OP THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. doubt whatever ; and surely he was the person to lead the van in the grand triumph, which could only be thoroughly performed and enjoyed in those dark recesses which had been so often the scene of mangled limbs and bodies rolled in blood or burnt to a cinder. A Letter from the Rev. J. Hodgson to Sir Humphry Davt, RESPECTING THE USE OF THE SaFETT-LaMP.* &quot; Dear Sir, &quot; On the ninth of January (1816), the day after the arrival of your lamps, with wire-gauze cylinders, I descended one of the shafts of Heb- bum Colliery, for the purpose of making experiments with them in fire- damp. Mr. Dunn, the resident viewer, Mr. Seymour, the under-viewer, and some of the workmen attended me. Our first trials were made at the mouth of an iron pipe, which discharges fire-damp, conveyed from the same blower that Mr. Dunn procured the gas from which I sent to you in the beginning of October last. It is occasionally lighted, to serve instead of a lamp or candle in the horse-way ; and we found it perform- ing that ofiice. The flame of the light was eight inches long, and of a corresponding breadth. &quot; After blowing this gas light out, the lamp was held against the roof of the mine on the leeward side of the discharging pipe; and gradually advanced at that height till the fire-damp began to enlarge the flame of the lamp: as it was brought nearer, flashes at intervals of a few seconds played in the inside of the cylinder. These succeeded each * This letter was communicated by Sir Humphry Davy to &quot;The Jourual of Science and the Arts, edited at the Royal Institution of Great Britain,'* in which pub- lication it is printed, in Vol. I. p. 131 . The same volume (p. 1, &amp;c.) contains an article on the lamp itself with an engraving, contributed by Davy, and also a letter addressed to him by John Buddie, Esq. (p. 303), &quot; On the practical application of the wire-gauze Safe-Lamp ;'* written a few months after the date of Mr. Hodgson *s communication. Mr. Buddie's letter confirms Hodgson's report of the utility and safety of the lamp, and contains many striking passages written in a due tone of exultation. ** We have frequently (says he) used the lamps where the explosive mixture was so high as to heat the wire gauze red hot ; but on examining a lamp which has been in constant use for three months, and occasionally subjected to this degree of heat, I cannot perceive that the gauze cylinder of iron wire is at all impaired. Instead of creeping inch by inch with a candle, as is usual, along the galleries of a mine suspected to contain fire-damp, in order to ascertain its presence, we walk firmly on with the safety-lamps, and with the utmost confidence prove the actual state of the mine.'' This is an admirable letter from one thoroughly qualified and entitled to speak or \«Tite on such a subject. THE SAFETY LAMP. 179 other more quickly and vividly as the lamp was lowered to a level with the mouth of the pipe, where the gas burnt steadily in the inside of the wire tube, without communicating flame to that which surrounded it. &quot; Much heat and smoke were evolved during this part of the trial ; and the combustion, when the lamp approached near to the pipe, was carried on in the upper part of the cylinder, and the flame of the wick was extinguished in a luminous appearance. As the lamp was drawn back again, the same appearances were exhibited in inverse succession ; and the flame always settled upon the wick as soon as the lamp was taken into a due proportion of atmospherical air. Our experiments here were varied in every possible way, and uniformly attended with the most convincing proofs of the safety of the lamp : but as often as a candle was tried to perform the office of the lamp, the gas fired at it with a sudden and bright flash and continued to bum at the mouth of the iron pipe. &quot; With these assurances of perfect security from danger, we entered the part of the mine where the fire-damp was discharging out of the fissures in the floor. In many places it could be observed forcing up the black heavy salt water with a bubbling noise. The place where the main feeders issued was covered with a large air-tight trough, in- verted in the water ; and out of which the inflammable air was con- veyed, through a wooden-pipe, to the place in the horse-way where our first experiments were made. A current of fresh air, sufficient to render the fire-damp, which was not collected into this pipe, quite harmless? was constantly passing through this board or gallery into the adjoining horse-way. &quot; We removed the end of the pipe inserted into the trough, and im- mediately applied a candle to the roof, bringing it in the windward direction towards the opening in the trough. In a moment the train of fire-damp lighted with a flash, not unlike that of ardent spirits thrown upon a fire; it was transient, but ignited the gas at the opening of the trough, where it continued to bum with a broad lambent flame, and much smoke, and disagreeable smell. Soon after it was extinguished, the same experiment was tried with the lamp, and with the same satis- factory appearances as we had observed at the pipe in the horse- way ; but far more perfectly and clearly exemplified here, on account of the greater discharge of gas ; for the conducting pipe was not perfectly air- tight from end to end. &quot; We next placed a barrel, with both ends out, over the opening in the trough ; and after preventing the atmospherical air from ascending up n2 180 MEMOIR OP THE RET. JOHK HODGSON. it, by Intiiig it rofond the bottom with clay, brought the lamp firom the roof gently downwards into it: the fire-damp, like an unarmed and im- prisoned enemy, straggled in the inside of the cylinder, to which its foiy was invariably confined. *' We foond that if the lamp was gradually introduced into explosive mixtures of gas, it continued to bum as long as the atmosphere around it contained oxygen; but if it was suddenly plunged into highly explo- sive mixtures of fire-damp and common air, the flame was soon ex- tinguished. ** After varying the experiments here in every way we could think of, and always with the same uniform success, I ascended the shaft with the lamp still lighted; and walked with it to Mr. Dunn's house, about a distance of 300 yards, with a considerable breeze, attended with sleet, blowing in my face, and the light continued to bum without any atten- tion on my part to preserve it. *^ On Monday, the 17th [? 15th1 of January, I went down the same pit with Mr. Buddie and Mr. Dunn, when our former experiments were repeated, but in explosive atmospheres of greater extent; for we not only lessened the current of fresh air passing through the board, where the blowers of fire-damp issue, but suffered that damp to collect around us for a longer time than we had done on the preceding Tuesday. &quot; After the place where we stood had partly stagnated for about half a minute, a candle was raised gently to the roof of the mine, and cautiously advanced to windward from the leeward side of the opening in the trough. The inflammable train soon reached the light, and ex- ploded along the roof, attended with a very sensible shock. It flew from us against the current of fresh air, and kindled the gas issuing from the rents in the floor and sides of the board, which continued to bum till they were dashed out. But when the lamp was put to similar tests, it went through air in every degree of explosive state, from the slightest to fire-damp in the greatest purity that the mines produce it ; and re- trograded through the same deleterious atmosphere, without either com- municating flame to the outside of the cylinder, or being extinguished* ** These trials were sufficient to remove the most distant idea of doubt respecting the safety aflbrded by the lamp. But, that it might be used in some practical sort of way, we took it into a board where a man, by the light of a steel-mill, was hewing the pillars of coal which had been left when the mine was first wrought over, and which, by the pressure of the superincumbent strata, had sunk into the schistose stratum which composes the floor. THE SAFETY LAMP. 181 '^ All the parts of the mine here were so crushed and shattered, that a grinding noise of the dislocated strata could be distinctly heard over our heads, though the roof was supported by props and crown- trees (lintels) of wood placed nearly side by side. In places of this kind, the sides of the boards in which the men are working are often so rent that the fresh air cannot, without the greatest difficulty, be con- veyed along them to dilute the great discharge of fire-damp. It filters off through the new pillars of broken schist, and thus unavoidably renders the mine exceedingly close and warm. &quot; In the place we had now entered it was considered quite unsafe for the men to work with a candle ; though, at the moment of time we were there, the air perhaps would not have exploded at a naked flame. The lamp, indeed, burnt with a very slight increase of brilliance, and near the roof the flame of its wick spired slightly into length ; and the copper plate and the ring at its top very sensibly increased in warmth for the space of half a minute, during which time, I suppose, all the fire-damp within its influence was consumed. The experiments I have been witness to under ground, ended here ; but Mr, Buddie, Mr. Dunn, and other practical gentlemen, who have seen the lamps used in places that have not been ventilated for several years, will be able to give you still more satisfactory accounts of their great utility, and the security they afford the miner from danger by explosions. &quot; The simplicity of the lamp, in my mind, is not more remarkable than its security. If the men be only careful to trim it with clean cotton about once every third time it is used, to keep up a constant supply of clean oil, and never to raise the wick so high as to cause it to smoke, it will give as good a light as a candle, and be less troublesome ; but if they suffer a smoke to fly off the top of the flame, it will fill the apertures of the cylinder with soot. When first lighted, the wick ought to be cut straight with a pair of sharp scissors, and not suffered, while it is burning, to get encrusted with coaly specks, or get jagged, in which states it is sure to smoke and burn dimly. &quot; Another excellence of the lamp is, that in case of a stone falling upon it from the roof, the light can scarcely be exposed to the open air, for such an occurrence would either instantly extinguish the light, or merely bruise the cylinder ; for the flexible nature of the wire and other materials of the lamp render it almost impossible to break any part of it by a stone or weight falling upon it. &quot;J also feel persuaded, that the wire-gauze cylinder will give a steady and abundant light in mixtures which would explode with great fury at 182 MEMOIR OF TH£ BEY. JOHN HODGSON. a candle, and that it will continue to be highlj useful, when sparks from a steel- mill are too dull and feeble to afford the miner any assistance; in short, that the miner may continue to work with them as long as the air around him can be safely respired. I am, dear Sir Humphry, yours very respectfully, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; To those paragraphs in the preceding letter which detail the dangerous condition of that part of the mine in which a poor solitary man was working by no other light than the sparks of a steel-mill, and in which it was determined to put the power of the lamp to the most severe trial, even at the risk of its bearer and his companions, we must revert for a moment; as in this memorable experiment Hodgson took the leading part, and the circumstances connected with it are not only of an affecting nature, but also an essential part of his history. No notice had been given to the man of what was about to take place. He was alone, in an atmosphere of great danger, &quot; in the midst of life in death,'* when he saw a light approaching, apparently a candle burning openly, the effect of which he knew would be instant destruction to him and its bearer. His command was, instantly, *' Put out that candle !&quot; It came nearer and nearer : no regard was paid to his cries, which then became of the most terrific kind, mingled with awfiil imprecations against the comrade, for such he took Hodgson to be, who was tempting death in so rash and certain a way. Still not one word was said in reply. The light continued to approach, and then oaths were turned into prayers that his request might be granted, until there stood before him, silently exulting in his heart, a grave and thoughtful man, a man whom he well knew and respected, who, four years before, had buried in one common grave ninety-one of his fellow- work- men, holding up in his sight with a gentle smile the triumph of science, the future safeguard of the pitman. It must, I fear, be admitted that Hodgson and his friends acted unwisely in this proceeding. They might feel assured that against foul air the lamp would be a sure protection, but how could they calculate against the sudden death of the poor man from absolute terror, — such things have happened, — or upon what a man might be driven to do in his despair? In his death throe, as it THE 8AJFETT LAMP. 183 were, of agony, the man threatened to send his pick through the body of him who was coming on, as he thought, in so rash away ; and who would have said that he was not justified in so acting? It is probable that Hodgson had afterwards come to the conclusion that his conduct in this matter had been injudicious; for he would not willingly converse on the subject; but, be it as it may, it is an event in his history of no every-day kind or occurrence, which must not be passed over by his biographer in silence. The lamp which Mr. Hodgson carried in his hand in his descent into the bowels of the earth, that &quot; aureus ramus &quot; of sovereign virtue against all the infernal influences of the pitman's *' avemus,&quot; was in 1830 presented by him to Miss Emma Trevelyan of Wallington (Mrs. Wyndham), who gave it to her brother Mr. Arthur Trevelyan, by whom it was placed in the Museum of Practical Geology in London, along with Hodgson's letter to his sister, and another lamp used on the same occasion. To Miss EMMA TREVELYAN. &quot; Dear Miss Emma, 17th January, 1880. &quot; I request the favour of your giving the two Davys I send here- with a place in your museum. They are the first that were ever used in a coal-mine. You will find an account of the experiments made with them on the 9th and 17tli of January, 1816, in the first volume of the Journal of the Royal Institution, p. 131. &quot; I also send you an impression of a curious Mithraic Seal in the Library of the College at Durham ; and some more paper,* with my best {hanks for what you have done. Yours very truly, «* John Hodgson.&quot; Before we leave the subject of the lamp, it may be proper to lay before the reader the three following letters. The first gives proof of the anxiety with which Mr. Hodgson watched over the new discovery in its infancy, and thought of such alterations in its mechanism as might have a tendency to promote its greater use- * Miss Emma Trevelyan had been a while before busily employed in making transcripts for Hodgson's use, from books lent to him by the author. These transcripts he quotes in the subsequent volumes of his History under the title of Baine's Testamenta. See Preface to Part ii. vol. i. p. vii. and viij. 184 MEMOIR OP THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. fulness and security. The second speaks of a contemplated Essay on Coal and its History ; and the third of an honour, which, humble as it was, appears to have been received with a hearty welcome* To SiE HUMPHRY DAVY. &quot; Dear Sib HuMPmiT, High Heworth near Gateshead, 20th May, 1816. &quot; When Mr. Ellison was down about a fortnight since, I hoped to have sent a lamp of Coxa's making, and such as is now in use ; but as the one he sent me had a loose burner, I have waited till he executed one in such a manner as to remove all the practical objections which occurred to the miners ; and I am now happy to offer you one, differing in a very slight manner from those you sent down as models, which in practice offers to pass without objection. The colliers grow much attached to them, and emulous in keeping them in order. Coxe every day receives fresh orders, and I believe they are now come into very general use, both in the Tyne and Wear districts. Some other workmen in Newcastle, I hear, have begun to make them ; but in a manner much inferior to those sent out by Coxe. &quot; The cylinder upon the new lamp is of tinned iron wire, and the first that has been made. I hope they wiU answer the purpose of prevent- ing rust and strengthening the gauze ; and that Coxe will succeed in his next attempt in putting the tin on after the cylinder is formed, which will secure the seam from bursting open. I have in experiments tried this sort of gauze, and though the tin melts in strong heats it does not flow off the wire. &quot; The lamps sent by Mr. Newman answered extraordinarily well, and no possible fault could be found with them, excepting that of the coal dust hardening on the ledge around the bottom of the cylinder, and the great weakness of the top of the cylinder. I have seen several of them at Coxe's shop getting repaired, and the only things they want are new upright wires and a. stronger top. The screw for the aperture for supplying the oil was wanting in several of them; but a good cork answers every purpose. They had been much in use for nearly a month, I believe about sixteen hours in every twenty-four on every working day, and the cylinders, excepting one that had been thrown into very salt water, and afterwards neglected, were all still in good order. &quot; From the general report of the miners, I find there are admixtures of gas in which they think it not prudent to use the lamps, and yet in THE SAFETY LAMP. 185 which they can still breathe and work with steel-mills. Mr. Hill told me that in South Shields Colliery he tried a board with one, and that it was no sooner introduced into impure air, than the whole cylinder was heated to redness ; but that in an attempt the following week, under all apparent similar circumstances, to try how long the gauze would be in burning through, the lamp stood in an explosive mixture for nearly half an hour, without even becoming red. I do indeed believe that hydrogen exists in the mines in every degree of purity in which it is produced by distillation from coal, and in the several combinations in which it mixes with carbon ; because its inflammability is much greater in stagnated parts of mines, than it is either in combination with a current of atmospherical air, or as it issues out of the floors of mines from lower strata of coal. This opinion is, however, entirely theoretical, and therefore undeserving of attention. From the facts, however, that the lamp in some mixtures of mine gas and common air heats to redness ahnost instantaneously, 1 was lately so much impressed with the idea that a regulator of the quantity of air to be admitted within the cylinder might be advantageously employed, that 1 got a cylinder of tin plate made for that purpose, and have taken the liberty of inclosing it with the lamp in use. The experiments I have made with it have been very unsatisfactory, but it has never been tried in a mine, and 1 have no other methods of producing gas from coal but by a common retort ^ which has no purifying apparatus attached to it, and by a Wolfe's apparatus ; the former of which throws up so -much smoke and other impurities with it as to prevent one being led to anything conclusive ; and the latter requires a nicety of experiment which I have had no leisure to attend to. I got the cylinder made of tin plate with sofl; solder, think- ing that if it heated so much as to melt the joints it would be useless, and if it stood the test of the strongest heat that could be produced, while the light continued sujfflcient, that it might be made of copper with hard solder for working purposes: but as explosive mixtures of gas, when the apertures were nearly all covered, had the effect of falling upon the flames as if grains of gunpowder had been dropt upon it, and of making the light extremely dull and imsteady, I despaired of any advantage being derived from the contrivance. When the regulator left one-third of an inch of the gauze uncovered the solder melted, and left the cylinder in the space of three minutes in the state you see it. Perhaps with a cylinder made of copper, wide enough not to heat with the ordinary flame of the lamp, it might answer better. But this should still be borne in mind, that, however successful it might prove, it would 186 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. be useless, except in extraordinary cases, for the gauze cylinder answers, even with the little experience the miners have had of it, all ordinary purposes, and there can be no doubt but a farther acquaintance with its properties will enable them to manage it in every situation to which they can carry it. '^ The conversations of the common colliers respecting the lamp, where it has been some time in use, I am told, are very amusing and interesting. They have not yet ceased to wonder at its magic-like properties, and seem divided in their opinion whether to regard it as something pre- ternatural, or an instrument subject to the common laws of causes and effects. Many of them have an extraordinary pride in keeping them bright, and they have fallen into very simple and easy methods of cleaning the gauze. They use small brushes to remove the soot and dust which settle on the gauze and obscure the light while they are at work. As soon as they reach their homes, after work, the cylinder is unscrewed and placed upon the grate stone, where it remains till all the dust and soot upon the gauze is completely dry, and in that state a few gentle taps with the nail of the second finger stricken from the under side of the thumb render it perfectly clean. They have also fallen well into the way of keeping them properly trimmed, which causes less soot to be thrown off the flame, and more light to be given than they had in their former trials. &quot; At the time I was put upon the expedient of regulating the quan- tity of air admitted into the cylinder, I heard a great deal about the alarming appearances which the burning gas exhibited when mixed with small particles of coal. If I well understood Mr. Buddie's account of it, the atoms of ignited coal flashed and floated about in the flame with an effect something like fire-works in miniature: but such ap- pearances seem to me no way indicative of danger, excepting when attended with great heat.'' [The writer of the letter here gives an amusing account of the anonymous proceedings of one of Davy's rivals in the discovery of the lamp, which may remain where it is for the present.] &quot; I beg pardon for troubUng you with so long a letter, but being desirous that you should see the lamp in its present state, I thought it my duty to send some account of its success along with it, and with this opportunity before me I could not refrain from mentioning 's very malignant proceedings. I am, dear Sir Humphry, very respectfully, your most obedient humble servant, J. H.&quot; THE SAFETY LAMP. 187 To Sir HUMPHRY DAVY. 23 May, 1816. ** I hope in the course of this summer to write a paper on the forma- tion of some of the coal strata of this country for the Royal Society. I think I mentioned to you that I hoped by microscopical observations to discover vegetable remains in the cropping of a stratum of coal near this place, and I have succeeded in discovering numerous impressions in it with the naked eye. I have also found that the schistose bed below it contains pieces of very beautiful charcoal. &quot; I apprehend that I could procure the cast of a considerable tree which was found in an upright position in the floor of Jarrow colliery, and send it easily to London, if you should think it worth the accept- ance of either the Royal Society or Royal Institution. &quot; John Hodgson/* An extract from Hodgson's Journal for the 3rd of May, 1841, refers to this subject : ft &quot;In 1816 Sir Humphry Davy offered me to be made a member of the Royal Society, which I declined, because I understood it would cost me three or four pounds per year. He asked me also to write a paper on coal, which I had not time to write well. The history of coal, its origin, &amp;c. were little known — required much investigation; though I had thought much on the subject.&quot; To Sir HUMPHRY DAVY. « Dear Sir, 27 May, 1816. *&lt; The Antiquarian Society of Newcastle desire me to present you with the inclosed certificate of your election into their body. Were it not for the important services you have rendered to this neigh- bourhood by your late discoveries of the properties of flame by this successful application to controul the dreadfiil energies of inflam- mable mine-damp, they would have considered themselves as guilty of an unwarrantable liberty in adding your name to their roll; but they hope that strong sensations of gratitude for the humanity and admira- tion of the talents which elicited that great discovery will in some de- gree apologize for the honour they have done themselves. &quot; I am, dear Sir Humphry, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; 188 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. Siu H. DAVY TO Mb. HODGSON. &quot; June 28, 1816. '&lt; I b^ yon, my dear Sir, to present my thanks to the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle for the honour they have done me, and receive my thanks for the flattering manner in which you have communicated to me my election. Whatever connects me with your interesting country is very agreeable to me, and one of the purest pleasures of my life arises from the circumstances to which you so kindly recur. I am, dear Sir, &amp;c.&quot; In September Hodgson paid a short visit to Edinburgh accom- panied by a friend from France, apparently a merchant trading occasionally to Newcastle. Of this visit or its object I have no other information than what is contained in the following extract from a letter addressed to his wife at home ; which proves that in time of need he could lay aside his usual quiet and peaceftd de- meanour and stand up for himself. To Mbs. HODGSON. &quot;Edinburgh, 13 Sept. 1815. &quot; We were just in time for the coach on Monday morning; but from the avarice of the clerk in taking pay for a greater number than the coaches are allowed to carry, we found that more had mounted the top than could be conveyed: the bill was, therefore, produced, and our names called over, mine and 's not being found, we were ordered down ; but, as I insisted that I both took the seats and paid for them on Saturday, whereas others that were on the coach had only been booked on Sunday, the guard desired me to speak with the * Master.' , it was also agreed, sh&lt;^ go along with me; but, as we entered the staircase by the light of the ostler's lanthom, I heard the coach begin to move, and, before it got half way along Collingwood Street, I overtook it, seized the horses by the head, turned the two first around, and would not suffer them to move till the clerk came; he arrived in about three or four minutes, and then w^ have it that I took seats in the six-o'clock coach, which goes by Coldstream and Kelso to Edin- burgh; but as he had not entered me, even into the bill of that coach, and he could not deny having received my money, I positively refused allowing the coach to go off without me; and after near 20 minutes of C0REE8P0NDENCE. 1 89 altercation, I gained my point, and two sailors were ordered off the top. The passengers in the inside were much pleased with the resistance I gave, and the few people who were in the street at the time declared they never heard of so abominable an attempt to defraud and disappoint any person ; as our trunks and great coats were in the coach when it set off, and the guard had satisfied himself that we had paid our money on Saturday, from seeing my name with £3 opposite to it. I was much pleased with having so successfully gained my point; as it would have been a great disappointment not to have proceeded, when we had set off from home, and a mortification to be bamboozled by the clerk and guard of a coach.&quot; In the year 1816, I find Mr. Hodgson corresponding with several literary and antiquarian friends, but unfortunately no copies of his own letters have been preserved. Mr. Thomas Davidson writes to him on the subject of certain ancient gold beads, with respect to which he contributed a paper to the Transactions of the Newcastle Society. Mr. Wilson, Rector of Wolsingham, writes to him on Eoman Antiquities, Mr. Surtees for local information to be incorporated in the second volume of his History of Dur- ham, Mr. David Constable on the subject of Bishop Richard de Bury, and his Philobiblon, &amp;c. &amp;c.


1817—1818. History of Northumberland — Histories of Northumberland — Correspondence — Mons. Gallois — Essay on Brass and other Metals — Mr. Surtees's History of Durham — History of Northumberland abandoned — Resumed — Mr. T. Bewick. In January 1817 Hodgson was informed by Mr. J. Norris Brewer, that &quot; The Beauties of England and Wales,&quot; to which he had been a contributor in 1811 and 1812, was completed ; that an Introduction to be prefixed to the work was preparing by the writer of the letter, and that, as a few pages would be devoted to additions and corrections to the preceding volumes, an opportunity would be presented to him for revising his Views of Northumber- land and Westmerland for that purpose. With this suggestion he complied, and forwarded to the editor ten pages of additional matter for his account of Northumberland, leaving Westmerland to stand as it had been published. Soon afterwards, in the spring and summer of this year, we find Mr. Hodgson again engaged in surveying the County of Northum- land for his own long-projected history. On the 26th of May he leaves his home, upon an expedition into Westmerland and Cum- berland, to prosecute certain geological inquiries, of which he has left copious notes ; but upon his return, as soon as he crosses the hills, and enters Northumberland, his Journal is chiefly devoted to topographical researches, which occupy many pages. There are in the volimie numerous pen-and-ink sketches of Eoman re- mains, churches, gravestones, measurements of camps, &amp;c. The following letter to Mrs. Hodgson was written during another ex- pedition undertaken ^oon afterwards for the same purposes. To Mrs. HODGSON. &quot; My Dear Jane, Blenkinsop House, 6 o'clock Thursday morning, 1817. &quot; Thank God for this most blessed weather. The hay -harvest here is going on very expeditiously, and everything looks abimdant. I had HISTORY OP NORTHUMBERLAND. 191 a very wet day in coining from Chesters to this place ; and even on Sunday it began to rain as I passed Felling brewery, and continued till I reached Heddon-on-the-Wall. But I have felt no bad effect from the duckings. The chaise that is to take us to Haltwhistle is in sight. Col. Coulson and Mr. Adamson go on to Newcastle, and I go up Halt- whistle-bum, and return homewards by the Roman &quot;Wall to Sewing Shields Castle ; and then by Hexham and the country through Hexham- shire, Slaley, and Lead-gate to Swalwell ; and hope to see you and the dear children on Saturday: but not Newcastle on that day. I have passed this morning through a shrubber}'' in the garden here much en- twined with woodbine; and certainly nothing can be more sweet than the perfume is. With affectionate remembrances to all at the Shore, and love to thee, and the dear bairns, my dear, I am thine, '* John Hodgson.** From this time, with, one slight interruption in his plans in the following year, this subject, A History of the County of North- umberland, occupied Hodgson's leisure hours during the remainder of his life ; and to show that such a publication was needed, this may not be an unsuitable place for a few remarks upon the histories of the county, if they deserve the name, which had been previously put forth by other authors. For the county of Northumberland, before the time of Hodgson, little had been done in the way of real topographical description. Grey's Chorographia, published in quarto in 1649, refers chiefly to the town of Newcastle, the information which it contains respect- ing the county at large being confined to a mere list &quot; of the Noble and Ancient Families of the North and their Castles.&quot; Horsley's Britannia Eomana, published in 1732, is entirely devoted to subjects of Eoman History. Bourne, like Grey, takes Newcastle for his field, but he has a few interesting notices of the Baronies in the county which were bound to render guard- service to the Newcastle. His History of Newcastle was published in 1736, for the benefit of his widow and children. Horsley in like manner had not lived to see the fruit of his labours. The next writer to be mentioned is Warburton, a man who supplies us with a somewhat early instance of an act of dishonesty which has of late years been but too common, especially in the North of Eng- land, that of pilfering by wholesale from previous writers without 192 MEMOIB OF THE BEV. JOHN HODGSON. due permission, or acknowledgment. Warburton steals from Horsley in every page, melting down the sterling and stately folios of tlie latter into a book of a more commodious size and more convenient price. But I now come to an author of a differ- ent character. The Eev. John Wallis, in his History of Northumberland, in two vols. 4to, takes an extensive field, and his efforts, at a period when dry detail and soporific dulness bore full sway in topogra- phical publications, prove that its author was no slavish imitator? but a man of judgment, who had carefiilly given his mind to his task, with a view to render it interesting to the general reader, as well as a vehicle of usefiJ. information. The book, moreover, is written in a good spirit and feeling, leading to the conclusion that Mr. Wallis was a man of gentlemanly taste and education. The work is, as I have said, in two volumes, and was published in 1769, with 230 subscribers, many of whom engaged to purchase more than one copy. I have in my possession the copy on large paper which belonged to Mr. Cade of Gainford, copiously illustrated by its owner, in both volumes, with plates gathered from all quarters on subjects of Natural History and Antiquities; and it is indeed a goodly book. The work itself was not accompanied with embellishments. The first volume is chiefly devoted to Natural History, and contains twelve chapters on that subject, in its various departments; with a thirteenth, comprising a few* pleasing biographical sketches of eminent men connected with the county. That Wallis was a better naturalist than an antiquary is most certain. Twenty years of his life had deen devoted to that captivating pursuit ; .and even in the present day, his labours in the wide and most fertile field of Natural History are well known and highly appreciated. On this department of his History of Northumberland he thus modestly writes in his prefece : &quot; In such an enlightened age as this, to send abroad the Natural History and Antiquities of a county is an arduous work. How well I have succeeded will be left to the decision of able and competent judges, possessed of the happy spirit of urbanity and good nature. It is now upwards of twenty years since I first turned my thoughts to the study of Natural History; rather for amusement, than for any design of casting my observations under an historical form HISTORY OP NORTHUMBERLAND. 193 for public view: rocks and dales, woods, heaths, hills, and mountains, the shores of rivulets and the ocean, being my company in the hours of leisure and relaxation ; after leaving that august and venerable and truly charming and delightful seat of learning, the University of Oxford; wherein upwards of seven years of my earliest days were spent.&quot; Of the concluding volume I give a description from a short memoir of Wallis by Hodgson, his successor in the field of Northumbrian History, in his vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 70. '* The second volum&quot;5 is on the antiquities of the coimty, and, considering the scantiness of the printed information on the subject when the author published, is certainly not only a copious, but a very correct account. In the history of estates and families, in particular, its value is great ; and, in confirmation of this assertion, I would refer the reader to the article BeUay^ at page 539.&quot; Still, however, excellent though the work be, as far as it goes, it contains little of general or ecclesiastical detail, no parochial subdivision, and none of that account of descent, either of property or family, essential to a good county history. The volume is arranged in three Joumies, descriptive merely of the more remarkable places, or noticing only the great leading estates ; some parishes are not even mentioned. It is, as Dr. Cyril Jack- son once said of one of Dr. Whitaker's early topographical publi- cations, a mere &quot;scarifying of the surface;'* an attempt, excellent as far as it goes, but still only an attempt. Hodgson^s admira- tion of the character and works of Wallis was generous and sincere. I have already alluded to his memoir of him in his own History of Northumberland, to which I would refer the reader, and I may here give an extract firom a letter written by him in 1831, to another eminent naturalist, the late Mr. Winch of Newcastle, as it is probable that room may not be found in the sequel for the letter itself. Winch was printing his Flora of Northumberland for the Transactions of the Newcastle Natural History Society, and he writes to Hodgson for information about Wallis, '* for,'' says he, &quot;it is a pity that this part at least of the kingdom should know nothing about so indefatigable a naturalist.*' Hodgson, in reply, thus writes. &quot; I venerate the name of Wallis; he was an amiable-minded highly useful man ; and filled his situation in life with zeal and credit. As an author he was remarkable for 194 MEMOIB OF THE B£V. JOHH HODGSON. integrity and simplicity. He never borrows a &amp;ct without ac- knowledging where he obtained it, nor, with his subject, ever brings himself into notice.^ He then proceeds to give a few particulars of Wallis^s life and history, which are more fiilly detailed in the memoir alluded to, written at a later period than the letter; and also a notice of certain indignities which appear to have driven Wallis from his curacy. To these Mr. Winch barely alludes in his printed paper; and I therefore transcribe from the memoir one or two paragrapEs on the subject, especially as Hodg- son himself comes in as a hearsay witness against such insolent impertin^ice.* &quot; On the death of Mr. Wastell (the rector of Simonbum) in 1771, James Scott, B.D., a polished courtier, a polite man of the world, and a bold and eloquent preacher, succeeded to the rectory ; which was con- ferred upon him by Lord North, as a reward for his political services. Wallis, who had for a long time administered nearly the whole of the duties of the parish, found himself under the command of a proud and overbearing superior, who had more regard for his spaniels than his curate These favourites attended their master to the church; and on one occasion, when they attempted to accompany him to the pulpit, Wallis, who occupied the reading desk, was ordered to put them out, but refused; an act of disobedience for which he was driven from Simonbum.&quot; And now Hodgson himself steps forward to tell us somewhat more of Dr. Scott, and of what he himself heard from his lips, no doubt to his infinite disgust. He was at that time making a survey of the county for its history in the ** Beauties of England and Wales,&quot; above spoken of. &quot; What,&quot; said Dr. Scott to me, in an interview I had with him in 1810, * what occasion is there for any more histories of Northumberland? My curate, Wallis, wrote a very large one. He was an old wife; and fond of what he called the beauties and retirements of the glen on the south side of the church there :' and then he laughed at his own sagacity and sneer.&quot; If any one will take the trouble to open WaUis's first volume, and look at p. 50, he will see the curious investigation which '* the old wife &quot; was making *' in that glen on the south * See also above, p. 140. HISTORY OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 195 side of the church there,** and which led to the following result, to be given in his own words from one of the most interesting chapters in his book, wholly devoted to an account of this inquiry : *' I was/* says he *' about two winters, and as many summers, in seasonable weather, in the midst of very ill health, in digging this hill and bringing it into the form described; and did not at first expect to meet with such irrefragable testimonies of a deluge, and least of all this valuable sand.'* But I return to Hodgson. It woTild be a sin to withhold his concluding remarks: &quot; Dr. Scott had a keen insight into human nature : but, if I esteem only such men as I can make the willing panders of my ambition or my pleasure, over how many of the wise and the good must I look with contempt and scorn ! Wallis was too artless and innocent to become the tool of a haughty and insolent churchman; and, while he had the authority of the Highest in antiquity for meditation in the olive grove and the garden, the dene of the church of Simon- bum might well be counted sacred with him. But he was banished from these favourite haunts ' to seek for shelter * where he could find it; and, if his soul afterwards continued armour-proof against * the stings and arrows ' of human neglect, it was only because its trust was not on man for support and consolation.&quot; It would, perhaps, be no difficult matter to point out the man whom Hodgson had in his eye when the latter, part of this paragraph was committed to paper. The next publication in point of time affecting the History of Northumberland is that of Hutchinson, which was published in 1778, in two volumes, quarto, illustrated by numerous engravings, and entitled, *' A View of Northumberland, with an Excursion to the Abbey of Mailross in Scotland.&quot; In a short preface, the author modestly speaks of his book as *' a compilation, for such with the utmost deference I must call it;&quot; and in truth it is nothing more; interspersed here and there with sentimental reflections, and the other usual and at that time fashionable make-weights of such undertakings. It, •also, like that of Wallis, purports to contain the result of several rambles or rides in the county, in different directions, but so as to touch only at the principal towns or localities within its limits, totally omitting all parochial detail ; and in its historical parts it relies chiefly upon the authority of Wallis, of o2 196 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN H0D680K. whose labours mucli use is made, and little sud in the way of acknowledgment. On Roman subjects connected with the Wall, and the other remains of that nation in the county, the writer quotes largely from the works of Horsley and Warburton, and also the correspondence of Sir John Clerk, Mr. Cay, Mr. Maurice Johnson, Dr. Stukeley, Mr. Patten, Dr. Hunter, Mr. Place, and others, then in MS., and afterwards published, with the title &quot; Reliquiae Galeanae,&quot; in the Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica by Gough. Many neat etchings by Bailey from drawings by him- self add considerable interest and value to the book, as in archi* tectural detail the sketches of that gentleman may be relied upon for their accuracy; and since his time many of the buildings of which he has given a representation, have either altogether disappeared, or have been so tampered with as no longer to give any correct idea of their original state or condition. About this time Mr. George Allan of the Grange, near Darlington, printed at his private press, Randall's &quot; State of the Churches within the Archdeaconry of Northumberland,&quot; containing a list of their respective incumbents from the earliest recorded period; with occ^onal notes purely of an ecclesiastical nature; and not unfrequently this valuable, and now rare tract, is found bound up with Hutchinson's &quot; View,&quot; enhancing its value on account of the additional and correct information which it contains, on subjects of which the book itself affords no particulars.* Up to Hodgson's time, therefore, there was, strictly speaking, no History of Northumberland worthy of the name ; nothing of its *' Origines,&quot; no account of its British or Saxon owners or their works, no general detail of descent of property or blood, no parochial description, and the records of the stirring and romantic transactions belonging to its history as a border county, or to its own internal feuds, — the inhabitants of one dale waging deadly war against those of another more frequently than living in peace and concord, — were sleeping under a covering of dust in the « * It is perhaps hardly necessary to add to the above enomerationy Brand's &quot; New- castle/* a lumbering book in two thick quarto volumes of the same nature as Grey and Bourne above mentioned, into which its author seems to have emptied the gatherings of a long-continued common-place book, without much selection or condensation. The book contains few notices of Northumberland at large. HISTORY OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 197 public or private repositories of the kimgdom. But, in addition to all this, there was that mighty belt of stone the Eoman Wall demanding a new historian. Horsley's *' Britannia Komana ^' was an admirable performance at the time it was given to the world (1732), and no one was more ready than Hodgson at all times to own its merit, and do ample justice to the judicious labours of its author ; but nearly a hundred years had elapsed since its publica- tion, and many most important discoveries, historical and mytho- logical, had been made; the earth had in the course of the century disclosed many secrets previously concealed in its bosom; old theories, respecting the original projector and finisher of the barrier and its accompaniments, were beginning to be questioned, and Hodgson, from long previous study and repeated personal investigations, felt himself equal to the task, not merely of revising Horsley, but of undertaking and completing such an original history of the Barrier, as might set all doubt as to its builder at rest for ever. To anticipate, in some measure, the substance of any subsequent remarks upon this subject to be advanced in a future page, one observation may here be made, that, whatever of his plan for a history of Northumberland Hodgson was compelled by want of encouragement or death to leave unfinished, his History of the Eoman Wall is perfect; the result of not fewer than thirty years of anxious thought and painful investigation ; completed, it may be, in declining health, but in the full vigour of his intellect, and having enjoyed, as could be proved, in every line the benefit of his own revising and correcting hand. In this work coadjutor he had none, and posterity will do justice to his labour. To MoNS. DE GALLOIS.* &quot; My Dear Sir, High Heworth, 2nd of March, 1818. **Last Thursday was to myself and my wife a day of great rejoicing and pleasure, inasmuch as it brought to High Heworth tidings of one whose stay with us we shall always remember with the most * This gentleman, who was a Frenchman , was introduced to Hodgson by Dr. Yel* lolej in 1816, and lived for a short time under his roof at Heworth whilst in a state of ill health. The following extract from Hodgson's Journal terminates the unhappy 198 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. lively satisfaction ; and for wbom we shall always cherish the warmest affection and esteem. There could be no necessity for the apologies you make for being so long in writing, for I can well understand how you have been every day occupied since you left us ; and I am myself a most dilatory correspondent. While you were in London I once or twice heard of your being seen by friends of mine ; once by Mr. Losh, and at Paris by Mr. Lamb. After your long absence I heartily con- gratulate you and Madame Gallois on your reunion ; and my wife desires to join me in the most kind and respectful expressions of friendship and regard both to yourself and to her for whom you so often shewed such symptoms of deep affection and interest while you were with us. I shall always remember your sighings for your home and your family during your hours of indisposition. Should your son ever visit this part of the world, I trust you will be able to prevail with him to spend the time requisite to see Newcastle and its neighbourhood with me. It always gave me pain that there should be any necessity for pecuniary considerations between myself and you; but in the manner we were first introduced to each other it could not perhaps be otherwise. With your son, if ever I shall have the happiness to see him, it must not be so. My house must be his home during his stay with me; and the longer he can make his visit the more welcome it will be both to my wife and myself. The book which you so kindly offer me I shall receive as a token of friendship and regard ; and preserve it as a memento of one whom it is almost more than probable I shall never again have the happiness to see. My literary friends are all rejoiced to hear that you have it in contemplation to publish an account of your observations in England. ** On inquiry at Mr. Losh's office, I find that a ship will leave this port for Rouen to-morrow. I shall therefore take the opportunity of it to send you the publication the value of which you much overrate by requesting a copy of it.* My essay wants many apologies. It has many errors in it; some of them blunders of my own; others originating in the carelessness of my associates. The last correction of the press was committed to the care of my fellow-secretary, who is a lawyer ; and hbtory of hb friend : &quot; 1833, 11 May. Mr. Buddie told me yesterday that he was informed that my good friend De Gallois got so fretted by misfortunes and the hard temper of his wife that he threw himself from a window, and was killed by the fall. He used to say of her, shaking his head, * Oh ! my wife is unamiable of temper.*&quot; ♦ Hodgson's Essay on the Uses of Brass and Iron; communicated to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, and published in their Transactions. M. DE GALLOI8. 199 in the hurry of business not over attentire to literal acciiracy : but I have made the material corrections with a pen. This essay was not in- tended as a general history of the knowledge and use of Brass and Iron amongst the ancients, but merely, what it pretends to be, an inquiry into the sera when brass was used in arms and edge-tools, and con- sequently when such use gave way to iron. 1 shall, as soon as the weather grows warm, have an opportunity of sending you a letter in a parcel which, at Mr. Losh's request, I am making up for M. Broigniart, and which will consist of a series of the organic remains found in the strata of this neighbourhood. My sister, to whom you so kindly beg to be remembered, has been for some time in Cumberland. My wife and children request their kindest love to M. Gallois, and we beg to unite with you our most sincere good wishes and regard to Madame Gallois. May the kindness of Heaven ever watch over you. Yours always, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; The Essay to which allusion is made in the above letter is doubtless '* An Enquiry,&quot; by Mr. Hodgson, '* into the jEra when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron is now applied,&quot; com- municated to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, and printed in the first volume of their Transactions, p. 17. Wlien it is stated that this essay extends over upwards of eighty closely printed quarto pages, and affords references to almost every author, sacred and profane, by whom the various metals, from gold downwards, are mentioned, it will readily be imagined that it manifests a wide extent of reading, and contains much minute and curious infor- mation on the subjects upon which it professes to treat. The &quot; conclusions&quot; respecting iron, bronze, brass, &amp;c. at the end of the paper, abound with interest. I make the following extract from the opening of the Essay, to indicate the object which Hodgson had in view. &quot; Having stated in a conversation at the meeting at which the brazen sword from Ewart Park was presented to the Society (Feb. 18, 1815,) my opinion that arms of that kind were not in use among the Romans for a long time prior to the occupation of Britain by that people ; I now, in compliance with the M'^ish of some of the members of this body, en- deavour not only to substantiate that opinion, but to shew from Hebrew, Greek, and Roman testimony, the eras in which brass was used in war- like instruments by these and some other nations of antiquity, and to 200 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. draw some such general conclusions respecting the introduction of brazen arms into this country, as are deducible from the intercourse, generally allowed to exist, between the Britons and the people inhabiting the islands and borders of the Mediterranean Sea, prior to the Boman invasion.'* Pbom ROBERT SURTEES, Esq. &quot; Dear Sm, MaiMforth, April 10, 1818. '' I shall feel much indebted to you if you will take the trouble to run over my manuscript sketch of Jarrow, &amp;c., and will have the goodness to prevent my falling into any gross mistake or local blunder. You will believe me I am far from wishing to trespass on your private province, or anticipate any select materials for your proposed history. I only wish to give a fair general account of the place, its present appearance, and the descent of property. If any of the documents, &amp;c. referred to in my MS. can be of use to you, I shall be happy to send you fuller references or extracts; I mean chiefly those from the Treasury ; and I shall be in Durham soon for some time. I have thrown together a few queries on the other page ; your answers to which will fill some lamentable blanks. Scribble where and as you like, on the MS. or opposite to it; just as may give you the least trouble. Yours very truly, « R. SUBTEES.&quot; &quot; Jarrow. Perpetual Curacy. What does the endowment consist of ? any glebe? Did you not tell me of an odd freehold, which does not touch the ground, consisting only of an upper story? &quot; Heworth CJhapelry. Is it under Jarrow, or joined to it — ^a separate presentation — or how? ' &quot; There is a vague old story that all the people in Simonside died of the plague in the time of Elizabeth; and that four neighbouring townships, I forget which, seized on the deserted lands and divided them. &quot; Would you wish any thing to be said in my publication as to the collieries at Felling, the fatal explosion, &amp;c., or will you keep the subject whole as Monarch of the Mines? in which case I will only refer to your ftiture account. &quot; I have made great use in Gateshead, &amp;c. of your good guide to Newcastle. I know the second edition is yours, or chiefly yours ; but I feel delicate whether in quoting it I may say so, or whether you chuse to keep on your mask and be Mr. Anonymous. Direct me herein. {Many other queries.) MB. SURT£E8. 201 &quot; If you.could find time, you could not do better than come over when I am in Durham, and I shall be glad to give you my labour. I can give you meat and drink, but being only in lodgings have no bed to offer you. I send you the gold Galba found in a potato field at Chester-le- Street two years ago, as you perhaps never saw it. Be so good as return it in the parcel to Mainsforth or Durham. It is said other Roman coins have been found in Chester, but I never saw any of them.&quot; Fbou ROBERT SURTEES, Esq. &quot; Dear Sib, Monday, April 18, 1818. &quot; I am ashamed to trouble you so soon again, but the hurry I was in to send off the parcel on Friday night (which I trust you received) drove several things out of my head. &quot; Coin of Egfrith.* What were they doing when it was found? How many coins were there ? Who have any of them now ? Did you not tell me something more about the earthen vessel than is printed? Is the print in Archaeol. ^1. accurate? I observe in Ruding's plates the reverse is represented — the cross within palmated branches rather than rays, if rays they be ; and the epigraph is a little different. Do you really think it is Lux f Harold's coins have certainly Fax. &quot; May we say that High Heworth, or Whitehouses, or both, have an extensive prospect over part of the vale of Tyne and over the heights beyond Newcastle ? &quot;The Bell — what is its history? Can you make anything of the inscription? Was it brought from Gateshead? for I see an entry there of the folks giving the Utell hell to Mr. Ellison for Heworth Chapel about 1702. I have the entry from the Churchwarden's books. &quot; Dawes. Is the inscription correct? Will you forgive this scrawl? I am in a vortex of papers, &amp;c. which I have forgot the way through in my long peregrinations. Yours very truly, &quot; R. SURTEES.&quot; Various other letters from Mr. Surtees, about this period, prove that Hodgson rendered him much service in his second volume of the History of Durham. I now arrive at a letter from Hodgson to Sir J. E. Swinburne, which proves that his resolution to write a History of Northum- * See aboTe, p. 166. 202 UEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. berland was bediming to give way, for various cogent reasons which are set forth in his communication. Singularly enough, I have no recollection whatever of the arrangement proposed as an alternative; in which, as it is stated, I was to have taken a part; nor do I remember my holding any conversation with Mr. Surtees on the subject : in all probability the plan had been mentioned to us, as the next best thing to be done in the event of an abandonment of the History itself; but it was quite a surprise to me to find, in compiling this memoir, that the subject had gone so far in Hodgson's mind. At all events the scheme was no sooner formed than laid aside ; and the History proceeded, as we shall see, with- out Airther interruption. In truth, he began to print his first volume towards the end of the year. To Sir J. E. SWINBURNE, Bart. ^* Dear Sir John, High Heworth, near Ghiteahead, April 21, 1818. '' I am at last, and with great reluctance, compelled to relinquish my design of writing a History of the County of Northumberland. To finish such an undertaking, in a creditable manner, would take me one year's constant residence in Durham, and another in London; and many years of imremitting labour in the county, besides an expense in travelling, &amp;c. &amp;c., which no county history can ever repay. &quot;I am, however, unwilling that the labours I have already bestowed upon this interesting county should be entirely thrown away ; and have therefore, in conjunction with Mr. Surtees of Mamsforth, the Rev. Mr. Raine of Durham, and Sir C. Sharp, arranged a plan of giving to the public, at a reasonable rate, a vast mass of important records respecting Northimiberland, &amp;c. &quot; Our plan is to print, at Newcastle, * A Quarterly Journal of Records, &amp;c., respecting Northumberland and the other Northern Counties.' We propose that the book should, in type and paper, be as near a resem- blance as possible to ' The Journal of Science and the Arts,' edited at the Royal Institution, and the same in size. ** At first the Transactions of the Antiquarian Society presented itself as a proper vehicle for bringing out our plan ; but, upon mature con- sideration, we find the funds of that body totally inadequate to meet such a design ; and we hope that when they are again recruited our labours will not be foimd to interfere with its objects. HISTORY OF NORTHUMBERLAND ABANDONED. 203 ** Besides our own private collections of materials for our intended work, the Treasury of the Dean and Chapter of Durham abounds in the most curious and important documents — many of them coeval with the foundation of the Priory there ; and regular books of all their expenses, correspondence, &amp;c. of the Priors, till the Dissolution, and of the Dean and Chapter since. The Bishop^s Library at Durham has lately been enriched by the addition of about seventy volumes of MSS., called the Mickleton Collection. One of them is wholly in the handwriting of one of your ancestors. Sir Thomas Swinburne, temp. Car. I. ; and consists chiefly of matters relative to his oflSce of Sheriff of Northumberland. &quot; The Records, too, which you have for so long a time entrusted to my care, are a most abundant mine of historical matter. The miscel- laneous ones, if arranged in chronological series, and those similarly arranged which relate to distinct properties, would form excellent papers for our Journal, and be of the greatest use to a future historian of Northumberland. For in our work records can be printed more at length, and in greater numbers, than in county histories ; which usually throw such documents into notes and appendixes. &quot; The greater part indeed of your records — the most curious of them at full length, and the less important with the omission of all the formal parts — are nearly ready for the press; and one volume of miscellaneous charters is arranged and ready to be sent to Capheaton. &quot; I write this under the pressure of great pain from a severe affliction in my face ; and am fearful that I have not made myself sufficiently intelligible. Before the commencement of our editorial labours, both Mr. Surtees and myself have been anxious to subject our plan to your approbation, before we mention it to any other gentleman. Should we be fortunate enough to obtain your patronage and countenance, we shall next apply to the Bishop of Durham for leave to print out of the Mickleton collection, which leave we have no doubt of obtaining, as the collection is already open to us for the History of Durham,&quot; &amp;c. {From a copy.) From Sir J. E. SWINBURNE, Bart. &quot; My Dear Sir, 18, Grosvenor Place, April 27, 1818. &quot; I have had the pleasure of receiving your note from Mr. Elli- son. I cannot but regret much the abandonment of your intended History of Northumberland, a work that you were so well qualified to execute, and one so much wanted ; but your reasons are certainly veiy 204 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. urgent, and, under the circumstances you state, it would not be prudent for you to embark in the undertaking. I hope before this reaches you you will be entirely recovered from your indisposition. A great many people are ill here. As to the Journal you propose establishing, I reaUy think it would be both useful and entertaining, particularly to those wha take pleasure in such pursuits, and your two coadjutors Mr. Raine and Sir C. Sharp will afford you powerful assistance. I will make due inquiries at the Eoyal Institution as to the mode of conducting, editing, and expense attending their JoumaL I only beg to suggest the pro- priety of ascertaining, before you start, the probable sale of the work, (you don't mention whether by subscription, and if so to what amount,) that you may have some certain grounds to proceed upon — ^that you may not find yourself engaged in an expensive undertaking without a fair prospect of remuneration. I can only say that I shaU be very happy to afford you what assistaiice is in my power, either by sub- scription, or the necessary papers or records I may possess. When I return to the North I will send for the original charters you have already arranged and have done with* I believe there are many more at Cap- heaton that might be use^, besides those you already have in your custody. I wish you would find time, or your friend Mr, Eaine, to come and rummage them sometime next summer. We should be most happy to see you. Wishing you health and success, believe me, ever very sincerely yours, &quot; John E. Swinbubne.&quot; To Sir J. E. SWINBURNE, Bart. &quot; Deab Sir JoHK, Newcastle, 27 June, 1818. &quot; The near prospect I now have of printing a great part of your papers has made me very industrious in copying them. I have, there- fore, to request that you will permit me to keep them a little longer, that I may have the opportunity of collating the proof sheets with the originals. A great many of the miscellaneous papers relate to the Great Kebellion, the Sheriffalty of Sir Thomas Swinburne in the 3rd and 4th of Car. I., and other public matters fi*om the time of Hen. VII. to that of James II. These I intend to have printed in masses according to date; and afler they are printed to get the originals bound in one volume with references to the printed copy. '^ There are also a large collection of muniments respecting various HISTORY OP NORTHUMBERLAND ABANDONED. 205 manors and estates, which were formerly the property of your family. These I have also arranged according to date, and nearly finished the first volume, which reaches through the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- turies ; and I intend to print them in a series of papers under some such title as this : ' Miscellaneous Eecords in the possession of Sir J. E. S. Bt., &amp;c. illustrative of the History of various places in Northum- berland in the thirteenth century.' &quot; The deeds which belong to estates at present in your possession I think will be best preserved in regular binding, for they all have su£5cient room in the margin for stitching. When they are merely mounted on paper, as I have done the first volume, many of the parchments with seals are too heavy for the paper, and twist the leaves aside as they are opened. Edlingham would make a voluiAe; Heugh and Stamfordham another ; ChoUerton, the Faunes, and Capheaton would bind together: and there is a bimdle of parchments respecting the Strother and other families, which would class together with much pro- priety. Mr. Surtees approves much of this method of preserving origi - nal records, and is intending to get the Croxdale ones done so. &quot; We have changed our plan of printing, intending now that the book shall be of the quarto size, and come out in quarter volumes at 7^. 6c?. each. The doomsday or abbreviated types, proper for printing old deeds, &amp;8. are at present casting for our use by Mr. Figgins in London, and I expect their arrival at Mr. Walker's office in a fortnight or three weeks ; after which time I shall proceed regularly with the materials at present before me. &quot; I had some inquiries to make respecting Collins's Baronetage, and the pedigree of your family which was prepared for that work, but the subjects have slipt out of my memory. . Believe me, dear Sir John, to be most respectfully your obliged and obedient servant, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; From Sir J. E. SWINBURNE, Bart. &quot; My Dear Sir, Capheaton, July 1, 1818. &quot; You are perfectly welcome to keep my papers for the purpose you mention Would it not perhaps be well, if you can spare time, to come over here (where you know at all times you will be heartily welcome), to take a look into my boxes? as I have many many papers you have not examined — a number of papers and letters during the 206 HEMOIB OF THE BET. JOHN HODGSON. Great Rebellion, aeqaestratioiis, &amp;c. are among tliem. Perhaps some- thing might be useful to you out of the mass. But if jou cannot come, and will direct my searches to any particular object or period, I will do it carefully, and send you the result as soon as possible. I think your plan for the arrangement and binding extremely good, but I fear you have had a world of trouble. Pray give me notice as soon as the pub- lication is ready to come out. Collins*s Baronetage is not correct as to our family. I have the family pedigree from the Heralds* Office, and a number of papers relating to it, but they are not in the order they should be. At any time you wish to see them you are very welcome. I have likewise a good many emblazoned arms of a number of Nordium- berland families, many of which are now extinct, and others have altered their arms. I mean in future to quarter the ancient arms of the Swinbumes along with the modern coat. With every good wish to yourself and family, in which Lady Swinburne begs to join, believe me, ever very sincerely yours, &quot; John E. Swinbukne.&quot; To Mr. T. BEWICK, Nbwcastlb.* &quot;Dear Sir, High Heworth, Nov. I5, 1818. &quot; When you see Mr. Adamson respecting his subscription copies of your ^sop's Fables, I will thank you to say that I had rather keep the one I have than exchange it for a large-paper copy; as I have the Birds and Beasts of the same size. ' *' At length I have seen Mr. Landseer's £ssay on the Babylonian Gems. He is very right with respect to their use, and his interpreta- tion of Job xxxviii. 14. is, I think, very natural and ingenious. Their being intaglios shews that they were intended for sealing with; and clay instead of wax has been commonly used in the £ast both by the ancients and the modems. '* The original of Job xxxviii. 14, literally translated, is, &quot;it turneth itself as the clay of the seal,&quot; i.e. it is plastic, as sealing clay — as it goeth round it mouldeth all things into shape and beauty. The Hebrew word homer, which is translated clai/, also means asphalt, or perhaps any substance used as mortar or for sealing with. The Mother of Moses ' bituminated ' the wicker cradle in which she laid her son *with bitumen and pitch.' * The eminent engraver on wood. MR. T. BEWICK. 207 &quot; The expression * He sealeth up the stars,* Job ix. 7, is in the original, * above,' or * behind the stars He sealeth.' * He commandeth the sun, and it riseth not,' i.e. He causeth night to come on. Again &lt; He sealeth up the stars.' He causeth them not to be seen, by the superior brightness of the light of the sun. Light is here described as the seal with which the Almighty shuts up the stars from our sight. In another place it is beautifully called the * Garment of the Lord.' * Thou deckest thyself with light as with a garment.' Ps. 104. '' Does Mr. Landseer think that there is any parity of signification between these two texts ; and that the latter as well as the first deriyes a part of the justness of its metaphor from the similarity between the rotatory motion apparent in the stars, and in the morning, and the man- ner of sealing with cylindrical gems? ** It is now so long since you shewed me Mr. Landseer's letter that I have quite forgot the nature of his request. I have however thrown the preceding observations very hastily together, more with a view of show- ing that I should be glad of corresponding with him on antiquarian subjects than from any notion that they have not already occurred to him. Believe me, dear Sir, to be most truly yours, &quot;John Hodgson.&quot;


— 1819. The Mickleton MSS.— Pint Visit to London — Letters to Mrs. Hodgson. Mr. Hodgson Is again intently occupied in compiling materials for his History of Northumberland; the plan for the publication of his previous collections, as communicated to Sir J. E. Swin- burne in the preceding year, having been abandoned. &quot; From ROBERT SURTERS, Esq. «« Dear Sir, Jan, 10. 1819. *' Conceive yourself at perfect liberty to make what use you wish of the Mickleton MSS. I obtained the Bishop's leave in so ample and general a way as to leave no doubt of your present purpose being within its scope. &quot; I am right glad that you once more dare look Nortkumberlandy with all her lands and towers, boldly in the face. I am not aware that the Mickleton MSS. contain much exclusively belonging to Northmnberland, but I have hundreds of scattered particles, which may all re-imite in your MSS., and which I sfcall pour in from time to time, as you demand them. 1 write a line in haste to set you at rest as to the Mickleton MSS. Believe me yours ever sincerely, &quot; R. SURTEES. ** For your Grateshead corrections I was much indebted; and they were all, I think, adopted. Willis* has been a good communicator. Tell me what you want, and Raine and 1 will always search at Durham for you.&quot; In the month of April, 1819, Mr. Hodgson paid his first visit to London.f In undertaking this journey he had several objects in * A solicitor at Gateshead, and a gentleman with a strong turn for historical inquiry. He has been mentioned above, p. 64, as having been instrumental in obtaining for Mr. Hodgson the ben^ce of Jarrow with He worth. t On this occasion Mr. Snrtees furnished him with many introductions to his literary fHends, the public offices, &amp;c. See Memoir qfSurtees, Surtea Society^ p. 386. VISIT TO LONDON. 209 view, such as a contemplated new chapel at Heworth, for which he was anxious to raise the necessary funds, the visiting his relations, by his mother's side, at Bromley, &amp;c. but his chief purpose was to collect from the British Museum and the Public Eecord Offices materials for his History, in which he was now again proceeding in real earnest. Happily the letters which he wrote to his wife during this his first long absence from home are preserved; and they are of such a character as to call for a place in a memoir of their writer. He is now, it must be remembered, a husband and a father; and we shall see how deeply he remembers those obligations, and with what affectionate simplicity he details his proceedings from day to day for the information and amusement of his wife and children. One single extract may suffice to shew the amiable object which he had in view in writing these letters. He thus addresses his wife when he had been little more than a week in London. The words will present themselves again to the reader in their proper place : '^ I have had six hours' work in the Museum, and am getting fast forward, but with work which will not afford much material for writing to you. I shall, however, continue to give you a little diurnal of observations, if for no other purpose, for the sake of sending my thoughts and my heart to thee, my dear, and to our dear children.&quot; Mrs. Hodgson had seldom, we believe, travelled out of her native valley, even before her marriage ; and now she has numerous ties of a tender and care-engrossing nature to keep her more than ever at home. The sluggish and coal-stained Tyne, with Gates- head and Newcastle, and their united smoke, were the principal sights with which she had been familiar from her girlhood ; and trees and hedge-rows in healthy, uncontaminated leaf, were objects of which her children had, at that time, a very imperfect concep- tion. The blighting effects of coal-mines and manufactory chimneys were visible on all sides of their residence; and not for a considerable period afler the date of these letters, as we were once informed by Hodgson himself, had his children seen an acorn. Under such circumstances as these, how welcome to the mother, and instructive to her children, would be the description p 210 MEMOIB OF THE B£V. JOHN HODGSON. of London, and its palaces, and parks, and habits, in suclx familiar and afiectionate letters as these ; so written as to engage the atten- tion of the latter in particular, and make a pleasing and whole- some impression on their memory. The Letters, it will be observed, consist of aseries of daily memoranda, sent home from time to time as a frank could be procured; and although there may be in them much which to the general reader, or to one well acquainted with the metropolis, may perhaps appear too minute and trifling, yet, when we remember to whom they were addressed, what pleasing purposes they were intended to serve, and, above all, perhaps, how illustrative they are of the kind and thoughtful heart of their writer, indicating in almost every line some leading feature or other in his own amiable character or habits of reflection, they must not be passed over in silence. That they were never in- tended to be submitted to public eyes is most certain; and there- fore they are the more valuable for our purpose. '&lt; Mr DEAR Jane, Saiacen's Head, Snowhill, 23rd April, 181 9. ** I have dined here and had a walk out since I arrived. Oar journey was exceedingly pleasant till I parted with the Atkinsons * at Stamford yesterday evening. After that we had nothing but delays, and I could sleep none all night. Wednesday continued fair till we got to Thirsk, when it began to rain, which, with intervals of snow, dark- ened our prospect till we reached York at 6 in the evening : at 7 we left York, and at half-past 11 reached Stamford [?] : at 4 today I got here. '&lt; After dining I walked to the head of Holborn, and back to Snow- hill: from thence to the Horse Market in Smithfleld. Saw St. Bartho- lomew and Christ Church Hospitals, and the outside of St. Paul's. This is the extent of my peregrinations. I have written to my ' tidy fitting taylor,' and expect him every moment to be ushered into my presence. '^ April 24. I went soon to bed last night. I have had a long and excellent rest. To-day I feel quite refreshed and in high spirits, and though I have been walking from eight to the present hour, half-past four, I do not feel the least fatigue. I will just give you a sketch of my first ramble in London. Imprimis: there has been a heavy soaking * The Atkinsons were his neighboun at Carr-hili, a funily with which he was long and familiarly acquainted. LONDON — LETTEBS TO MRS. HODGSON. 211 drizzle almost all day. It would have been only a Scotch mist in Northumberland. From Snow-hill I wandered to the Fleet Market, and continued sauntering there for a quatter of an hour. The Fleet Prison is there, and you see &quot; rakes and ruined lords&quot; at loophole grates, not weeping, but begging, either by proxy or pexsonally. I traversed Fleet Street next, through Temple Bar, into the Strand, and visited Rawes's * shop in Surrey- street, sometime famous as the &quot; cock- loft&quot; of wits and authors. A little beyond it is Somerset House, a mag- nificent pile of building of Portland stone, the mouldings and all the carved work of which perishes fast. Waterloo Bridge crosses the Thames just above Somerset-place, a plain and simple but grand and massive structure of Cornish and Scotch granite, a kind of stone which, in the ordinary acceptation of language, has been considered everlasting. That of Scotland may certainly be entitled to the appel- lation ; but all the Cornish granite that I have seen has lost the living lustre of that of Scotland, and is in my opinion, wherever it is exposed to the weather, in a continual state of decay. After being both above and below its arches, walking along it and viewing its panelled battle- ments, its graceful strings, and solid piers, in all their various and ever- pleasing points of view, I saw the bald and dusky front of Northumber- land House ; the equestrian statue of Charles the First, at Charing Cross ; Colnaghi's print-shop in Cockspur Street; reconnoitred Mr. EUison'sf house in Pall-Mall (preparatory to a call). I got into Piccadilly; after traversing the west-end of which I went through the Arcades into Vigo Lane, down Old Bond Street, into the eastern part of Piccadilly, and back again through the Haymarket to Charing Cross ; thence to White- hall ; Westminster Hall ; the House of Commons ; and Westminster Abbey, where I had a peep at the Poets' Comer. On my return from which place, while I was staring at the interior of the Square of Somerset Place, I met with Mr. George Hawks J. He took me into some of the public offices, and after keeping me nearly an hour we had a hackney coach, intending to drive to their office in Upper Thames Street: but we stopped short at St. Paul's, and after seeing the montunents there, I declined proceeding further on account of the wetness of the day. My dinner and porter have cost me 14Jd. to-day in the Old Bailey. * Mr. Rawes, who will be mentioned hereafter, was a Westmerland cousin. t Cnthbert Ellison, Esq. of Hebbnm Hall, in his parish at home; the gentleman by whom he had been presented to the living of Jarrow with Heworth, in 1808. t Brother of Sir Robert Hawks of Qateshead, of the firm of Hawks and Co. Iron Founders, upon an extensive scale, at that place. p 2 212 UEUOIB OF THB KEV. JOHN H0D080K. « Mr. Hawks hu pressed me very much to dine with him to-morrow on Blackheath. His brother Sir Robert and family are on a visit there • but I mtend to call on Mr. Ellison in the morning and to spend the dav at the Churches. Ox Monday I shaU look out for lodgings, somewhe^ about Bloomsbury Square, which is near the British Museum Mr Eawes cannot inform me where Bobert lodges.* Sir Robert Hawks has&quot; left a very kind letter in my absence from the Inn, &quot;What a wretched place St. James' Pahice isl' I was in the court whde the guard was relieving. The Keehnen's Hospital in Newcastle « as g«)d a looking building. Carlton House, the residence of the Pnnce Regent, is a little better than St. James'. Mr. EUison's house {« between them. &quot; N„&quot;^^?ifM n^ '&quot;T&quot;'^ &quot;^ *&quot;^'^&quot;'* ^ ^'^^ «&quot; Mr- Ellison at at St. Mar^s m Ae Strand^ At one I set oflP from the Sa««en's HeS on foot for Blackheath. Two miles down the Surrey road at the Brir. ^r.^: got a coach to the lime Kiln at Gr^wich, near the foot of Blackheath, from which place I trudged to Grote's Building T dined there with Mr. George Hawks, Sir Robert and my lady 'and Bobert walked with me across the Heath to the coach office in Gr^n wich. In our way we passed the site of the house (for all traces of the' house Itself have been razed) in which onrceleb^Ued Princess of Wales so long entertained her favourites. I adore the feeling that destroyedThl^ place of revds. A little east of this infamous spot is the hoJe of the Princess Sophia, Ranger of Greenwich Park. From Greenwich I was aet down m a part of the City in which I had not been, in Grace church Street but found my way very well past the Royal Exchange the Mansion House, Bank, &amp;c., to Snow Hill, where I arrived at iSf part t^, and after having a glass of good milk am going to bed So «.ds th« day s r^ble. Mr. George Bramwell came to tea ^t Mr Georje Hawks , and I had conversations with him about rebuilding the chapel, which led me to expect that I shaU get an early, thoiwh I cannot say a fevourable, answer to our petition respecting it. &quot; 26th. I hope to get lodgings to-day. &quot;Lest I ShaU not have an opportunity of writing more tUl Iget a frank for this umnteresting scrawl, let me not omit to express my anxiety fbr • Robert Hodgwn, a yotmgor brother of the writer of the letter at that tim. enff|ged in the bookbinding burine- in London, He wa. in 1819 ab&lt;^t t,-enty.two LONDON — LETTEBS TO MBS, HODGSON. 213 your father, who, I sincerely hope, has not ventured out since I came away, if the weather has been so damp and cold with you as it has been here. &quot; The weather has improved since twelve yesterday, and we have now a blithe and sunny morning. The apple-trees on Blackheath are just beginning to burst into blossom ; but the spring not a week earlier than it was when I left Heworth. This country is so much wooded ^ especially in and about villas and gentlemen*s seats, that it has a degree of richness of scenery which the bare plains of the seacoast of Durham and Northumberland cannot boast of. But the produce on our lands is as forward and luxuriant as any thing here. The cabbages in Covent Garden Market are nothing but four green leaves. &quot; Give, my dear Jane, my most affectionate remembrances to your father, mother, and sisters. I hope Richard* and Bessy are very dutiful and diligent in their books, and say their, prayers very regularly every night and morning, and that Jane and San are well and full of frolic and play. Pray take care of yourself I Write to me soon. Grod bless you alll Thine, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; '^ If you write to me imder frank, it must be under a cover addressed to C. Ellison, £sq., MJP., 85, Pall Mall, London. Or perhaps it will be better, as I have not asked his permission to do so, to direct to J. H., Sir Kobert Hawks, 2, Southampton Bow, Bloomsbury, London. &quot;2, Southampton Row, Bloomsbury, 26th April, 1819. &quot; Mr Dear Jane, &quot; Li a letter which you would receive on the 29th instant, I gave you a sort of narrative of the manner I have spent my time since I saw High Heworth. This morning I met Sir Bobert Hawks, by appointment, in Duxfort, otherwise Ducksfoot lane, near London Bridge, for the purpose of availing myself of his kind assistance in getting me lodgings. We accordingly got my luggage and ourselves taken up on the Snow-hill, and drove to the place where I am writing from. I understood him he had got me a place that would suit me, and certainly nobody can be better or more cheaply lodged : for I have a bed, the use of his house, and the command of his servants entirely to myself. Sir Bobert and his family being all upon a visit on Blackheath. On their * Richard, aged seven, Elizabeth Hilda eight, Jane Bridget three, Susannah two. 214 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. Tctam, I am promised I may have the liberty of seeking out a place in this neighbourhood myself. '' It would be impossible to describe to you a thousandth part of what I see every hour. Early in the morning I was struck with the extent and el^ance of the New Custom House. A little church somewhere about Cannon Street, and called St. Stephen's Walbrook, I thought exceedingly handsome — ^it is on the model of St. Peter's in Rome* Afler I settled in this neighbourhood I went to the British Museum, of which I could get only a cursory view. But there was one place where I am sure you would have been delighted to have spent a day, with the bairns in your hand and 50/. in your pocket — ^I mean the Bazaar, a sort of Turkish market, which occupied several rooms on two stories; in which articles of almost every description and of the greatest elegance are exposed to sale, women*s apparel and toys especially. There are two markets of this description in the west end of the town, one in Bond Street, the other (which is the larger and most elegant) in Soho Square. &quot;After seeing this place I went with Sir Robert towards Charing Cross, where we parted, he for Blackheath, and I for Southampton Row : but instead of passing wholly up Drury Lane to Southampton Row, I attempted to slant off to the bottom of King's Street in High Holborn, and got myself nearly lost in the intricate streets of the neighbourhood of St. Gi]es', where, for the first time since I left home, I was forced to ask my way. &quot;At seven o'clock I went to dinner at Mr. Ellison's, where I met Mr. John Ibbotson from Yorkshire, and Mr. and Mrs. Morrice. Mr. Ellison's house being nearly a mile and a half from this place, I thought it imprudent to risk myself among the ruffians that fill many of the streets of London in the night, and therefore I got an eighteen penny ride in a hackney coach. &quot; Tuesday, 27th April. This morning I called upon Sir J. Swinburne in Grosvenor Place, Hyde Park Comer, and expect letters from him to- morrow of introduction to persons who can gain me admission to the objects I am in search of. I did not tell you yesterday that I had an interview with Mr. Jenner, a proctor in Doctors' Commons, and Secre- tary to the Commissioners under the Act for building additional churches. I have little hope they can do anything for us, but Mr. Jenner recommends me to call upon the Bishop of Durham, and get him to send an answer to the Conmiissioners' letter. I am at this moment, six o'clock, exceedingly tired, having wandered about all day by myself. LONDON-^LETTBRS TO MRS. HODGSON. 215 Hitherto, no tidings of Bobert, as I have not been able to meet with Bawes at his shop to-day. *' I have had tea and spent the evening with Mr. John Hawks, who lodges near me. '^As Sir Bobert Hawks will be returning soon, I think I shall endeavour to get a bed at Willis' or some other coflPee-house, which will be quite as reasonable to me as a sitting-room and a bed-room in a private place. Wednesday, 28th April. This morning I have been to Chesterfield House, where I saw your cousin and her husband. Mr. Burrell and his bride were there. I arrived before they had breakfasted. Greorge went to school yesterday. The youngest child is very healthy and lively, and the little girl, who has dark red hair, has bloom and colour as much as if she had been bred in the country, with all the sangfroid and address of a mademoiselle that has been introduced. ** I have since I returned from Chesterfield House been employed in preparing a prospectus of my work for Mr. Ellison to present to the Duke of Northumberland. &quot; On my way back I have seen a very interesting sight, a panorama of the North Pole. It represents the ships of discovery pent up in ice, on the shores of Spitzbergen. It is a most admirable performance. &quot; Will you, my dear, when you write to me, consider if there be any- thing in the way of furniture or dress of which you think we stand in need, and which you think I am capable of purchasing, and give me your opinion about the size, quality, &amp;c. for I see that in the brokers' shops here things may be got at very low prices: or if they want anything at the Shore let me know. &quot; I now do wish most heartily that you had come with me. Except- ing in the journey, the expense would have been nearly the same« One lodging-room and one sitting-room for us both would have only been the same as for myself, and then I should, during my stay, have been at home ; and, if we had come by sea, we should have been at less expense than the journey and the stay in London will cost me in- dividually. &quot;To-day, as yesterday, I have been obliged to spend chiefly in lounging and visiting. I have, however, seen both Dr. Prosser and the spiritual chancellor,* respecting the chapel : to-morrow I hope to call on * Dr. Prosser, Prebendary of Durham, and at one time Rector of Gateshead, with Hodgson for his curate. The spiritual chancellor was the late Rev. James Baker. 216 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN H0DG80K. Lord Barrington * to obtain an interview with the Bishop on the same subject. ^ Mr. Morrice in my absence has called and left a note asking if I wished for an introduction to Mr. Gombe,f which is the very thing I wanted. Sir John Swinburne's letters have not yet airiTed. '' I must tell you what I have seen to-day. After returning from Chesterfield House, 1 employed an hour partly in writing to you, and two or three notes to persons I wish to see. At twelve o'clock Mr* John Hawks and myself set out for Mr. Ellison's. On our way we visited Govent Garden Market, of which I think nothing; to be sure there are all sorts of herbs and fruits, eatable and medicinal, green sods, ragwort, and other weeds for cage-birds: flowers, such as the season produces for bouquets for city noses ; but 1 have seen every thing of the kind as good in other places, and in no place I ever saw worse stalls, more shabby people in them, or a worse paved market-place. I am much disappointed with it. From Ck&gt;vent Garden we passed through Leicester Square by Piccadilly and St. James's Street to Pall Mall. I called on Mr. Ellison, who was out. Betuming we met with Mr. Greoige Forster and a Mr. Bume, with whom we first went to see the dandies riding on hobby horses; or, as they are called, velocipedes — mere whirligigs and playthings, fit only for boys to ride on under ten years of age. Then we went to see the Exhibition of Mr. West's Pictures, of which you will find an account in a little pamphlet which I put into D'Oyly and Mant's Bible in the Book of Revelations. Death on the Pale horse is finely designed ; the head of the horse he took from the fragment of a statue brought from Athens : but he has not come up to the spirit of the prototype. His Christ rejected is a fine picture, and both of them splendid efforts of genius for an old man, a man near 80 ; but 1 have heard so much about Mr. West's paintings that 1 was disappointed with them. They are not so good in colouring, or grouping, or in expres- sion as many that I have seen. The two 1 have mentioned are certainly very large, and time will probably effect a considerable change in the colouring for the better. '&lt; From this place we visited the arcades and bazaar adjoining the opera-house. Went up Bond Street, a place crowded with all the fashion of Westminster and of the squares of the west end of the town. * Rector of Sedgefield and Prebendary of Durham, of whom much has been said aboye ; see p. 12, &amp;c. Lord Barrington may be considered as Hodgson^s first patron in the diocese of Durham. -f* Keeper of the Medab in the British Museum. See above, p. 166. LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HOBOSON. 217 But it will be relieved of its crowd in a short time : a new street now is forming from opposite to Carlton House, in Pall Mall, across Oxford Street to Portland Place, which it will connect with the Begent^s Park. In this Bond Street, small baskets of ripe cherries and ripe strawberries are exposed to sale. At Mr. Ellison's I had seen gooseberries last Monday, and eat tartlets of them to mj lunch in the arcades to-day. '' Nine o'clock. I have just returned from dining with Mr. John Hawks, and have a pressing invitation from Sir Robert to attend an evening party at Mr. Braham*s the celebrated singer, at which the Duke of Sussex and several of the nobility, with the singers from the opera- house, are expected : but I have thought fit to decline his kind invita- tion, for reasons which I know you will be angry with me for when you hear them: it is not because I left my authority at home, but a certain article of dress which my portmanteau does not supply me with. ^ 29th April. This morning I had a long walk before breakfast with Sir Robert Hawks. We went past the Foundling Hospital, by Gray*s Inn Lane Road, Euston Crescent, Islington, the Regent's Circus, Devon- shire Place, and thence from street to street to this place. On our way we called upon Shield, the celebrated composer, and master of Hia Majesty's band, a plain, venerable old man, who was bom at Whickhamy and bred at South Shields. After breakfast I called upon Mr. Morrice for an introduction to Mr. Combe of the British Museum : he lives in Devonshire Street, Portland Place: from his house I went to that of Lord Barrington in Hill Street, Berkeley Square, and from thence to Surrey Street, Strand. But in all my searches, I can only get this ac- count of Robert, that he has got a good situation in Piccadilly. From Surrey Street I went back to the Exhibition of Foreign Paintings in Pall Mall, where I stayed about two hours, dined at an eating-house^ Leicester Square, dressed and went to the meetings of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies. The Earl of Aberdeen presided at the Antiqua- rian Society; and after it was concluded I was introduced to that of the Royal Society, in which the chair was filled by the aged and vene- rable Sir Joseph Banks. Mr. Carlisle, the Secretary,* invited me to take tea with him ; and I reached my lodgings at ten ; half an hour afler which time I am wishing to you and the dear bairns my best wishes. SOth April. There was a very interesting gentleman at Mr. Car- lisle's yesterday evening, a M. St. who was at the head of the * Hodgson's oorrespondent in 1815, on the subject of the Saxon Coins found at Heworth. See p. 166 above. 218 MEMOIR OF THE RET. JOHN H0D080N. Swiss gnards when they were cut down in Paris twenty-five years ago. He and another ofBcer contrived to escape into a wood, and after eight days* sufferiag undei* severe wounds, he was noticed by a London hatter, in one of the English ports, brought to his own house in Holbom, had medical attendance, and lived in his family for many years. He has the character of a gentleman of great worth from his friends here, and they have had twenty ^five years* experience of his principles; and no person can be an hour in his company without perceiving an xmcommon depth of thinking, great choice of words, masterly conversation, profound learning, and withal a gaiety of disposition that reminds you of nothing but the playfulness of a child. '^ 30th April. Since breakfast I have gone through a great deal of fatigue ; my left shoe has pinched my toes so much that they are all blistered. I called on Mr. Pepys at the Royal Exchange; on Mr. Wylam,* in Upper Guildford Street, which is a short distance from this place. Mr. Atkinson,! by appointment, met me at half past twelve, and took me to Mr. N. Clayton ^ of Lincoln's Lin Fields, who has undertaken to assist me in my Queen Anne's Bounty matters. On my return I found a note from Sir J. E. Swinburne changing the hour at which I had en- gaged to dine with him, in consequence of which I was under th^ necessity of dressing very hastily, and calling in the aid of a hackney coach, to get me there in time. Just after dinner his brother Edward § arrived from the North ; he says he had called on me after I had left home. To-morrow I call on the Bishop by appointment respecting the chapel. The Mr. Wylams set off for home on Tuesday. Miss Wylam is very well, and a visitor in a very agreeable family. I have got lodgings a few doors below the place I am at. At the coffee-rooms^ Willis', the Tavistock, &amp;c. a bed, breakfast, and attendance, costs in regular charge 6«. a day : for a comfortable bedroom and a neat sitting- room I am to pay 18s. a-week ; but I trust my stay will not be long, though I assure you that I like London much. Again good night. &quot; May 1st. Now that I think of it, let me strongly urge upon you, my dear Jane, the necessity of overcoming John's indisposition to attend to his book. It must be done, and the sooner it be done it will be the easier to himself. At the age of five all children should be able to read a little, and if he be not pushed forward soon, that is, be able to read in * A gentleman from his parish of Heworth. t Of Carr's Hill, near Gateshead. t A Newcastle gentleman resident in London as a solicitor. § His friend the amateur draftsman. LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS, HODGSON. 219 the Testament before he be six, Richard and he will never be com- panions at their books ; besides the habit he is getting of having his own way with respect to his lessons is very crael and ruinous to him- self, inasmuch as it will, if encouraged, at his time of life, grow so strongly upon him, that we must either use great severity to overcome it, or he must when he comes to reflection employ such labour, self- denial, and firmness as are rarely to be met with. I really, my dear, charge myself with great neglect towards that dear boy ; for I am sure he would learn quite as readily as Richard if proper firmness was used in drawing him to his lessons, and gentleness and persuasion in im- planting in his mind the necessity for such attention. &quot; This is Mayday morning, and the chimney-sweeper boys are dressed in their ribbands and gilded papers, and have their iaces disguised: all the mirth of an unfrequent holiday, and the gaiety and lightness of a being set free from long confinement, break out in the tricks and farces of these little merryandrews ; besides them, there are groups of French girls attended by a man bearing a Maypole round which the party dance. The weather is uncommonly fine. The laburnums just come into bloom, though I am sorry to find that you have had some severe frosts in the North. A person told me that the hoar-frost about a week ago at York was very strong. '' I have been with the Bishop, and very kindly and gracefully received: he thinks it quite expedient that the parish should be divided, and will instantly recommend that measure to the Commissioners, though he is afraid they will not be able to effect it. He requests, however, that I may not leave London before the 12th instant; when I hope to have a final answer both on that and other gnatters respecting my living. &quot; To-day I have been at Deptford, and dined on board a ship there. The discovery ships, that have been just equipped for the Northern Expedition, were lying near us, and I regretted much that I could not get on board them. On my return, I landed at Ratcliff Cross, from which place the way was very long and fatiguing; and, if I had not been in a party, would not have been easily found. Mr. John Hawks and myself halted about half-an-hour at the London Coffee House, in Ludgate Street, where we found Mr. Alderman George Forster * and Mr. Bourne. I have entered upon my new lodgings, and have no fear that I shall feel myself very comfortable there, and much more to myself * An Alderman of Newcastle. 220 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. than I have been. Mj landladj has procured me some tea, sugar, bread and butter, and I have requested her to take me in a pint of milk every evening. '* Maj 2nd. I hope jour &amp;ther and mother have taken up their residence at High Heworth. To-morrow I shall expect a letter ^m you with a good account of them both. I hope I shall want no more money, especially as I propose coming home by sea. '' As I passed the Lord Chancellor's door, I thought on the tale your father relates of his friend Mr. Kendrick. But how am I to do about calling upon Mr. Burke?* I expected some directions from your sisters on the evening before I came away, but the wetness of the weather prevented their getting to High Heworth. &quot; I have been most cruelly crippled in my left foot for several days. Yesterday morning I halted and hobbled like one tender-footed from the gout. The Bishop told me that if I found any coldness or difficulty in getting at the manuscripts in the British Museum, he would remove them for me, if it were possible; and recommended me not to be afraid of asking for anything I thought might be serviceable to me. '&lt; The garden, my dear. There should be some more peas planted below the row which I planted last: there was a few left, and I think you might get a pint and a half or a quart more of the same kind, viz. blue Prussian; also a small quantity of lettuce seed should be sown, and some kidney beans; the last of which must have a dry situation. The lettuce, too, which was sown with the first radishes, will be soon fit for planting out ; and the cabbage and brocoli stalks should be pulled up and the ground dug. In the north-west corner of the garden there were a few cabbage plants, which I intended to plant out. If you could by any means get your compliments to James at Hebburn, saying that he had promised me a few caulifiower plants, and that as I was from home you would thank him for them, you might plant them on the ground next the autunm cabbages, after its being manured. At the head of the north border I sowed some potato seed: should it spring up, after the plants are in rough leaf, be so good as to have some of them removed into a dry border (manured), first taking care that the ground be sufficiently moist to secure their taking root. You will observe that I have planted some potato, which are also for experiment, on the north part of the border opposite the raspberries. On other matters be so good as to solicit Mr. Wylam's advice in the garden. * A relation of Mrs. Hodgson. LONDON— LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 221 My greatest difBculty is with my duty. How does Mr. Gibson get through it? Try, my dear, to see him ; and say that I cannot leave London before the 12th, and, if you can, encourage him not to faint under the load that is upon him. *' 1 have inclosed a note to Mr. Snowdon, and shall send some in« structions to the new constable as soon as I find an opportunity. '^ May 2nd. This blessed sunny morning ! this day of rest and delight ! 1 have spent in a most agreeable manner. The persons with whom I live are Roman Catholics, and I requested to go with them to their chapel in Leicester Square. But how ashamed have 1 been with their imchristian ceremonies ! how pitiable it is to see persons calling themselves after the holy name of Christ debasing their minds and suffering their judgments to be darkened with superstitious rites I Oh ! it is lamentable to see the human race seeking for comfort and conso- lation from things and creatures and phantasies that cannot assist them, or, at the furthest, give them only an imaginary assistance; only filling their minds with debasing fears, or leading them to place reliance and to hope for happiness where there is literally nothing for their hope to rest upon. The sermon I heard there was indeed such a one as might have been thought orthodox in any church ; but the rest was mere show. &quot; In the afternoon I went to the church of St. Botolph without Aldersgate, and heard a good sermon from a Mr. Marsh, of Colchester. His text, I think, was at Coloss. iii. 16. He introduced an eloquent, though, in my opinion, an unjust diatribe into the latter part of his dis- course against the Roman Catholics. He said they could not have the use of the Bible without a licence from their bishop or pastor: in foreign countries it may be so; in Ireland it may be so; but I know that in this country the Douay Translation was suffered to be read about Lanchester indifferently, and that the college * there had no ob- jections to the boys of Roman Catholic parents reading the Protestant Bible in classes with Protestant children. ** In the evening I went with Miss M. Wylam, and the family with whom she resides, to the private chapel belonging to Mr. Daniel Wilson. f His sermon was long, eloquent, and delivered in the most animated style. It was from Isaiah vi. 8 : only one verse was chosen for the text, but he explained with masterly eloquence the whole of the vision that follows the third verse. * The College of Douay upon the French Reyolution was remoyed first to Crook and afterwards to Uahaw, both in the parish of Lanchester. t Afterwards Vicar of Islington, and now Bishop of Calcutta. 222 MEMOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HOBQSON. &quot; On my return, I found my brother Robert waiting for me: he is very well, and a very fine steady young man. His long apprenticeship has solidified him, if he had anything unsteady before. He is with a person at No. 8, North Street, near Westminster Abbey, where he is learning something which he could not get a knowledge of where he served his apprenticeship. He is comfortably situated; though he has too long hours to work, and a considerable part of his earnings to give to the foreman of the shop in which he works, as a bonus for the instructions he receives. &quot; Now, my dear, at present I know of nothing I have iurther to add, excepting my prayer that you will pay attention to your father during my absence ; though I do hope that his complaint is so far subdued that }ie is able to ride about. Remember me very kindly to him, and to your mother and sisters. Kiss my dear children for me ; and I pray God to watch over you all, and to guard you all from all trouble and misfortune. Most affectionately thine, my dear Jane, ** John Hodgson. *' 11, Upper King Street, Bloomsbnry, London, 2nd May, 1819. &quot; 3rd May. The hawthorn is not yet in blossom. The stalks of the flowers are distinct, but the flower has not opened. We had a severe frost on Thursday morning; but, as it was not attended with rain, I hope it has done only very partial injury. The apple is scarcely in blossom. « I send this by Mr. R. Wylam, who, with his brother, breakfasts with me this morning.*' ** 11, Upper King Street Bloomsbury, May 3rd 1819. &quot; My Dear Jane, *• I think I told you I expected Mr. George and Mr. Ralph Wylam to breakfast with me this morning. We walked after breakfast to Somerset House, with the hope of seeing the exhibition of the Royal Academy ; but on account of its not opening on the first day until twelve o'clock, I walked with them by the Burlington Arcade and Bond Street to see Portland Place. In our way back we called at the British Museum, and after going hastily through it, 1 succeeded in find- ing Mr. Combe at home, and consequently in getting admission into the Reading Room. I therefore immediately bid good morning to the Wylams, and entered upon my labours. There are generally about twenty gentlemen besides myself employed in consulting and transcrib- f LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 223 ing manuscripts. We write down the titles of the volames we want, and the servants of the Museum bring them into the Reading Room, which ' is open from ten to four on every day of the week, Saturdays and Sun- ' days excepted. I &quot; I have already found several curious documents. A very old letter of one of the monks of Durham to the Prior and convent at Tynemouth, respecting the discovery of the bones of Malcolm, King of Scotland, and his son, the heir apparent, at Tynemouth. Also a very old and curious account of the miracles which had been performed by the Saints of Hex- ham ; the latter of which is rather a long article. '* At four I had a beef-steak with Sir R. and Mr. D. Hawks, and went at seven with them to a concert for the benefit of Dr. Calcott, in Hanover Square. It was a very large and elegant room, and very numerously and splendidly attended. Lady Swinburne gave me a ticket to it, and I was exceedingly fortunate in walking into the part of the room where her ladyship and Lady Gordon (her sister) had taken their seats. Dr. Calcott was a composer of music, and is now unfortu- nately deranged. Braham sung, as did several other excellent masters of the tuneful art. I was much taken with the playing of one of the violincellos ; but the concertos and symphonies were dull, unintelligible stuff to me — so dull that, in spite of the skill of the performers and the display of beauty and brilliance with which I was surrounded, I was frequently travelling in the Land of Nod. &quot; Your kind and acceptable letter, my dear, was here on my arrival from the Concert. I need not say how gratifying it was to hear so good an account of you all, and especially of your father: you say he talks of coming here. If he has such a design, I hope he will be able to effect it while I am here ; but I really fear it will be too great an under- taking for him to come by land, and by sea he would have poor accommodation. &quot; I cannot think of any observation that I have to make arising out of your letter, excepting that you have nothing to fear about inclosing a letter to Miss Wylam, provided the sheet you write on, her letter, and the cover, do not weigh an ounce ; if they should weigh more, the parcel would cost Mr. Ellison three shillings at the least. &lt;&lt; 4th May. We have had fair weather since the 26th of last month till this morning, and to-day it has rained more or less from seven to the present time, seven in the evening. I have had six hours' work at the Museum, and am getting fast forward; but with work which will not afford much material for writing to you, I shall, however, con- 224 HSMOIB OF THE BEV. JOHN HODQSON. tixrae to give you a little diurnal of observationi, if for no other purpose, for the sake of sending my thoughts and my heart to thee, my dear, and to our dear children. '^This is the first evening since I arrived in London that I have been by myself, and I assure you, in spite of all the noise and hurry of this overgrown place, I feel myself as much at ease and quiet as if I were a thousand miles from it. &quot; In the «noming I wrote a note to Robert, wishing him to come and spend an hour or two this evening with me. I ajn expecting him every moment. &lt;' The stays of dandies are commonly exposed in the street shops in the Strand, &amp;c, for sale. They are made of a sort of elastic girthing, have straps at one end, and buckles at the other; and on the top have three openings, pierced with holes for a lace, thus (here is a drawing with the pen). ^ Besides the dandies there are infinite successions of very observ* able personages in London. A day or two since I met, in Holbom, a young man dressed in a fashionable short-backed great coat and wide pantaloons, of the moderate length of six feet seven inches and a half: he wears spectacles : this kenspeckle youth is called Wilson, and is from Westmerland. At St. Botolph's church there was a young man, who, as far as I could see of him, and that was only the head and a part of the neck, was tossed off as much as any of the Bond Street bodies: but that which made him an object to be looked at was white eyelashes, and a profusion of white lu^r of the precise tint of that of the white bear of Greenland. '&lt; I have sat up to near ten o'clock, and as my brother has not made his appearance, I begin to think of my bed. The wetness of the night, I apprehend, has prevented his coming; as he lodges and works a little to the west of Westminster Abbey, and the street I am now in is north of Oxford Street, there is a distance of nearly two miles between us. « I have bought a paper to-day, to see the debate on the Catholic question, and have directed it to your father. Though I am so near the Houses of Parliament, I see and hear less concerning the business transacted within them than I usually do in Newcastle. Till to-day, I have not seen a newspaper since I lefl the Saracen^s Head. Sip J. E. Swinburne tells me that Mitchell is dead.* * The Editor of the Tyne Mercniy, and the great advocate of Radiealiam iu the North of England. LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 225 &quot; The watchmen are calling ' Past ten : ' it is therefore time for me to retire, to pray that the favour and blessing of God Almighty may rest on yon and our dear children, and the family at the Shore. &quot; 6th May. After getting the newspaper posted for your father, and a walk for nearly an hour, I returned to breakfast, and found Robert in my sitting-room. At ten I went to the Museum. Dined at five, and at half-past eight went with Mr. and Mrs. John Hawks to Covent Garden Theatre, where we paid 3s. 6d. for half-play seats in the boxes, — so, for me, adieu to the theatricals of London. The play of which we saw part was Evadne^ or the Statue. Miss O'Neil played the part of the heroine, and performed it well. We had seats in the second tier of boxes, and there were three tiers more above us. One theatre is much like another, at least Newcastle is a very correct model, as to effect and good acting, of anything I have seen here, or indeed can possibly be done in any theatre : but it is a mode of amusement and killing time that I have — and I can most heartily thank God for it — no passion for. I am sure that the greater part of the people who crowd these fashionable places of amusement would be more honestly and more morally employed in sleeping, and the whole mass might be more usefully and more happily em- ployed, if their minds only vibrated with a right tone of thinking, in a thousand ways, than in hearing the silly stuff, and feasting the eyes with the silly sights, of the theatre. Not that I think that persons of fixed principles can be corrupted by them, but that such persons will hav€f no desire to attend them or defend them. Many plays are excellent lessons of wisdom and virtue; but the stage is not supported by such plays ; it lives by licentiousness. &quot; May 6th. Though it was twelve when I went to bed, I rose, afteir an excellent sleep, at six, and was with Kobert in his work- shop, Dean Street, Soho, a little after seven. He showed me a most splendid copy of Magna Charta, in the old text hand, and printed with gold, parts of it beautifully illuminated; also a specimen of beautiful binding, Mudford's History of the Battle of Waterloo, for the Countess of Besborough. &quot; After breakfast I walked to Covent Garden to call on Mr. Lam- bert of the Grand Allies * Office, who, I understood, had called here yesterday in my absence ; but he had gone out. Thence I proceeded toward Chesterfield House; in my way stopping to see a show of * A Company of Goal-owners on the Tyne. Q 226 MElfOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. French prints and caricatures in Leicester Square. They are quite out of the English style, and to me more gaudy than beautiful. Many of them, however, are very playful efforts of fancy, such as &quot; Love pictured in a rose/' Gf Buonaparte there are several evidently de- signed by his friends. On one I noticed he is styled Napoleon the Firsts as if they still expected his son would make a Second. In another, his name is surrounded with stars. But in a shop near those that deal m French prints, and at the comer of Panton Street, there is a large collection of very spirited and witty caricatures in the true English style, which attract their due proportion of notice. Mr. and Mrs. Grordon and family are well, and Mr. and Mrs. Burrell still there. Mr. Burrell says they are thinking of purchasing a ship in London, the scheme of building one in Newcastle having gone off. By appointment I was with Sir J. E. Swinburne, at half-past ten; and at twelve he walked with me to General Sir Willoughby Gordon's at Chelsea, on the margin of the Thames. In his garden I saw a fine Glastonbury thorn in full flower, and two American thorns also in flower. The English hawthorn has not yet come into blossom, though the flowers of it are beginning to peep out. One tree in the garden, I mean the Arbor Judea, was quite new to me : flowers of a fine red colour burst out of its bare stem in great patches, where there are no appearances of either leaves or branches. Mr. Callcott, the artist, met us there. After lunching with Lady Gordon we went to the Military Asylum for the orphans of soldiers. The children are admitted between the years of seven and twelve ; at fourteen they are appreJIfciced out. We saw them assemble for dinner at one ; 850 boys, 400 girls, in all 1250, marched in column into their respective dining-rooms at the same time. After they have been for a moment stationed in their places at the table, and while they are still standing, one stroke of the drum announces attention, and a second is for grace ; that done, a third stroke is for them to sit doum. Their dinner was a piece of boiled beef with potatoes, a large slice of the finest bread, and small beer for their beverage. After dinner, the same order is observed as before it, in saying grace, and returning to their respective play-grounds. '' Their meat and potatos are boiled together in large metal caldrons, formed of plates of malleable iron riveted together. The meat is put at the bottom and the potatos at the top, and only as much water is used as will cover them. They break£sist on thick gruel of water and oatmeal, to which a quart of water is added for every six boys; each having nearly a quart of this pottage for his mess. Colonel Williams, LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 227 vrho superintends the Asylum, went round it with me, and was exceed- ingly civil and attentive to all my inquiries. On Sundays they have roasted meat and potatos. After dinner, they have two hours of play, and at three one party goes to their work and the other to their books. Great numbers of them are bred up as tailors and shoemakers, in which employment we saw them at work. I was peculiarly struck with their prison and mode of punishment. They consist of a cage of strong iron wire, in which is a sort of clock, the hands of which move one minute by turning a handle like that of a grindstone ; so that to be sentenced to move the hands one hour is a severe punishment. '&lt; This splendid institution is close adjoining the Chelsea College, where we also saw numbers of the old veterans sunning themselves, and enjoying the air of this charming spring,-^and I may also say this charming climate, in comparison to ours. I observed that the leaves of the noble horse-chestnut in the College grounds have been blackened by the late frosts ; though they are at present in full blossom, which is not the least injured. The grass here is getting very thick and long. « We returned at five, and I dined and had a pint of porter in the Strand for lid. &lt;' Mr. Grordon tells me he will send your father a cheese, and I- promised to pay for it ; though, I fe&amp;r, if it be iJarge^ the price may pinch me for cask to set me home, and I should not like to be forwarded by a vagrant's pass. I have, indeed, employed all the economy I am master of since I came here, and yet money steals from me much too fast. For one thing', I found I could not do without a trunk, and that cost me 20d« out of my 25Z., besides several little articles of dress which I have been obliged to purchase. ** In walking from Chelsea we passed several large nurseries : one especially is very observable, on account of the variety and greats number of greenhouse plants which are reared in it : it is kept by a person called Colville. As we passed it, it was very dangerous to cross the road on account of the great numbers of carriages driving to and from it. This place is a very great resort of ladies of fashion during the whole of the winter and spring of the year ; and it is not for plants merely that large sums are daily expended, but even for flowers. Early in the year it is not uncommon to pay a guinea for a rose, and larger sums for more uncommon flowers. Some ladies expend as much as 100^ a year for flowers here. '* I called at the Courier oflfice in the Strand to-day, and bought a paper, which I sent to your father. Q2 228 MEMOIR OF TH£ BEV. JOHN HODGSON. ''No person can form an adequate notion of the great wealth of London from a cursory observation. One thing, however, must strike even an inaccurate observer with astonishment; I mean the great number of silver and goldsmiths* shops scattered through all parts of the town and its environs. In a walk from Charing Gross to Leadenhall Street, one night, I suppose there were articles of plate and jewelry exposed to public view in the windows, sufficient to satisfy all the luxury and all the necessity of the British Empire ; but a very little reflection is sufficient to unravel all the mystery that induces astonish- ment on the subject. Every family in the kingdom, and a very large proportion of the individuals of the kingdom, who can afford it, pass a certain part of every year, or some portion of their lives, in this theatre of commerce, legislation, and fashion. It is the great mart of nations : the Exchange of the World. In our own country there are few families who have not some article of plate or jewellery made in London ; and from this place to all the comers of both the civilized and uncivilized world, ornaments and trinkets are exported. People tell of the want of gold, too! but specie struck with the dies of every nation in the world may be purchased of the jewellers in London, and that too to almost an indefinite amount. &quot; May 7th. I have stirred very little out to-day. At ten o'clock I went to the Museum ; and fell in with plenty of rich material there to serve me for a few days. It is full of stores for my purpose : but five days a week, and only six hours a day, is much too short time for persons who have travelled nearly 300 miles for the purpose of labouring in it. To-day I found a finely written manuscript, which contains numerous very ancient pedigrees of Northumberland families, drawn from records in the Tower, &amp;c., and large extracts from the Hegister Books of the Abbeys of Alnwick and Newminster and the Priory of Brinkburn. &quot; In walking down Holbom Hill this aflemoon to my dinner, I met Mr. Taylor, the gentleman who resided some time in the Grove House in Heworth. He seems quite well, though you will remember the state of mind in which he was when taken from Newcastle some time ago under arrest. He resides in London. . &quot;I expect the garden is beginning to look well. I saw peas in blossom in General Gordon's garden yesterday; but the stems of the plants were low and feeble. How will you do for pea-sticks? there are plenty at Hebbum. &quot; May 8th, half past seven a.m. I have just returned from taking a third sight of Covent Garden Market. It is thronged this morning: LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 229 the great avenues to it are all choked up with cabbage carts. It teems with abundance^ and of things of the most excellent of their kind ; but there is nothing neat about it — it is all confusion and disorder. I had supposed that every thing in this celebrated garden was disposed in regular stalls, with great neatness and regularity ; instead of that, carts, stalls, baskets, wheel-barrows, and all the rest, are as rudely jumbled together as if they had fallen from the heavens. The carrying-women are here, as in Newcastle, very tormenting, but very civil : they took me for an half-pay officer, as I went in my great coat, without one under it, and split their jokes very freely, but very goodhumouredly, upon me: they were very witty, without any thing like indecorous language. *' Rhubarb of two kinds — one red for mixing with apples, the other green to mix with grosieres, is here now in great abundance ; fifty large stalks of the green kind only one shilling. Vast quantities of lilac flowers, tulips, &amp;c. &amp;c., but by no means in a nice state, are sold and that not cheaply. You will recollect the evergreens and flowering plants kept in pots in greenhouses in the market ; among them are gre^t numbers of spruce fir and boxwood plants, which are sold to the citizens as window ornaments. I have indeed observed in Snowhill, and other places, that fir-trees are among the rarities of the collections which grace the virandas of the London windows. Large cucumbers sell for Is. 6d, a piece; gooseberries, 1«. a quart; new potatos about 2s, Sd, SL lb.; old ones at 3^. 6d. for sixty lbs.; asparagus of the finest kind As. for 150 heads; old onions, 9«. a peck. There were small quantities of strawberries, and small quantities, of peaches, such as are taken off&quot; in thinning overloaded trees. This sort of fruit, on the old walls of Chelsea, were of the size of pigeon's eggs. I mean peaches and apricots. &quot; I forgot to say, before I went to bed last night, that Robert spent above two hours with me yesterday evening. I don't think that his health is good. &quot; The trunk which I have bought is thirty inches long and fourteen deep. It is neatly covered with leather in hair. I intend it for your use; it has an excellent lock. &quot; Since ten I have had a ramble. First I called on the Wilsons at Nottingham Place, in the New Road. Then left mj card at Mr. Askew's * house in Wimpole Street; thence, by Bond Street, I proceeded to Christie's sale-room in Pall Mall. In my way I stopped to look at a drawing of the machinery, where an automaton figure plays at chess, * Of Redheugh, in the parish of Ckteshead. 230 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODOSON. and has never but once been beaten since it came to London. The admittance to see it play is 2«. 6d., I therefore contented myself with seeing the picture of this lifeless wonder. The people of London are provokingly silly ; they talk of this box of wheels, and of the figure that moves the men, as if the one or the other were endowed with intelligence. The real matter of fact must be that intelligence guides the movements, and that the man who shows it makes them ; but the query is, how he applies an impetus to the machinery without being observed? I think, when the number of men, and the various ways each man can move, are considered, it is infinitely beyond the compass of mechanical art to calcu- late against all the varieties of change of position that the men can be put into on a chess-board, by anything like clock-work : but I see no difficulty in contriving machinery to direct a hand to any figure which the conductor chooses to place it upon. This ingenious contrivance is by a Mr. Eempelen, of Vieima. ^'A large quantity of the Queen*s curiosities, such as were sent as presents to her on her birth-day, &amp;c., are selling off at Christie's rooms. I was about an hour in the room ; and marked the prices of the things which I flaw sold in a catalogue which I will bring with me. It is very curious. &quot; At two I had a second interview with Mr. Jenner, respecting the division of the parish, which I now most confidently hope will be soon effected, and to my entire satisfaction. &quot; You see I have very little room to write about yourself and the bairns; recommend me kindly to all inquirers; affectionately at the Shore ; kiss my children for me, and God bless you all I From thine, always, my dear JanC; *&lt;JoHN Hodgson. &quot; I hope to receive a letter from you before you receive this.&quot; *' 11, Upper King Street, Bloomsbury, 10th May, 1819. &quot; Mt dear Jane, &quot;Yesterday morning I met Robert at the Admiralty, from which place we took seats upon a coach for Bromley.* The morning was exceedingly charming; a cool fresh air with a bright sun, and an agreeable elasticity or springiness in the atmosphere, gave a cheerfulness and sobriety to the spirits, and to the tone of thinking, that made one * The Palmers, who were relations by his mother ^s side, resided at Bromley. To this place he paid frequent visits now, in 1821, and afterwards. LONDON — LETTEB8 TO MRS. HODGSON. 231 delighted with being in existence. Of all things in nature a fine spring morning is the most delightiul, and the more so when that morning is a Sunday morningi and connects all our better thoughts with that glorious and magnificent Being that formed u^ capable of being de* lighted with the contemplation of His works. '^ Spring, my dear, is a season of hope and pleasure, and it has often in this beautiful season reminded me of the hope and pleasui^ I have in my children. At present it is delight, unmixed with any uneasy anxieties, that occupies our mind when we contemplate the prospect of their future life. As the summer of the year begins to advance, and the expectation of fruit is every day converted by degrees either into real promise or disappointment, our satisfaction, if we find in them the fruit of good living, will be greater than it is at present ; but our anxieties may also be converted into sensations more poignant than those of disappointment. '^ Kent, as far as we travelled in it, seems a delightful county, well- wooded, has a waving surface, and is covered with a luxuriant verdure. In some parts I observed the trees to be sorrily mutilated, stripped of all their branches, excepting a little tufl at the top, so that they resemble the inverted queue of the man of fashion thirty years ago. But the abundance of untonsed trees, especially the fruit-trees, and the luxuriantiy-flowering horse-chestnut, give a richness and charm to aU the suburban villages of the metropolis, which to a person habituated to the bare hamlets of the North of* England is exceedingly enchanting. AU nature here is in the greatest luxuriance — even the ash is beginning to clothe its naked branches. Will you, my dear, when you receive this, note how the hawthorn is advanced about High Heworth? On the road between Lewisham and Bromley I observed that in a few places it was full blown ; but generally that the petals of the fiower are unfolded. &quot; I found all the family well, excepting my aunt and Mrs. Bichard Rawes.* My aunt has had a bad fit of the gout, of which she is, how- ever, much recovered, and able to hobble into the garden and watch her bees. Mrs. Richard Rawes has been iU during the winter. She has had one child, and though her expectations of having another have often been raised, they have as often been prematurely disappointed; she is at present still very lame, and it is truly pitiable to see the lively active, and high-spirited Miss €antwell, now scarcely able to hobble * All relations by his mother's side. 232 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. over a well-carpeted room, and robbed of all her wonted vivacity; but she is in the way of recovery. &quot; I dined with Mr. Palmer, who married one of my cousins : they are exceedingly kind and hospitable people, and have a delightful residence on the outskirts of Bromley. Mr. Palmer has done much to it of late, by way of beautifying the garden and orchard ground, and adding largely to the stock of green-house plants, of which Mr. Bichard Bawes brought him a splendid collection last year from China. I must remember that I have promised to send him a few plants of the Ayrshire rose. He is both an agreeable and intelligent man, and I was much pleased with the frank and open simplicity of his wife. '^ I had tea with Mr. Robert Rawes, the master of the school, a gentlemen of refined education, and a member of Magdalen College, Oxford. His spirits I understand are far from equal, now cheerful and now low and melancholy; in whom the L' Allegro and the II Penseroso of Milton are combined. There were on this day a swarm of cousins and half-cousins, and countrymen, at his house, where open hos- pitality seems to be kept on Sundays. &quot; We left Bromley at seven, with inside seats, as the evening began to gloom, and indeed it rained heavily for half-an-hour before we reached Charing Cross, and very heavily about eleven. I hope the weather with you is quite as good as it has been here for the last week; it is the finest spring ever remembered. Nothing has been injured by the. frosts that prevailed about a fortnight since, except- ing the laurels, the fiower-buds of the laburnums, and the young germs of a few other trees. &quot; On Saturday I bought two seta of copy-heads for Bessy and Richard, which I would have sent down with my last letter, if I could have seen Sir R. Hawks to have got a frank; but he is still on Blackheath. &quot; Will you, my dear, get the children to attend to their catechism ; I think they have not fagged at it lately. If there be any book you think they may want, you had best go either to Akenhead's or Charn- ley's for it. &quot; To-day I called on Adamson* at Willis's Coffee House in Lincoln's- inn Fields. He walked with me into Pall Mall, and waited for me till I had a conference with Mr. Ellison respecting the chapel. After that, * * His brother secretary in the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle, and a solicitor of great practice in that town. Mr. Adamson was an eminent Portuguese scholar, and a man of considerable literary and antiquarian knowledge. LONDON— LETTEBS TO MRS. HODGSON. 233 we called at Buckingham Housei the palace of the late queen, where Mr. Carlisle the librarian showed us the excellent collection of books which constitute th« Bang's library. The first room consists entirely of early printed books, which can be considered in no other light than as curious specimens of the art of printing in its infancy. In this room the king used to sleep during the times the queen was confined. We ^ere also shown the room and the chair in which Dr. Johnson was sitting when the king paid him the memorable visit, which is recorded by Boswell in his ** Life of Johnson.&quot; &quot; From Buckingham House we went to St. James's Park and West- minster Abbey, and over Westminster Bridge to Lambeth Terrace, where Mr. Adamson had to call upon a friend, and from that place by the Obelisk in St. George's-fields to Southwark Bridge, which spans the river with only three arches, aU of cast iron ; its piers are of granite. From this noble edifice London Bridge has a most clumsy and heavy appear- ance, and seems as if it had been built with a view to dam back the river. At three, I called on Mr. Jenner, to get some further information as to the best manner of proceeding to divide the parish. We lunched at Willis's; then walked to the Strand, called at Somerset House, at Stockdale's in Piccadilly, at a printer upon stone in Great Marl- borough Street, at Tassie's in Leicester Square, and from that place I proceeded to my lodgings. At six, we dined together at Willis's, and parted at nine ; Adamson and Mr. Allason,* of Heddon-on the- Wall, to Covent Garden Theatre, and I to bed, afler scrawling thus far. *' I have had another meeting with Mr. Ellison, respecting the church and chapel: but cannot bring the matter to a conclusion. If the patron- age had been wholly in Mr. Ellison, there would have been no difficulty in the way. I dine to-^y with Mr. Ellison ; and Mrs. Ellison has s^ promised me a ticket to the Opera. From twelve to four I had a search in the Museum. &quot; On Sunday I saw rye in ear in several places. To-day I have seen heads of barley in the window of a corn-merchant. They were brought from the country. '* In returning from the Museum, I find Miss Wylam and Miss Meek have called, and left their cards. &quot; I have received your last kind letter, my dear, before I go to dinner. The article of dress I wanted at the time of Mr. Brajiam's party has been supplied. I got a pair of new pantaloons immediately on my * Vicar of Heddon-on-the-Wall, ne^ Newcastle, 234 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. arrivaly but not a pair of breeches, and I could not go there excepting in full dress. I have also got a pair of silk stockings. I wonder that you did not see it was a pair of breeches I wanted, as I supposed I had hinted to them plainly enough. *' I will not leave London without bringing something for the children, if they take great care with their lessons ; and when I arrive you must expect me by sea: but I will not stir tiU I get everything settled as far as possibly can be done respecting the chapel. . '' 11th May. I did not get from the Opera till near one o*clock this morning. Mr. Middleton, a gentleman I had been accustomed to meet at Hebbum, dined with us. At eight, I left the dinner table and went to the Opera House; the rest of the party, being habituated with the sight, did not go till ten. When I got there three or four scenes had been acted. With the opera in my hand, and the use of an English translation, I was able to follow the performance pretty well, and to be pleased with parts of it ; but, on the whole, nothing can be more dully stupid and unnatural than it was, and all operas must be. It is a species of amusement that cannot be enjoyed but at great expense, and on that account it is fashionable. No person, or very few, seemed to be interested with it. The ladies and gentlemen formed little coteries in the boxes, and chatted without being at all interested with the ex- hibition. Now and then there was a clamorous bravura, and I think I could, consistently with my own feelings, have joined the passionates in clapping; but the applause was altogether unconnected with the drama — ^is was for the cm*5, some of which were certainly sung in good style: but they have no Catalani at the Opera House now. The music was by Mozart. At the conclusion of the first piece, a statue of white marble walks in and sings to a hardened and wicked hero, who had murdered its prototjrpe : but he braving all the terrors of futurity and the warnings of the dead, chooses torments rather than say *^ I repent 1 '* and demons rise with flaming torches, and howl and shake their pale blazing lights over his head; the earth opens, and they descend with their victim into heU. &quot; Now, if there was any moral in this thing — ^if it was intended to make any good impressions on the heart, all that impression could not have failed being washed off by the levity which immediately followed. What is it that j)leases the spectators, that draws them together, and that brings them back again and again to the exhibitions of the opera dancers ? Some of the attitudes they put themselves into are certainly graceful, and their nimbleness is a proof of great strength of muscle and LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 235 of health, and. in these views their performances are connected with ideas that lawfully create pleasure. But ** 1 2th. After my six hours were past at the museum, I went to dinner at the house of the Bishop of Durham. The party consisted of the Bey. Mr. Lysons, his wife and daughter, his brother Samuel Lysons, the keeper of the records in the Tower, and one of the vice-presidents of the Antiquarian Society, — these two gentlemen are joint editors of the Magna Britannia; Sir George Staunton, who has been twice with the embassies in China, a gentleman well skilled in all the difficult litera- ture of that country ; Mr. Weston, a celebrated connoisseur in anti- quities, and a yerj various and elegant scholar; Mr. Price, who brought with him a roll of large drawings made by himself of various towns and ruins in the East, especially in the coimtries between Con- stantinople and Persia; this gentleman speaks the Arabic and Persian languages with great fluency, and is at present engaged in translating a Persian poem, which is founded on the History of Joseph ; and last, but not least, the biblical antiquary and illustrator of Eastern customs Mr. Burder, the preacher of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, and evening lecturer at Christ Church Chapel. Mr. Burder presented the Emperor Alexander with a copy of his works, in return for whicti his Imperial Majesty sent him a beautiful sapphire ring set in two rows of pearls. It was exhibited at table. When I entered the room, the Bishop said, * Gentlemen, I have the pleasure of introducing to you a brother anti- quary — a Durham antiquary ; of whom I can assure you we are ex- ceedingly proud.' &lt;* The lady who lives with the Bishop is very pleasant. I think she is above forty: she has an expressive and agreeable countenance in conversation, dark piercing eyes, .and apparently very unaffected and engaging manners.* &lt;* The Bishop is quite a wonder.f So old, and yet so healthy, so lively, elegant in manners and conversation, full of anecdote, and a memory of aU past and passing things, that you would suppose his faculties still in the vigour and playfulness of youth. '^ We dined at five, and lefl his lordship at nine. On my arrival at my lodgings, I found my brother, who came here by appointment, and stayed with me till eleven. '* My negociations respecting the chapel are still unclosed. &quot; I continue to enjoy very good health. The only inconvenience I f Miss Colberg. f The Bishop of Durham died in 1826, in the 92nd year of his age. 236 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. feel is the spasmodical flatulency, which sometimes affects me grievously for a few minutes, but never more than a few minutes, once in about twenty-four hours, and only for the few last days. I was often afraid the complaint originated in indulgences ; but now that I very seldom ever see anything stronger to drink than milk, the complaint is precisely the same. &quot; I hope you may expect to see me at High Heworth in a week's time ; but, as I have made up my mind to take my passage by sea, I cannot mention the day of my arrival, even if Providence make all things to combine to give me a safe and expeditious voyage. &quot;I feel confident that our dear children are very good, and that Bessy and Bichard and John endeavour to make mamma happy, and mind their lessons. Once more, my dear Jane, wishing a good night to thee and thy dear children, and the good family at the Shore, with all of whom I long to be again united. &quot; 13th May. After breakfasting this morning, I was preparing for the Museum, when a message was brought me that there would be a great meeting of the Sons of the Clergy at St. Paul's to-day. The de- scription given me was such that I could not resist being present. ** Before proceeding thither I visited Ackermann's, with a view of ascer- taining whether I could apply the new discovery of printing upon stone to any useftd purpose in getting up my History of Northumberland. I was much and agreeably surprised at the spirited specimens of the art which were shown me. It will answer excellently in making fac- similes of all kinds of writing and printing, and for plans of buildings, camps, &amp;c. ; but it is not applicable to giving fine views of buildings or portraits of persons. &quot; At eleven I went to the cathedral; but I found the choir every- where so crowded, and such a circle waiting to press by force through the doorways, that at first I despaired of getting access ; and to remain on the outside of the choir would not have gratified me, though I should have heard the music distinctly enough. At 12 oVlock I had worked my way into a part where I could both hear and see distinctly enough, but the crowd was so closely januned together, and kept up such a waving motion, and the ladies, of whom there were very great num- bers, were so intolerably squeezed, that I began to think there would be exhibitions of fainting, &amp;c, and therefore by great exertion of main strength made my way out. Mr. Allason, of Heddon-on-the-Wall, was waiting for admission. I, therefore, though unknown, represented our case to one of the Canons, who had a key, and he readily went and let us 4 LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON* 237 in by a private door to the bishops' stalls, two of which, on the side we entered, were empty. I consequently got a good place, Allason only a stand ; one of the clergymen of the church having reached the head of the stairs before him. There were eleven Bishops present, among whom were the two Archbishops and the Bishops ofLondon and Carlisle ; the rest I did not know. The Duke of Northumberland was also present. All the music which was performed was by Handel, excepting one piece, composed some time since on purpose for the meetings of the Sons of the Clergy by Dr. Boyce. Among the pieces by Handel was one which was quite overpowering in its effect ; for you must know that the organ was assisted by the King's band, and the whole choir of St. Paul's. The piece I allude to, is called, I think, the Halleluiah ; its words are these : — ' Halleluiah, for the Lord God OmnipoteDt reigneth. The kingdom of this world is become the Kingdom of the Lord and of his Christ, and He shall reign for ever and ever, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. Halleluiah !' The Coronation Anthem was also sung : you will find it in the Book of Elings. ' Zadok the Priest, and Nathan the Prophet, anointed Solomon to be King. And all the people rejoiced and said, God save the King I May the King live for ever Long live the King ! Halleluiah ! Amen.' &quot; From the place in which I sat the view of the congregation was ex- ceedingly grand. The whole area of the choir and within the rails of the chancel was completely crowded. In the three tiers of stalls, and above them in large temporary galleries erected between the pillars, not a person more could in any way be admitted. Some ladies fainted, one was seized with a sort of roaring hysterics. Dr. Goddard preached. His text was, &quot; I have been young and now am old,- yet never saw I the righteous forsaken or his seed begging bread.&quot; The service commenced soon after twelve, and concluded about ten minutes before four. The Te Deum lasted an hour: to be sure the music of it was exceedingly grand. How all the trifling shows of the Opera House fade into nothing in com- parison with what I saw and heard here I During the whole of the service everything was calm and still; there was a solemn silence, and a riveted attention observed by every one. I think that the con- tinuous din of the carriages and waggons passing in the street did not interfere with the grandness of the effect — it resembled greatly the 238 MEMOIR OF THS REV. JOHH HODQSOK. n)ariDgof a tempett of wind around a laige building euTeloped in trees, or the distant mnmmr of the lea in a stonn. ^ I Ibiget to sa J that the Lord Majofr, Becorder, and three of the Aldermen, came in state: I saw their caniage; it is exceedingly antique and carious in its shape, much gilded, and adminblj painted with metaphorical %ares. ^ While I was waiting for the procession coming out, lir. Coohhard came to me. We dined and had cofiee together, and in mj waj to my lodging we went, throogh Mooifields and hj Finsborjr Square, into ''Be so good, mj dear, as to write to me again before I leave this place* Ton maj without hesitation direct to Mr. Ellison in this manner, which I dare say is the waj jon have done. ' G. Ellison, Esq. M.P., 85, Pall Mall, London.' And upon the letter in the inside for me, ' The Ber. John Hodgson, 11, Upper King Street, Bloomsbmy.' It onlj troubles Sir Bobert Hawks's people directing to their house, though it is onlj five doors from m j lodgings. I have seen Miss Wylam this erening, and inyited her to a great meeting of royal dukes, &amp;c. &amp;c. at the Freemasons' Tavern to-morrow at twelve o'clock, to which I have had a present of a ticket, for myself and one lady, from Sir J. E. Swinburne. '' May 13th. The weather continues very fine. I had a walk this morning through the three squares, which this street, and those which join with it, bound in a right line on the north : viz. Bloomsbury, Bed- ford, and Bussell Squares. The trees in the area are in all their rich- ness, the gold of the laburnums being the most costly as weU as the most beautiful of the ornaments. What numbers of children with their maids, belonging to different country families, who reside in the square, were walking and scampering through the gravel walks, and over the finely shaven lawns of these squares I &quot; I have determined to return by sea, and as soon as ever I have finally arranged matters respecting the chapel. A week in the Museum will do much for me: and I hope to establish a correspondence with the keepers of the records in other public offices, which will answer all my purposes. &quot; It is very agreeable and gratifying news to hear that your father continues so well, and that the children are so attentive to their lessons. Pray influence your £5tther to stay a few days at least with you. I am sure it will be of use to him. LONDON— LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 239 ** Thank you, my dear, for the last kind letter, which I received on my return from St. Paul's this evening; and thank you for your attention to the garden, which I hope will repay you for all your trouble in it. &quot; To-morrow I will give you an account of this day's observation. You see I write a little every day, and at every leisure moment. It is indeed the only amusement and the only thing I have to fly to while I am by myself in my lodgings. &quot; With affectionate regard for all at the Shore, love to thyself and the children, and compliments to the Wylams, believe me to be, thine most truly, ** John Hodosoh. &quot; The next by Mr. Coulthard, who goes hence on Monday or Tuesday.&quot; '^ Mt dear Jane, 11&gt; Upper King Street, Bloomsbury, 14th May, 1819. &quot; I made a great mistake this morning. At nine I received from the Bishop of Lichfield * a note, saying he would see me on business respecting the chapel at one. I expected Mr. Allason at breakfast. He never came. This new arrangement caused me to write to Miss Wylam, saying I could not go to the meeting at the Freemasons' Tavern; soon after I found that the meeting was not till the 15th. '&lt; The Bishop of Lichfield is not so old in years as the Bishop of Durham, but much more so in intellect. I could not bring hm to the point I wished to be at; though he was exceedingly kind and accessi- ble — ^ready to assist me, yet I could not fasten his attention on the sole object I wished to accomplish ; he flew off to something else. At the Queen Anne's Bounty Office they told me they had no power to sepa- rate Jarrow from Heworth ; but I succeeded in one thing, which could not have been accomplished without my presence, and which I hope will eventually repay me the expenses of this journey, viz. in getting, to the 1,000Z. with which my living has been augmented, two additional allotments of 200L confirmed upon it; so that I have now l,400iL to lay out in land. &quot; I am most miserably tired this evening ; I have been all over the town on the business of our most wretched chapel, and am still no * Dr. James Comwallis, afterwardi Earl Comwallu, BiBhop of Lichfield and Coventry, and Dean of Durham. 240 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. neaier than I was when I set out first, in falli]% into a method of getting it separated from Jarrow. On Monday I intend to call upon the Brownes, owners of Jarrow, ''iwas half-an-honr with Mrs. Gordon this evening, where I saw Mrs. James Burrell, whose husband has purchased a ship, for which he is looking out for a freight to St. Petersbui^h. It is not quite to his mind, being about a foot too low for the trade he was wishing her to enter into; but, though it is seven years old, he considered it a well- timbered and strongly-built ship. I did not see him: he sleeps on board. ** My work at the Museum has not proceeded as I wish this week. It is full of valuable matter, and I am very loath to leave it without taking away a considerable portion of the most valuable of it. &quot; 15th May. You will look long for a letter from me. I see Mr. Ellison has so many letters to frank on his own account, that I am loath to rob him of the privilege. If I can call on Him to-day I will get a frank for Sunday, on which day the members seldom make use of their privilege, no post-office being open but the general one in Lombard Street. This morning, since writing the above, I have desired Sir Robert Hawks to get me a parcel franked at the Secretary of State*s office, which I hope you will receive on Monday, on which day both Miss Wylam and myself will send dispatches by Mr. Coulthard. &quot; At eleven to-day Miss Wylani and myself went to the Anniversary Meeting of the British and Foreign School Society. Though we were an hour before the time the meeting was announced to commence, and precisely two hours before it did commence, yet we were rather late to get the best range of seats : we could not, however, complain, as we were even in front of the chair, and not more than eight or ten yards from it. *^ At ten o'clock the Duke of Kent arrived, and immediately took the chair. I was exceedingly gratified with his conduct and his abilities. I never before saw any person quit himself half so ably. His manner of speaking easy, dignified, and unstudied, no gesticulations, no &quot; sawing the air with his hand,&quot; no hesitation, no affectation of elo- quence, but a straightforward, convincing, and forcible language poured from his lips, as naturally and as nobly as a full river rolls over its channel. From his situation in the chair he had often to speak and often to reply, and invariably a masterly style was maintained. Not so amongst the rest of the orators, amongst whom were several able men, and very probably men of naore various and more profound abilities than himself. Lord Effingham, to quote poor old Goodrick's LONDON — LETTEBS TO MllS. HODGSON. 241 phrase ' made a sad set of himself.* The Honourable and Reverend Mr. Hamilton, the son of an Irish Bishop, gave a most eloquent and im- pressive description of the state of education in Ireland. He was followed by the Honourable Grej Bennett, who spoke badlj enough, before a less august meeting than the House of Commons, where he frequently holds forth respecting the climbing boys, &amp;c. His words stuck in his hatise; in short, he blundered most miserably. Of a different class, followed Mr. Anderson, the Secretary of the Lady's Subscription School in Edinburgh : his narrative was plain and un- embarrassed ; his tale affecting, and now and then gracefuUy orna- mented with the jewelry of rhetoric. He said that an old man who enlisted into the ELing's service in 1715, at the age of 117 became desirous of learning to read, and that it was an affecting and gratifying sight to see, in the school which he attended, mothers bring their infants and cradles, that they might themselves have the benefit of being taught to read the Scriptures. Mr. Philip, a member of the House of Commons, spoke a deal better than his honourable friend Mr. Grey Bennett. But of all that spoke none had so great a command of language, and of the flowers and the elegancies and ornaments of speech, none was so fluent and so warm and zealous as Mr. Wilberforce. I could not always hear what he said, as he frequently sank too low to be heard ; but he is growing old, and his personal appearance is much against him, for he is plain, low in stature, and of a very awkward shape. I cannot enume- rate to you all that spoke, and name very few that were present. But we had orators from both France and Germany : a citizen of Paris and a member of the Legion of Honor read a speech ; and I left a gentle- man from Bombay on hid legs, and labouring very hard. The two Princes of Hesse sat one on the right, the other on the left of the Duke of Kent; of whom I must not omit to state that that sincere, upright, and patriotic senator, Mr. Wilberforce, said, that he was constrained to bear public testimony to the many public and private virtues, and to the laudable and exemplary zeal, of his Royal Highness in everything that concerned the welfare of the lower orders of society. No person ever heard me defend the vices of the royal family ; in so far as I believe them really to exist, I do most sincerely deplore them ; but my persuasion is that they have been belied, injured, and calumniated on every side by persons a thousand times more wicked then themselves. He that would go about and feed his mind upon the drunken and pestilential trash of a London mob, or a London newspaper, daily edited to gorge the ravenous maw of the discontented of London, must never hope to R . I 242 MEMOIR OF THE BBY. JOHN HODGSON. arrive at that healthj and delightful state of mind which rejoices to feaat itself in the oontemplatton of the virtues and the excellencies of those whom God created for the purpose of filling high and honourable stations among their fellow-creatures. Tou, mj dear, have heard it said that •* Pnblid^, Tboiigfa like the angel Innoeenee, would inoYe DiTkioiw, honid grinningi, and the yell Of Jaelonqr.&quot; Our royal dukes haye virtues, and I hope I shall never arrive at that low and sordid state of mind which cannot afford the due meed of praise to the great as well as to the low. For I think it a vice which has greatly prevailed within the last twenty-five years in Europe, and which cannot be too highly reprobated, to endeavour to extol the incon- siderable benefits rendered to mankind by low and obscure persons, and to detract from the merit of real and important advantages con- ferred upon society by men of rank and opulence. But I forget to whom I am writing, and am hurried on by a warmth, as if I was addressing myself to, and endeavouring to convince, some idle and worthless politicians, and not one who wisely suffers the rulers of the nation to manage matters in their own way, and feels no pleasure in seeing the light of public praise and public gratitude withdrawn firom the characters of the wise and ^ell intentioned. My love, to be con- tended is to be happy: he that can praise another can rejoice within himself; and I rejoice to have seen only one of the sons of that monarch whose character I revere and venerate, advocating with zeal and elo- quence, such as I never before heard, a cause the most important a human being can be engaged in, the instructing of the ignorant, the giving light to them that sit in darkness and the shadow of death ; and I have, further, no doubt but that all the children of my venerable sovereign have virtues, which in the great day of account, when we must all answer for ourselves, will hide the multitude of sins to which our nature is so prone, and the more so when that proneness is ripened and fostered under the beams of affluence and prosperily. &lt;' 16th May. Robert came to breakfast with me, and at half-past nine we set out for the Magdalen Chapel, not the nearest, perhaps; but on our road we looked into the Chapel of St. Stephen^s, Westminster, in which is a window of beautifully painted glass. &quot; I was not much delighted with the method of doing duty in the Magdalen. An elderly man, Mr. Prince, who has lost some of his «M LONDON— LETTERS TO MBS. HODOSO^. 243 fore-teeth, read prayers, and with far too much endeavour at effect, in too theatrical a style. He was succeeded in the Communion Service by a young man, whose method was impressive and dignified. A Mr. Bowles, from Wiltshire, preached in a slow and solemn manner, from Luke XV. 18. 19. His sermon was made up of shreds and patches, a chaos of sentences on the subject of the parable of the^' Lost Son*' and the Magdalen Institution, but it was in a great measure extempo-' raneous; and I have neyer yet heard any man deliver a well-connected discourse extemporaneously, of advice and instrootion, that had in it that depth and confflderation, which I think every sentence that is deli* vered from the pulpit ought to have bestowed up&lt;m it before the preacher commits it to the heart and consciences of his hearers. But the singing and the organ here were delightful. Of the notes of the organ I may say as Sterne «aid of Maria's music — '' they were the sweetest notes I ever heard;&quot; and of the singing, it flowed in that sweet and captivating melody, which we think would fall from angels' lips. After service at the Magdalen Chapel we went to Hyde Park ; but I forgot to mention one thing respecting Magdalen Chapel. I think its form is well adapted both for hearing and seeing the preacher. It is octagonal, thus: (a ground plan in pen and ink is here gioen,) '' The Magdalens have a screen of green stuff before them; their dress appears to be uniform, and is, I understand, the same as prevailed when the institution was commenced : their hats are of this form, as may be distinctly enough seen through the screen. (A sketch of the headless*) I understand the number in the Hospital is about eighty. ^*Now for Hyde Park I We lunched at a pastrycook's shop on the way: at half-past two we arrived in the Comer. Mr. Morrison of the Team^ came in soon ailer us, and talked about half-an-hour. Still there was no throng; we therefore walked to Kensington Gardens, and quite around them. These gardens should be called a park; as the place abounds in fine trees, and not any part of it is now in garden ground. The Palace there is a contemptible building of brick. The horse-chestnuts were still in fidl flower, amd the most lichly'^blossomed trees I ever beheld. The thorns, too, which are large, are beginning to throw out their blossoms and perfiimes most charmingly. The day has been hot, and from Kensington Gardens along the upper pKti of Hyde Park the heat and dust were almost insupportable; still, however, the stream of London population flowed heedlessly through these inconveniences. When we reached the Park, near the head of * A place near Gateshead. b2 244 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODOSOK. Oxford Street, it was a moving sea of veils, liats, and parasols before us The carriages, in two rows, stood immovably for ten minntes, the waj before and behind them being choked up: — but it is folly to mn into descriptions of things that cannot be described. The crowd, it was observed, was greater than had ever been seen excepting during the time that the Allied Sovereigns were in London. The object of attrac- tion was the Persian ambassador; he was mounted on a most beautiful grey horse of the Arab tribe, the fullest chested animal I ever saw. His dress was a close gown with long sleeves of ruby velvet; his cap lofty and of a sort of sable fur; he had three attendants, each mounted on fine Arabian horses, but men of rather a shabby and certainly dirty appearance; their seat — for saddle, according to our ideas, it was not — ^was a sort of carpeting, but small, and gave you the idea of a bit of hearth-rug. Their stirrups were short, consequently their position on horseback not graceiiil. His Excellency seems to be of the real Tartar race ; he is about fiftyj a strong robust man with a very thick and blaek beard, and his eyes are set in his head in the cat-like way in which the eyes of the Chinese stand. This figure will give the children a correct idea enough of him (a sketch in the margin of the letter). He was attended by an English gentleman, with whom he was in earnest and apparently amusing conversation, as he i^equently laughed to great excess, shaking his short thick stick over the gentleman^s head. &quot; As we came out of the Park we met with Mr. and Mrs. John Hawks and Mr. and Mrs. Brumell— the gentleman whom you will remember me visiting at Kibblesworth. He wished us to go to dinner with him, which I declined, with the view of going to another place. After dining at an eating-house at six, my brother and I therefore went to the Foundling Hospital. It was the anniversary day of the institu- tion, and above thirty boys and girls were there who had served their' apprenticeship '* faithfully and honestly,&quot; and came back to return thanks for the advantages they had derived from being nurtured and educated in this excellent institution. The preacher^s name was Mr. Pitman, and his text was Luke xvii. 17, ^ Were there not ten cleansed ? but where are the nine ? there are not returned to give glory to God save this stranger.' The sermon was well adapted to the occasion, well delivered, and altog^her a piece of ezodlent composition. &quot; Now, my dear ^ I purpose coming hence about the conclusion of this week or the beginning of next. Still I expect to effect something more useful respecting the Chapel ; and should I be delayed beyond the week end, I hope no serious inconvenience will arise from it ; the worst LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 245 part of the matter is that my money is fast exhausting, and I cannot find in my heart to ask for more. My weekly expenses, now that I have got, as it were, into the method of the place, amount to about 305. which I think must be considered moderate. If, however, you think you could get a few pounds from Mr. Jameson, and desire your father to send it to me through Sir M. W. Ridley^s bank, I shall bring it back if I do not want it. I hope you will receive this by Thursday, but I will not come off till I have an answer from you. I now feel sure that my work will answer to me. &quot; May 17th. I am waiting of a note to inclose with this from Mary Wylam, and fear she is going to put me late, as I have to be at Browif s office in the city early this morning. &quot; I hope you have the same sort of glorious weather that we have here. There is considerable abundance of green peas in Covent garden market this morning. Gooseberries are 4{/. a quart. &quot; I have given myself no time to correct the blunders of this letter. '' Assure your father that I will not stay here a moment longer than I think I am spending my time to advantage. But I hope his health is such, that in these long and fine days he will be able to amuse himself, and to pass his time with enjoyment. &lt;&lt; My compliments and affection to him, your mother and sisters, and love and tenderness to thee and our dear children. From thine, my dear Jane, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; *' 11, Upper King Street, Bloomsbuxy, 17th May, 1819. &quot; Mt D£ab Jane, &quot; In a letter which I despatched this morning I expressed a wish to be supplied with a few more pounds: but your anxiety and care for me have gone before my wishes ; and I beg that you will thank your father for the indulgence which he offers me. I shall draw upon him, but not till about the time I am coming away, as I am not yet without money, having about 4Z. lefl. '' I have been so miserable in my feet that this morning I have bought four pairs of very fine raven-gray worsted stockings, from which I find a great relief, — they are a sort that are not worn at present, inasmuch as boots and pantaloons have superseded the use of fine stockings; and on that account the dealer only charged me 14^. for the whole. I gave at the same house 16^. for a pair of silk ones, though I might have had silk stockings large enough for me fbr 85. a pair; but they were thinner than gauze at the heel. S40 MSMOIS OF TH£ HSY. JOHN HODQ80K. ''After losing two hours at the Mmeuin bj waiting for Mary Wjlam's note, I went to the Messrs. Brown*s office * (the owners of Jarrow)» in Fencharch Street; as they were not within» I left a note, requesting they would give me a hearing respecting the chapel. Being so far on the way, I thought it a good opportunity to visit the mercantile docks, and accordingly got Mr. John Hawks to accompany me to BlackwaU. We had refreshment on board an Indiaman from Calcutta. I got as curiosi- ties two East India Gazettes dated in November last; they are curious on account of the paper on which they are printed, and in containing advertisements in three languages* * '' The governors of Morpeth School have written to me to procure them an office copy of their Charter, which has been discovered in the Tower since I came to London. *^ Without referring to your letter, I suppose the mistake about your father coming to London originated with me. You said, I think, ' that your father talked of coming up as soon as he got a part of his throng over/ and that * coming up ' I now see was only to High Heworth. ^ I often sit with amazement here when I think how quiet I am in the midst of so many hundred thousand people, and how I have got so far from home apparently without any trouble or exertion. '^ What trouble you have taken in copying the account of Mitchell's ^neral ! Sir J. £. Swinburne thinks Mr. Turner did imprudently,! because Mitchell ; and so all the Newcastle people think, whom I have heard speak about it. But ' let the dead bury their dead,' and let us be ready always to obey the command, * Follow thou me.' *' May 18th. I have had six hours' work at the Brinkbum Begister | to&gt;day in the British Museum, and am now going to dine with Sir B, S. Hawks. * The presentation to the living of Jarrow is in Umtm, The next turn belonged to this family. t &quot;1819, April 24th. Died at his house at Chimney-Mills, on the Leazes near Newcastle, Mr. John Mitchell, editor and printer of the Tyne Mercuiy, aged 47 years. April 29tb, his remains were interred at the foot of the garden of his residence. The procession was condncted in the usual manner, and a numerous aaaemhiage of friends attended the body to the grave. The funeral service was read in a most im- pressive manner from the reformed liturgy of Dr. Lindsey, by the Rev. William Turner, of Hanover Square (Unitarian) chape], who also delivered an address suited to the occasion.&quot; Local ffistorian^s Table Book. X Transcripts only. The original Ghartula]7 was then at Stowe, in the possession of th^ Duke of Buckingham. It is now burled in Lord Ashburnham's collection. J LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 247 ** Our party this eYening coneisted of Sir R. Hawks and Lady Hawka, his two sons, Mr. Shield the composer, Mr. Purvis (a young barrister,* and son of Mr. Purvis of Earsdon), and Mr. Tully, a musician. This last gentleman plays delightfully on the horn. He amused the company with many curious imitations of performers — ^especially he mimicked with great success, with a walking-stick to finger upon, the playing of a foreigner on a flute ; and Catalani^s singing, on the horn, on which instru- ment he also played the Thorn, the music of which is by Mr. Shield. '&lt; This Mr. Shield I told you was bom at Whickham, and has risen to fill the highest situation in his way in the kingdom, namely, that of leader of H. M. band. He talks about Jarrow church with great reverence and enthusiasm. *' My dear Jane, I will not stay an hour longer here than I think it prudent to stay. I would have been with you before this, if I had any prospect of coming back again ; but as I have no early view of such an event, I think it right to learn as much of this wonderful place, as I think every one, who has a public situation in the country, ought to have some knowledge of, and that little cannot be had by a mere super- ficial glance. '&lt; The little boys about London are all getting dandy-horses, for such seems at present the name of the Velocipede: I wish Eichard and John could see one of them ; as for Richard, he would never know how to guide it, but John, I think, in a year or two's time, will be able to master it, though it will move only on level ground. &quot; Jane and San must have dolls, and I have seen a shop in Cranboume alley where I will call for one before I come away ; they have very beautiful eyes, and some of them can, I dare say, do anything but eat and talk ; Jane's shall be a very clever one and San's very pretty. '* As for Bessy, I think she must have a little workbox, or something of that nature. She is too big a girl to want a mere plaything. '^ I hope both Bessy and Richard are plying at their Catechism, and that they get up a portion of it every night, and say it to mamma at breakfast every morning* They would receive each a nice set of copy- heads by the last pacquet; to which Sir R. Hawks said he added several other thiDgs. '^ The shades of another evening, my dear, are over us : it is elevem and I hope you and our dear children are all well and sound asleep. &quot; There has been a very strong debate, as you will see in the papers, * This gentleman in a later period made himself very uteful to Mr. Hodgson in making transcripts for his use frofti th€ British Museum. See hereafter. 248 MKMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. in the House of Lords, on the Catholic Claims. I lament that I have not been towards the Strand to get a paper for your father, as I am told that seyeral of the speeches are excellent. ^ May 19th« It is a month, my dear, this morning since I left yon, — a long month to us both: an eventful one to me, for I have seen more in it than through all the rest of my life. '' We have had veiy hot weather for ten days. At 12 o'clock last night it began to rain, and has continued to do so, at intervals, very heavily, till this time, nine o'clock. ** In returning from my dinner this evening I bought a New Times newspaper, and sent it to your father, which I hope he has received; it contained the debates on Mr.Tiemey*s motion on the state of the nation. ^ There is a general supposition that the milk used in London is a composition ; that it is first diluted with water, and then thickened with some white substance. Be it as it may, it is a very clever and excellent thing. I see nothing bad in London excepting their veal, which is neither beef nor veal, but a tough hard substance very unlike either, and like nothing but itself in badness. London is a most disagreeable place in wet weather; the streets are so dirty in the crossings, and there are such unceasing successions of umbrellas on the flags (or pavements, as they call the side-paths here), that it is both disagreeable and labori- ous to make one^s way through the crowded parts of the town in the rain. To-day about 3 o'clock the atmosphere was so dark that I could, scarcely go on with my work in the Museum. ^* I have not yet been to the House of Commons, but will see Mv. Ellison on Saturday morning for an order which he offered me some time since. ** I think I have some cold about me, and am therefore anxious to get to bed. Though my health is very good, yet I have had a sort of stiff- ness and soreness in my back for some days, which make me both incapable and un wishful to walk about. Good night, my love, good night! &quot; May 20th. I have been breakfasting with Mr. Purvis, a young barrister, and son of Mr. Purvis, of Earsdon, at his chambers in Lincoln's Inn. He is a very open and right thinking young man, and I hope will succeed in his profession. ** Under a very heavy rain — ^that is, a thick, dark, drenching London drizzle, a thing far worse than a Scotch mist, I have been wandering about the town for four hours. The rain overtook me in Leicester Square, where I looked about for a place to shelter in, and took refuge LONDON— LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. . 249 iu Miss Linwood*s gallery of pictures, done in needlework ; and it is a very curious and excellent collection of pictures, all of which are copied by herself &amp;om the works of eminent artists. The colours are most happily and harmoniously blended ; in the dresses especially it has a most happy effect. '* The rain continuing, I called on Barnes^ the dealer in papers printed for the Houses of Parliament, with a hope of procuring copies of the Population, Charitable Donations Keturns, &lt;&amp;c. &amp;c., but did not meet with him at home. Sir J. Swinburne I found engaged at his house in Grosvenor Place, Hyde Park Comer, with a brace of lawyers. His brother, in Bury Street, St. James*, was gone out. Mr. Ellison was also gone out, so that all my calls at that end of the town were fruitless. Afler leaving an advertisement respecting my work on Northumberland, at Mr. Nichols's office, in Fleet Street, I proceeded to the Heralds' College, Bennett's Hill, near St. Paul's, and was most civilly received by Mr. Young,* one of the officers of that ancient corporation. I had letters to him from Mr. Surtees, of Mainsfortfa^ f and from Mr. Bentley, a partner in the house of Nichols and Co., proprietors of the Grentleman's Magazine. He has promised to supply me with any documents their office affords, and that gratis : which I cannot but consider as a very great indulgence, especially when I am aware that he has taken upon himself a great deal of labour and drudgery. '&lt; I forgot to say that at the request of, and by the advice of Sir J. E. Swinburne, I left a card at the Duke of Northumberland's house in St. James*s Square, thanking his grace for the facilities which he has been pleased to offer me in collecting materials for my History of Northum- berland. Having got all matters arranged at that quarter, I have, there- fore, sent an advertisement to the Gentleman's Magazine, and am to have copies of it to circulate among my friends here, before I commit myself to the mercy of the oce^n. '* I saw the Guards to-day march into the Park. Eichard and John should have been there to have seen the beautiful dresses of the officers, especially of the Polish Lancers; the feathers of their caps are very bright and magnificent — they appear like those of the bird of paradise, but the wetness of the morning made them droop. If the boys should ask what sort of appearance these fine men make, mamma can let them see one of them on the other side; though Richard must not ask what sort of an animal the soldier is mounted upon, if papa does not * Now Garter King of Arms, of whom much hereafter, t See Memoir of Mr. Surtees, (Surt. Soc.) p. 386. 250 KSHOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. sucoeed in doing, what he hu nerer yet succeeded in, that of drawing a hone. (A sketch with the pen.) ** The dress of the Lancers is intended to have the appearance of ancient armour, and the officers are narrowed at the waist, and sit as stifif and upright as if they were cased in a jerkin of steel. There is a very good French caricature of two Cossack soldiers preparing a young Bussian officer for the parade: he is seated upon a stool, and they have passed a sort of swathing band of great length once round his body, and are each of them pulling with all his might to tighten it: but I apprehend this sort of dandyism is going out, except in the army, where it com- menced and is fixed as long as the order stands for the present sort of dress. Indeed, the present sort of tightuess and tidyness, which pre- vails in the army dresses, is, I think, suitable enough in the soldier — he should be finely and smartly dressed, especially in London and in the present time, when he is of little more use than to be looked at, and admired either on account of his person or his dress ; and as every soldier cannot boast of a good combination of personal perfections, it is right that his dress should be such as to make up in show that which is deficient in the attraction of his person. A soldier in the park, or on parade-ground before the Horse Guards, is certainly one of the cleanest and best dressed animals in the creation; especially when he has risen while young to the dignity of two epaulettes, and has the privil^e of plenty of goldlace to cover the seams of his coat and his pantaloons* But dandyism in Bond Street is taking quite a difierent turn : the man of fiuhion is now in some degree a negligee, in appearance partly a male and partly a female, for his pantaloon is gathered into his waist- band, so as to have the appearance of a petticoat under the waistcoat; and the coat itself is made full before, tight in the waist, and with very wide gathers about the hips, so that the animal that moves in this sort of habiliment does appear at a distance to be a thing of doubtful gender. I will attempt to draw one. {A sketchy front and back vieWy with the pen.) '' Here now you have one of the exquisites both before and behind. I cannot say whether they came before or followed afi;er the Persian Ambassador; but I have no doubt but the Eastern trouser and mustachio have caught the affections of the European beaux: but whether they were first smitten in Paris and sent the distemper to London, or London does not owe this fashion to Paris, I do not know, as among the numerous inquiries I have to make, and the questions I LONDON^LETTERS TO MBS. HODGSON. 251 have to ask, I have hitherto neglected to inquire into this very import* ant matter. ^* I have dined with Sir B. S. Hawks, and Robert has been with me some time this evening. ^ Nothing in London is more astonishing than the great exertions of every person connected with trade, especially that of the mechanics; their hours of labor are very long; Bubert works from six till nine, that is, three hours* overwork. It is the same almost in every trade. Here, if you are astir to see it, you find shops open at six in the morning and at eleven at night. The booksellers have a very hard life ; they have to labour immensely. Comparatively speaking, we, who live in the country, are only half alive ; but the consequence of this overstrained exertion seems to me to be this, that the constitution of the population is perpetually wearing out, and that if very large supplies of fresh people were not always poured into it, the present labourers would sink under their load. It is not the climate of London that annually kills so many, it is an over attention to their employ- ment; they have too little relaxation; their hours are divided between sleep and labour, no time is allowed for breathing in the open air, and for relieving the mind from its constant and intense application to one definite subject. The system pursued is such as will always tend to enrich a few, whom nature has blessed with constitutions and abilities stronger than the rest; but I question much that it tends to general happiness, because I think it has a greater number of miseries attending it than a less laborious, less hazardous, and less anxious life in the country. &quot; I am afraid I shall not be able to get a frank for this letter before Sunday, on which day I intend to call upon Mr. £llison and breakfast with him. ^* But afler this letter arrives I must deprive myself of the pleasure of receiving any more letters from you, as I hope to be at sea before they can possibly reach me. ** This evening I had a note from Mr. Thomas Brown, fixing twelve o*clock to-morrow to meet him respecting the chapel. '^ My prayers to God for the happiness of you and your infant family shall not, my dear, be forgotten: Qod bless you all! and though I am not personally with you to say good night into your ear, yet my good wishes, my affection, and my blessing, are never absent from you. &lt;&lt; May 21st. Friday. After breakfast I walked to the Paragon in the 252 MBMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. Kent Road, about three miles from this place, and immediately retomed in company with Mr. Atkinion by Blackfriars Bridge, through the Temple to Lincoln's Inn, where I called upon Mr. Clayton to thank him for the interest and trouble he took for me with the Goyernors of Queen Anne's Bounty. As we came through Lincoln's Inn Fields a tremen- dous thunder-shower droye us for shelter under the portico of the College of Surgeons. I returned to ray lodgings, and then walked into Fenchurch Street (about two miles) to wait on Mr. Brown. At first I found him, as I expected, jealous and cold, and afraid of committing himself He was afraid the division of the parish would make altera- tions in the divisions for the maintenance of the poor; and much of such other unreasonable objections I had to explain away, and by openness and candour I at length got him to promise to meet Mr. £llison on the subject this day next week; sooner he could not; so you see it will be next Sunday morning before I can possibly get off, as I am determined to haye final answers respecting the chapel before I leave, for there is nothing to be done here by letter on the subject. Next week will finish aU I have to do for mysdf, and I shall be hard enough driven to do it. '' AfVer leaving Mr. Brown, I called at Mr. Lysons's ofi^ce in the Tower, but was not fortunate enough to find him. Then I went into the Coal Exchange; there was nobody there ^hom I knew. In Upper Thames Street I inquired for Mr. Nichol: soon found him, and with him his brother-in-law Mr. Graham, and Strachan, a captain of one of the traders, who told me he had seen your father twice last Saturday, and, what was more gratifying than anything I had heard since I came here, that he appeared very well and was yery hearty. In my way to King's Street I had my plate of boiled beef and a piece of cheese in the Old Bailey, and after all this ramble had a full hour's work in the Museum. Since four o'clock I have visited Priestley the bookseller's shop, and, excepting two volumes of sermons, haye bought the only book I have ventured to covet since I came here, — it is Benson's edition of Somner's Saxon Dictionary, a work which I have long wanted, and the only one which I think of purchasing; it cost 1/. 7s., and is in no great bulk, being very scarce. &lt;' Since I got new stockings ^ly feet have kept in excellent order. &lt;' After a very long and heavy rain, the sky has this afternoon cleared up, and the weather appears settled. *' As I hope to get this letter franked to-morrow or Sunday, I shall close it this evening, noticing to you, that you will have another chance of LONDON — LETTERS TO MBS. HODGSON. 253 gratifying me with a letter, if this reaches you bj Monday. If you do not get it before Wednesday, I fear I may not be to be found on the morning of Saturday the 29th, on which day a letter posted on the Thursday before nine would reach me. '* Here, my dear, is the last side of another portion of a yery care- lessly written journal. If I should relate all I see it would take up more leisure than I can spare, and leave us nothing to talk about when I come home. '' I hoped to have been able to have sent you a proof of the Pro- spectus of my History, but I have not received a copy of it yet from the printer. *^ If you chance to see Mr. Russell or Mr. Snowdon, you may say to them that I wished to mention to them that I now have very sanguine hopes of getting Heworth made an independent parish, and that I am waiting till I am certain whether the division will take place or not, to ask for money to assist in building the chapel, as it would be in vain to ask for money before I have grounds and plans sufficiently digested to prove to the trustees of the fund, to which I confidently look for assist- ance, that our scheme is a settled and practicable scheme. &quot; Now, my dear, to say in my own style, ^tux/Z^, let me entreat you to take care of yourself. You have never yet said to me how you are; To your father be so good as to say, that if I have a prosperous voyage, God willing, I will be with him and see him smoke a pipe of Oronooko by the second of June. My love to him, your mother, and sisters; and to thee, my dear Jane, and the children, my tenderest affections. Always thine, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; &quot; Mt dear Jane, 11, Upper King Street, Bloomsbury, May 22nd, 1819. ** Mr. Allason, of Heddon-on-the-Wall, breakfasted with me this morning, as also did Mr. Purvis of Lincoln's Inn. Between ten and eleven I was fearful the weather was going to continue wet, but after a heavy shower it cleared up, and to-day has been remarkably pleasant* At eleven I called on Mr. Ellison, and made arrangements with him respecting his interview with Mr. Brown on Friday. &quot;After that I called at Nichols's office (the printer), and wad astonished to find that the advertisements on the back of the Gentle- man's Magazine pay duty, and that my prospectus will cost three guineas. Indeed I am not certain but I will countermand the order to- morrow morning ; though it is certain, I cannot have it so well or so 254 MEMOIB OF THE RET. JOHN HODGSON. widely diffused over the kingdom in anj other way, as the Gentleman's Magazine is read ahnost entirely by antiquaries^ and such country gentlemen as have a taste for local history. '&lt; From Mr. Nichols's office I went to Mr. Lysons's chambers in the King's Bench Walk; but not finding him there, I proceeded towards the Tower, where I waited till he arrived. He showed me the Charter o^ Morpeth School) which was endowed by King Edward the Sixth with certain lands that had belonged to Chantries, &amp;c. in Morpeth. It is beautifully emblazoned, and has the seal of Edward attached, but, as the document has been inroUed, Mr. Lysons could not permit me to take a copy of it, because the copy of it in the Chapel of the Bolls is of greater force in legal matters than the original itself, ailer that original has been in the hands of its proper keepers, namely, the burgesses of Morpeth. &quot; Mr. Lysons showed me the room in the White Tower where the main body of the records is kept. The first room is the chapel and the second the great council chamber. It would be impossible to attempt to describe them to you; it is sufficient to say I was gratified with the order and care in which they are preserved. '&lt; It was at least curious to be shown some letters in the handwriting of some of the Kings of England; one especially of Richard the Third, written with great spirit and freedom. Shakespeare has made him elo- quent, a great master of words and argument, but perhaps not more great in that way than he really was. &quot; After being very politely offered to have any extracts out of these records gratuitously for my History, I left Mr. Lysons and proceeded to the office of the Tower guards, to get an attendant to show me the Tower armour, with the sight of which I was greatly delighted. The horse armour was to me not novel, but curious, especially the three hundred cuirasses of the French soldiers taken at Waterloo. But of all the astonishing sights I ever saw that of the muskets and other small arms is the greatest. There is a small room into which you are first shown that contains the volunteers' arms, the other room is 345 feet long, and 60 feet wide, and completely piled with highly polished armour, arranged in the most beautifUl manner. &lt;&lt; To see all these sights cost me 6«. ^d. It was nearly five as I came through the archway of the Tower, and I had to dress and afterwards dine at six at Nottingham Place, in the New Eoad, Paddington — a thing impracticable without the assistance of other legs than my own: I ac- cordingly took a hackney coach in Cheapside, and after dressing, LONDON — LETTERS TO MBS. HODGSON. 255 another to Nottingham Place, which cost me 4«. 6&lt;2. It is by expenses of this kind that the money is drawn from one's pocket in London, not 80 much by expenses of board and lodging. Of the party with whom I dined was Mr. Blanchard, a very sensible man, serious, quiet, and endowed, apparently, with great correctness and liberality of thinking. He told me he is the great grandson of Roger Gale, and the great nephew of Dr. Stukeley, two names ever memorable in the list of English anti- quaries. Of the other party I know little, excepting that I have forgot the names of two of them and the other is called Miss Dalley : they are from Ireland; and greatly against the Catholics. I think the gentle- man's name is Godby. His wife is Miss Dalley's sister; they are very accomplished people, staunch Protestants, and connected by blood or marriage with most of the great families in Ireland. &lt;' I suppose the great fall in the Stocks will make great noise in the country; but by judicious persons it is considered purely artificial. Your father will rejoice to hear that Lord Castlereagh is seriously, as I hear, determined to try for a new property tax. ^ But I am writing about things which will be old news when this letter reaches you. O I how I long to be at home I I am truly sick of being here. And yet I must fag another week. &quot; Bromley in Kent, May 23rd. This morning my brother and I came here on the stage. It was highly gratifying to observe on our way the great improvement the country had made since the 9th, on which day I first visited this place. The late rains had greatly refreshed the country. We arrived just in time for church. The clergyman preached from ' If ye love me keep my commandments, and I will pray the Father and he shall send you another Comforter.' Before dinner I sat with my aunt about two hours : she is at her own house, but con- fined to her bed of the gout, which was brought on by over anxiety for her daughter Mrs. Richard Eawes, in the beginning of this month. She is, however, recovering and in good spirits. Her memory is still astonishingly accurate — as well in present matters as those which occurred 60 years ago. She remembers all the people in Bampton in Westmerland, where she was bom, much better than I do, and brought many things back to my memory which with me would for ever have sunk into oblivion, but for the conversation I had with her. '&lt; After dining with Mr. Palmer we had a stroll in Mr. Rawes' shrubbery; it is a deep narrow dell with fishponds in the middle. One side partly in garden, and one side partly in grass, with filberts, flowering shrubs, &amp;c. The other side is covered with tall forest trees and 256 MBMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. underwooded with laurel in great health. On the brow of the hill on one side of this shadj retreat is a boarding school for ladies, which belongs to the lay Rector of Bromley, the Bishop of Bochester, and which is rented and sub-let by Mr. Rawes. It was about 8 o'clock when we were here, and close to us, but not that I could discern it, we listened to the *' Sweet bird that shuns the noise of folly, Most musical, most melancholy.'* I was charmed with the yariety and sweetness of its notes; but still there were too many pipes of the woodland choir playing their evening service to hear its warbling in its vilest charms ; and I reluctantly left the sweet abode of music and gratitude, with the hope of visiting it be- fore bed time: but at ten the night became wet and I was disappointed. *^ Bromley. The country around this place is very beautiful, though they tell me not so much as about Tunbridge and the hop country. I have made this sketch out of my aunt*s breakfast-room window. (A sketch iffith the pen,) It represents garths behind her garden; then a gentleman's house, and beyond in the distance two seats in a country which appears to be wholly wooded. ^ There is not much hay cut. My cousin, Mr. Rawes, has had one field down for a week, and in very unfavourable weather. Several fields between this place and London are much laid by the late rains. &lt;&lt; London, May 24th. We came irom Bromley at eight, and I got here at ten. The wind is N.E., and the weather not cold but wet and gloomy. At ten I went to the Museum, where I staid till four, and Mr. Atkinson and a Mr. Murray and two daughters came at four, and got me to go through the galleries with them. &quot; I have employed a person to copy for me in the Museum, and after I get a specimen from him shall be able to judge whether it will be of advantage or not to commission him to transcribe for me such parts as I may write for from home. &quot; After dining to-day I came home by West Smithfield, Saffron Hill, liquorpond Street, and Theobald's Road. Saffron Hill is quite as elegant as Sandgate, Newcastle; it is full of shops for old iron, old clothes, and all sorts of rags and fragments. The people who tenant it seem poor and wretched. No person can judge of the true condition of London who does not look into places like this: what a contrast between splendour and filth! The shops of the Strand and Cheapside glitter with gold: Safiron Hill and the adjoining streets are set out with rusted iron LONDON — LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 257 implements, great quantities of which are second-hand things, exposed to sale for use, as they are not for working up. ^* The College at Bromley is a very excellent establishment for the widows and children of clergymen. Each family has a comfortable suite of apartments. Miss Shepherd, who edited her&quot;^ father's work on the Common Prayer, and which you will find in new binding among my books, li^es with her mother in this establishment, and came up in the same coach with me this morning. ** If you go to church in London there appears such attention to the duties of the place, and in general such numerous congregations, that you would suppose that the whole population of the place was influenced by the purest and most zealous devotion. Li the theatres they appear to be in everlasting attendance, and given up to licentiousness and folly. In the most public streets all appears to be wealth, gaiety, and happiness — in the back lanes and alleys you see nothing but nastiness, wretchedness, and discontent. It is a place, like all others, made up of people in all conditions of life: but great magnificence and extreme poverty stand in more conspicuous opposition here than in any other part of the kingdom. *' I haf e been nearly five weeks here, and during all that time have only peeped out into the country three or four times. I say peeped out, for even the journey to Bron^ey, which is called ten miles out of London^ is almost the whole way a sort of street, and people at all times swarm upon the road more thickly than they do in the streets of many pro- vincial towns. &quot; I am sure you are longing for my arrival, and I know well enough that something or other, on account of my absence, is occurring daily of a vexatious nature; but you, kindly enough, have kept them from md. Five or six days elapsed, and I shall be on. my way home. By Wed- nesday or Thursday, if a tide answers in the day-time, how glad would I be to be set on shore at your father's, and meet thee, my dear, and our dear children there. Again I give the melancholy but affectionate salutation of Good night, my love, good night I May 25th. I scarcely know whether I shall or not 4U anything to •write about this morning. I expected Mr. Atkinson would have called on me at the Museum at twelve to-day, to let me have some money, as I mentioned my intention to him of drawing for some, and he would not permit me, saying he would see me to-day about twelve and let me h&amp;ve ad much as I might want : but, as the morning was wet till about eleven, I suppose he did not come up to town to-day. s 258 MEHOIB OF TH£ BEY. JOHN HODOSOK. &lt;' In the morning I wrote to the Bishop, incloeing a copy of the Prospectiu of my History, and also sent one to Mr. Askew, You will see by the copy which I will forward to you with this letter that I have neither dealt out long and large professions, nor cramped my plan with too many explanations. '^I have been at the Museum from ten till four, and have met with iereral very interesting papers, some of them as old as the time of Bichard the First; and one in particular, which contains the chfuracteis of most of the gentlemen of Northumberland, sent to King Henry Vlll. by a ' Mr. Browne;' some of them are called ' sharp borderers.' Sir Francis Ratcliffe is styled ' a wise councellor, but no adventurer in the field.' &lt;&lt; Mr. Smith has left a note and his address, saying he wishes to see me, and that you had given him my direction, and that you are all well. I have fixed twelve to-moirrow for him to meet me here. '^ The most provoking tiling in London is the shortness of the hours of business ; I can get into no public ofiSce before ten or after four. If I could only have been in the Museum twelve hours a day, my work would have been soon completed. *&lt; I have laid out three shillings in catalogues of the Queen's effects which have been exposed for sale. You will think them very amusing, and I am sure your mother will not readily lay them down after she has once had a sight of them. '&lt; This evening, afler writing the above, I went to Sir R. Hawks, and, not finding any of the family at home, I tried his brother John's lodgings, where were Mr. and Mrs. Brumell. To solitary individuals, as I am at present, I can well enough conceive that the various theatres and places of public amusement with which this place abounds rx^ serve as antidotes against that faculty of the human mind which some consider, and in many certainly is, a disease, namely that of turning its opera-^ tions upon itself, of reviewing its own state, v&lt;^tions, and intenticMis, and with these connecting outward circumstances, such as fame, disgrace, adversity, prosperity and. the like. When these are such as tHe mind cannot revie^4p&gt;ut with sensations of pain and despondency, it naturally flies off to sometliing which, may divert its operations to things uncon- nected with itself and its affairs ; and for this purpose, the e2diibitions of the theatre, Hke. stimulants taken into the stomach, afford a temporary relief, and if returned to, fix into habits. '&lt; It is on this account, I think, that every person ought to form in themselves, at an early period of life, habits of filling up their leisure LONDON — LETTERS TO MBS. HODGSON. 259 hours with rational emplojments. And amongst these are those con* nected with religion, science, and literature. Painting, and some oth^ of the arts, maj be also reckoned amongst them. Religion, of all the emplojments of the human mind, is that which a worldly mind goes to the last, and in which it has the least knowledge. But to one who can see things rightly, it, religion, connects itself with all useful and elegant reasoning. He who would study the philosophy of our planet, its air^ and variations, and seasons, and connect these with religion, will haye enough to fill his mind with triumphs of delight, in the visions and assurances which he will have of the goodness of God. And then what is the study of Natural History, or the kinds, and economies, and habits of organized natuse, but a searching into the depths both of the wisdom and the goodness of Grod ? *^ For my own part, were I to choose one of two unavoidable alter-r natives, I had much rather be seized with some powerful phantasy and live, as it is said our venerable sovereign is living, upon the memory of passed and visionary things, but without a consciousness of right and wrong, than be condemned to sicken my mind night after night upon the feverous and unwholesome folly of the theatre. ^* I have been two hours at the Museum, and Mr. Atkinson is not arrived: but fortunately I have got 101^ of Sir R. Hawks, with which I can pay Mr. Nichols, who on Monday morning sent a stamped receipt for the three guineas expense which I have incurred with him by advertising my History. &quot; At two o*clock I called at the Tower for a copy of the Morpeth School Charter, for which I paid 1^ lOa^ As I went out of Lower Thames Street, I met James Burrell, and was sorry to find that George Wood would sail to-day; as 1 should have preferred coming home by him to being stewed up in a trader. '&lt; At half-past four I dined in Pentonville with Mr. Rawes of Surrey Street, in which last place he has merely a shop. The particulars of our banquet I shall explain when I come home, everything not being easily described on paper. '* Robert came to me at half-past eight at my lodgings, and left me at half-past ten. You wish he would come down with me: but he cannot be released from his business for three or four noonths. *^ I have nothing more to add to this day's observations. Adieu. '' May 27th. The day of the Venerable Bede; and, should I live to see the 27th of May ^ Sunday, I trust I shall not forget ta compose a S2 260 JfEMOIB OF THE BET. JOHN HODOSON. sermon and preach it, on the excellency of that ornament of Jarrow and the human race. '^ I have breakfasted with Mrs. Smith in Glipstone Street. She begs to be kindly remembered to you. '* Only two hours in the Museum to-day. At twelve I called on some business at a stoneprinter's in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and then gradually worked' my way down tp Mr. Brown's office in Fenchurch Street, where, to my surprise and vexation, I found that Mr. Thomas Brown was not returned, being detained in the Trinity Barge at Gravesend, and unable to finish his voyage on account of contraiy winds. Mr. Nichol, how- ever, tells me that I cannot get a ship till Monday or Tuesday; but I shall disappoint him if I can, and be off on Saturday: but more of this before I finish this letter, as I cannot get it franked to-day, and it cannot be posted before Saturday. &lt;' Should I not eventually succeed in my desire of getting a new church, I trust I shall stand blameless before my parishioners either of supineness or neglect in the matter, as I have really laboured hard to effect my object. &quot; Before I went to Church Row, Fenchurch Street, I walked up Houndsditch and through some of the streets that lead out of it, for the purpose of observing the features imd habits of the Jews that .inhabit that part of the City. &quot;It is a very curious, and to me a reflection faR of the deepest interest ; it is rather awful than pleasing to reflect how long this family, of the human race have, by laws and customs peculiar to themselves, been hedged out from the rest of mankind, and to see how they still difier in their features from the rest of their species. How is it that the diflerent families of mankind have through all the ages of authentic history preserved their peculiar cast of countenance, and yet that no new! varieties have originated? Or is it, and perhaps it is the case, that the variety is indefinite, and not to be counted; and that if a new family from Engluid, for instance, with some peculiarity even in one feature of their countenance, was to settle in an untenanted country, it would pro* pagate a people strikingly different from the general body of the people from whom it had migrated, and yet be various among themselves in the form and cast of their visages. '* IhaVe been dining with Mr. Brumell at 77, Baker Street, Portman Square. There was a French gentleman in the party with whom John Hawks got acquainted while travelling in the Pyrenees last summer. LONDOIT — ^LETTERS TO MRS. HODGSON. 261 and with whom he met yesterday at his own door, a few hours after his first arrival in London. &quot; I have been very well lately. No return of the spasmodic pains in my stomach. I still, however, hope that my passage by sea may have a good effect upon my general health, by removing that bilious affection which I have not resolution to combat by medicines which would have the same effect as a sea voyage. &quot; By to-morrow evening I hope I shall be able to say when I shall be liberated. &quot; May 29th. I must be very brief to-day. In the morning I went to see after several little trifles. At one, Mr. Atkinson came to me at the Museum and gave me 15Z. for which I gave him a check, of which you will find a copy on the back of this letter, which be so good as to give to your father as soon as possible, lest I may appear to have been doing wrong, if Mr. A. should send the check home before he comes himself, which I think is not likely. &quot; At two, I went to Mr. Gordon's, saw the house, and paid II. ISs. for a cheese, 2s. of which were for carriage to the wharf. The paintings in this house are good ; the staircase superb : half of it was purchased at a sale of the Duke de Chandois for 50,000/. and the other part made here of Italian marble at the expense of 100,000/.: so that the whole, as they say, cost 150,000/. I find, from persons who knew him, that the late lord was no witch in understanding. Lord Berkeley was once dining with him in a large party, when it was usual to drink wine until they were mellow. Berkeley was a plain blunt John Bull, and had, whether by design or accident I am not told, shot one or two game- keepers, and Chesterfield, under the warmth of wine, said * Pray, my Lord Berkeley, how long is it since yon shot a game-keeper? * * Not since you hanged your tutor, my lord I ' was the reply. You know that Lord Chesterfield brought Dr. Dodd to trial, in consequence of which he was hanged. &quot; May 29th. Positively I intend to embark on board Mr. Cooper's ship, which I understand will not be ready till Monday or Tuesday. 1 was at Astley*s Theatre last night seeing the horsemanship. I went with Lady Hawks, her son, and another gentleman, and was amused. But if I have time I will continue this journal, and write on Monday, With love to you, and the dear bairns, and the family at the Shore, thine most truly, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; 262 MEMOIR OF TH£ KEY. JOHN HODGSON. ^ 11, Upper King Stnoi, BlflOVilnuT, Maj 29th, 1819. '' Mt dear jANEy ** I am tired ereiywaj; witH wandering about all day, and with reallj being alone and so far from borne. *' Mj first journey to-day was to Seed and Nicbors office on Dowgate wharf, where I met Mr. Cooper of the Halcyon. He directed me to have my things on board on Monday night, and not be later in embark- ing myself than seven on Tuesday morning. Mr. Reed is a Hexham man, and showed me some antiquities found in that place, and several urns from Girgenti in Sicily. From his place I went to see Mr. Pepys, a friend of Davy's, ♦ whom I once saw in company with him in New- castle: but I did not find him, though he heard I was in London and had wished to see me. '^ But I should have told you that in my way hence to Dowgate I came through some of the lanes that adjoin Saffron Hill by the Hatton Garden office, St. John's Grate, and the Guildhall, where I saw Grog and Magog in company with Chatham and Mr. Pitt, aU of them silent now, though people that once made a great noise in the world. From the Poultry, where Mr. Pepys resides, I journeyed to Moorfields by Finsbury Square, through a wilderness of streets, to call on Mr. Caley, Exmouth Street, but he also was out. The way from this place led me past the House of Correction for the County of Middlesex, into Guildford Street, where I called on Miss Wylam. She supposed I had left London, and had called here in my absence, to ascertain if that was the case; she intends to write by me. ^* Since that time I have called at the Navy Pay office in the Strand, being nearly two hours in the exhibition room in Somerset House, at Prince and Bunting's in Pall Mall ; dined in Panton Street at six ; traversed the shops in Cranboume Alley ; threaded the intricacies of the Seven Dials ; walked up Oxford Street, to Swallow Street, on one side, down it on the other to Tottenham Court Road, and by that street through Gower Street, Keppel Street, and Russell Square — ^home — tired as a dog. *' I have not yet been able to please myself with two dolls, and fear that I shaU have great difficulty to execute a promise which I must not break. » '^ The weather during the last week has been very cold; yesterday 'riend Sir Humphiy Davy, who during the whole of this visit appears to have of town. T .V I.ONDON— LETTEBS TO MBS. HODGSOK. 263 » -* -' and to-daj have been quite peevisli. On Wednesday I caaght so much cold as to be still uncomfortable with it. Soon after I got here we had about eight days of hot weather, but since that it is quite as chilly as it can be in the North, I wish for a fire. '* Every day when I am passing through the streets, I see a thousand things which I think I will mention to you, but when I get to my rooms I have forgot the whole ; one thing has often struck me, that if a person of small income be fond, of collecting curiosities he must come to London, and take a siuTey of the shops that deal in such things before he ventures to buy. Such a person, I am sure, if he has a grain of sense will be cured of his complaint ; I mean his diseased appetite for things that cannot contribute to his happiness will be satisfied. For I put a rational curiosity in these matters quite out of the question : as reason contemplates nothing but with a view either to private happiness or public good. Ghinanshops, in which specimens of the arts of all the nations who have succeeded in making fine porcelain are exposed to sale, are exceedingly numerous — ^bronze figures, curious coins, oceans of snufi'-boxes of gold, silver, and all manner of precious stones, Chinese gods, antique vases, &amp;c. &lt;&amp;c. &quot; May 3 0th. I breakfasted this morning with Mr. Ellison ; called on Sir J. Swinburne ; went to the Lock Hospital ; met my brother in Hyde Park Comer ; took a chaise going to Hampton Court, and got out of it at Richmond ; walked up Bichmond HiU ; for a short time admired the extensive and well-wooded prospect from that widely-celebrated spot; then we strolled through the Royal Park, and were let out of it into Wimbledon Common. The brackens in the park wherever they were exposed to the late cutting winds are quite destroyed ; the potatos too are much injured, and the wheat has lost its healthy green, though on the side of Wimbledon Common we saw a field of wheat nearly wholly in ear. As we passed over this common the sky began to darken, and we knew of no place near to shelter in, but fortunately a hidden turn of the road exposed to us the view of the sweet village of Roe- hampton, embosomed in trees. Here we had some refreshment, and waited till the rain was over. The road from Roehampton to Putney is on one side wholly planted with villas, each having an opening into the road or common, but hidden from .the eye of passengers by fine trees and a dark paling. Putney is on the Thames, has two churches and a bridge^ on the Middlesex side of which is Fulham, from whence to Chelsea we passed along footpaths several miles in gardens, nothing but gardens, full of fruit trees. Robert had tea with me, and left me at 264 MEMOIB OF THE RET. JOHN H0D080N. eleven. I am much tired. This is mj last night in my lodgings* What more I have to tell must be after mj arrival ' if bj any means I may have a prosperous voyage unto you.' I think I shall sleep on board the Halcyon to-morrow night. ^ The wind changed to the south-west to-day, and hope it will con- tinue there for some time. Ck&gt;mmend me, my dear, to the mercy of God in my voyage, and may God bless you and the dear children. From thine, with affection to all at the Shore, &quot; JoHK Hodgson.'* '^ June 1st. I have lefb myself very little room to write upon, this being the only piece of paper which I have not packed up: but I must write a little to keep up a sort of record of the places I have visited. *' Afler breakfast I called, with Sir R. Hawks, on Mr. Bentham, 6, Upper Grower Street, to whom Mr. Surtees gave me a letter. Thence I walked to Somerset House to transact some business for a sailor^s relative. In Exeter Change I laid out 11. Is. 6d. for toys; 7s. for a box for Bess; 6s. for a G«rmai\ fair and a village for John and Richard; Is. for a book for Richard ; 2s. 6(f . in questions for Bess and Abb. ; 2s. 6d. for dolls ; and 2s. 6d. for a pair of strong scissors. This job executed, I went to West Street, Smithfield, to call on Figgins the letter-founder, about some types, but, to-day being holiday, he and his men were absent. Besides all this I have posted a letter for you, seen a great number of shops, and in my way home, for the third time smelt the delicious per- fumes, and seen the exquisite sights, on Saffron Hill. &quot; I do not know whether I can get this letter franked or not ; it is five o'clock, have paid my lodgings, am all packed, and ready to flit after I have dined with Sir R. Hawks, to whose kindness I am much indebted. &quot; Not haviDg any book to note my expenses in, it is requisite that I also say that I have paid 3s. to the servant that waited upon me, besides 55. which I have already accounted for. &quot; Robert came with me to Tower Dock, when I paid 8s. 6d. for coach hire, 2s. for trunks and boat, 6d. in the morning for cheese. « Halcyon, Tower, London, 2nd June. At eleven, went to bed. A person of the name of Reed^ drunk and lame through intemperance, yerj annoying; he breathed each way and -every way loud and freely. I got up at half-past five. We were under weigh at seven o'clock. At nine passed Greenwich Hospital ; had a fresh breeze at S. W. Cool, delicious morning. J . VOTAGE FROM LONDON TO JABBOW. 265 &quot; 20 min. before three. We have dined, and none of &quot;us has been fiick yet, though we have been nearly an hour in the Swin. As I sit in the cabin to write I feel more of the ship^s motion than I do on the deck. '* A very fine new steam-packet, called the Eclipse, passed us on her way to Margate, at Deptford, this morning; Price, of Gateshead, at her head. We are in company with the Union, in which Sir J. Swinburne's people are on board. The sea has a delightful swell, very little white' water. ** At five, I began to grow sick, the sea to swell higher. At eight, off Orford, and after two or three severe fits of sickness, went to bed, and rested very comfortably. *'June 8rd. At six, off Hasborough, the wind N.W. and not so fresh as yesterday. At ten, the wind nearly died away. The sea calm, and the ship makes no way. Off Cromer at half-past ten. Wind from the south-east, after an hour's calm; sick once during the calm. Cromer continued long in sight; the wind feeble, but the day fine. Only one bird seen to-day; a white' butterfly appeared about three miles north of Cromer, and three or four miles off land. At six, the land to the south still in sight, but growing dim in the horizon. At six, a light breeze sprung up from S.W. The float-light in sight (a vessel anchored in the deeps), and called the Dudgeon Light, firom the shoal on which it is placed. Sounded with a line of eight fathoms, without find* ing any bottom. The sun shining on vessels fishing oysters in Bumham Flats. Fifteen after eight, the sun set beautifully on the sea with streaks of dark clouds before it ; the breeze pretty stiff; the sun's half orb a rose or ruby tint, the upper section of it lighter than the lower on account of a thin film of haze close to the horizon darkening the lower part. Half-past ten. Spurn Light in sight; beautiful moonlight; fine masses of cloud ; steady breeze. I write by moonlight. '' June 4th. Bose after an excellent night's rest at seven. Then off Flamborough-head Light-house, a tower, called Flamborough-head Tower (of a church ?), near it. The cli£&amp; chalky and stratified, like those of Marsden, eaten into caves. (A sketch of Flamborough-Jiead^J A fishing bay between Flamborough-head Tower and the farm-house. The cliffs are very white, excepting where they are tarnished by diluvium falling from the tops of the chffs. Near Flamborough-head the diluvium is several, perhaps ten or twelve, fathoms thick, i.e., between the bay and the &amp;rm-house ; farther north it is thin, and when the main headland is about a mile or something more in length is precipitous; after that it is a slope to the water-edge. 26ft HBMOIB 07 THE BET, JOHN HOD680K. '' Aboat the Head mjriads of sea-fowl on the wing, in the sea, and lining eFeiy seam of the strata, filled with nests; two sorts, one black and white, the other white and bluish, in troops, f il sketch, J *^ Scarborough, ten 0*0. 4th June, 1819. On the south cheek of Bobin Hood^s Bay at twenty minutes before twelre. The strata re- markably regular, dipping to the south. In one part covered with brush-wood; a strong breeze. *^(A sketch of J Robin Hood's Bay, ten before twelve, 4th June, 1819. The sky covered with thin clouds; rather inclined to rain, though the sun shines dimly. ^' Ten o^clock, passing Whitby. Lord Mulgrave's seat to the north shows its towers out of a wood on rising ground. Alum works on both sides of Whitby. Smoke rising from alxim works on the shores on the north side. Very large excavations on the sides of the hills out of a very thick bluish stratum. The abbey and church of Whitby on the east side of the town. . ** Dined at one o'clock. The view of Whitby from the north very striking ; irregular indented shores ; broken sloping lands ; much dilu- vium on the strata in some parts. The smoke arising on the Terge of the shores Mr. Cooper thinks is from sea-weed burning. At Runswick, a little creek, lime burning. Staithes is a little sheltered spot close upon the shore and rising in a slope from it. . '^ 0{^site the Staithes the shores of Durham come in sight. '^ Huntley Foot, a very fine bold headland, very regularly stratified; an alum work in it burning, and several large excavations. Where parts of the cliff are fallen it is of a reddish appearance. At two o^clock the breeze strong, the water breaking over the midships. *^ With a steady and strong breeze arrived at Marsden at six. Stood off till twenty minutes before seven, when we took the Bar, but struck upon it, and continued beating upon it for twenty-five minutes, when we got off it and again stood off to sea ; at half-past eight took the Bar again, crossed it, and passed Clifford's Fort at nine; dropped up the river to Whitley Point, and then sailed to Jarrow Quay end, where we now are, at half-past ten o'clock. At twenty past eleven we anchored at Wallsend Staith, when it began to rain heavily.


— 1819. Announcement of History. — Correspondence on History. — Edward Swinburne, Esq.— Correspondence respecting Engravings, &amp;c. — Destruction of three cart-loads of ancient Records at Little Harle. — Richardson and Dixon's Picturesque Views in Northumberland. — Correspondence.

 Mr. Hodgson's engagement in a History of Northumberland had long been a matter of notoriety among his friends, but it was during his late visit to London that it was first announced to the public. By the following advertisement, on the cover of the Gentleman's Magazine and in the local newspapers, he publicly pledged himself to carry his design into execution, and made known at the same time the plan which it was his intention to adopt and follow out in bringing it to a termination. This scheme, however, was afterwards materially departed from in the progress of the undertaking; and it seems certain, that if he had lived to complete his task, it could only have been brought to a conclusion by a still further deviation from the original design, inasmuch as three volumes, judging from the method which he pursued in arranging his materials, and the space which he permitted them to occupy, would have been found utterly incompetent to contain the details of his parochial history. Neither could three volumes by any possibility have done justice either to his subject or to himself. In monastic history, Northumberland may not be as rich as other counties with peace in their borders in times of old, but still in this respect there are many subjects of great interest to the historian, the more interesting perhaps from the circumstance of their situation in disturbed and lawless localities where plunder was more frequently thought of than piety.
Tynemouth, Newminster, Hulne, Alnwick, and Brinkburn, to say nothing of the minor ecclesiastical institutions within the walls of Newcastle and elsewhere, might of themselves have justly claimed a volume at least and when the great extent of the county, its Roman Wall, its British and Saxon remains, its military and predatory character, its border history, its families of old renown, its castles and towers, and all its various subjects of martial and civil interest, are taken into consideration, any history of four volumes in which such stirring subjects should have been cramped and confined would have been nothing more than an unsatisfactory abridgement.  
His arrangements for the printing of his History were as follows: 
 "I agreed with the Courant office, Newcastle, to have my History printed by them, on the condition that they should collect all subscriptions, and pay first the engraver, then themselves, and the remainder to me."
The proprietor of the Newcastle Courant was at that time Mr. Edward Walker, who was succeeded by Mr. Cooke, and he again by Messrs. Blackwell and Co., all of them in their order of time the printers of Hodgson's volumes, and all of them affording him every facility and indulgence in their power, treating him invariably with the greatest respect and kindness.  In the press and will be published, with all convenient speed, a HISTORY OF THE COUNTY OF NORTHUMBERLAND IN 6 VOLS by THE Rev. John Hodgson of Jarrow, Seo. Antiq. Soc. Newcastle. The first volume will contain the General History of the County, and separate Treatises on its Agriculture, Revenues, Mining, Geology, Natural History, etc '' The second, third, and fourth volumes will be taken up with descriptions of the towns, villages, public buildings, and antiquities; with pedigrees of families of rank, the descent of property, and such other local matters as usually go under the denomination of Parochial History. The fifth and sixth volumes (the first of which is in the press) will consist of Ancient Records and Historical Papers relating to Northumberland and the English and Scottish Borders. * Letter to Mr. J. G. Nichols, 25 June, 1842. ; The remainder to me !
Alaft for him and his family I Where in the end was the remainder ?
On this subject he was not long in learning a lesson, but it was then too late to be of use. He thus writes a few years afterwards upon having come to the conclusion that there was great need of a good History of Cumberland. (Hist. Part ii. vol. iii. p. 221.) '' To any one who has the ambition to write a work for which he may neither receive, thanks nor pay, but can be satisfied with the consciousness of being patriotically employed, the History of Cumberland offers a wide and rich, but ill-cultivated, field to work in.** ANNOUNCEMENT OF HISTORY. 269 &quot;
The whole of the authorities, especially the large collection of ancient grants of property and franchises to individuals and corporate bodies, which will be given in the fifth and sixth volumes, will be printed in Doomsday types.  Complete Indexes will be given to each volume. &lt;* The impression is limited to 300 copies, 50 on royal, and 250 on demy paper. *« 4th May 1819. Upon this announcement many offers of assistance were made by gentlemen who possessed, or believed they possessed, local information which might be of use. To such communications Hodgson paid due and thankful attention; and in numerous instances he received contributions which were of importance, and were afterwards publicly and gratefully acknowledged in his various prefaces. Along with those offers came the usual letters with which every topographer has been troubled, and which experience soon teaches him to throw aside.
I understand you are going to write a history of Northumberland — you must have many papers gathered together for the purpose. I am very sorry indeed to trouble you, but your extensive collections, and your well-known courtesy, — Will you be kind enough to give me all the information you can about our family, at your earliest convenience. We think we spring &amp;onx those who were once owners of Castle. We have the same arms ; but I am sorry to say we know nothing beyond my grandfather. They say they are related to us, but we do not spell our names in the same way.
And then, if the author chooses to give himself a little trouble, and enter into a wild-goose chase with no other evidence than that of a name and hearsay to guide him, and good-naturedly makes a communication to his corre* * Will the extreme folly of this argument of spelling never be exploded ? Why, till the time of George the Second the chances were that the same man would have written his name thrice on the same page in different ways. Nay, as a still further proof how heedless people were in this matter, the late Mr. Surtees used to tell a story of his grandfather or great-grandfather, whose name was Edward but who always signed his name aa Robert, because, as he said, he could write it better. In proof of the extent to which these absurdities of spelling are now carried the tortures which the name of Smith is compelled to make it deny itself and assume a garb (if fashionable gentility will bear ample testimony. The name in its simple state Is decently clad. Why clothe it in motley ? spondent, taking care to say that what he writes is chiefly conjecture, his letter is stamped with the impress of truth, and quoted as evidence in support of groundless pretensions. I see many proofs that Mr. Hodgson was plagued in this way to more than the usual extent, and we know enough of his obliging disposition to assure ourselves that he was far too frequently occupied with such frivolous inquiries at the expense of more useful engagements. In the case of one family, after he had taken great pains to make it respectable, the heir apparent acknowledged the receipt of the pedigree with a Sir, and yours, at the beginning and end of his letter. Poor thanks for a month's worth of labour ! I cannot better illustrate the kind of questions put to county historians than by printing here the following letter, although it belongs to a later period.
 Why, this is lunatics! this is mad as a mad dog ! *' The preposition de in connection with a local name, *' a token of nobility V Happily the letter is anonymous. Faoii « ANGLO-SAXON.&quot; ** Reverend Sir, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, April 12, 1838. ** I take the liberty most respectfiilly of asking you the follow- ing questions relative to somiB old Northumbrian family nam^, and I shall feel extremely favoured by your returning me an answer at your leisure to the address hereafter mentioned. ^^ First. I am desirous of ascertaining for a certainty whether one might resume, if one thought fit, the prefix ' de * which is attached to some English surnames, such as in the family names of ' John de Felton,* ' Robert de Harle,' * Thomas de Fenwyke,* &amp;c. ; and if (I am of opinion it was not always) the de may invariahly be considered as a token of nobility. This was sometimes the case with the Normans of olden times, as with the French of the present day; and like the German * von,' and the Dutch * van.' That the de is not accounted a mark of nobility now in England is, I think, pretty plain — for instance, it is even lower than an Esquire {if this word can be called a title)—' de Cardonnel Lawson, Esq* ^ Otto von Behrens, Esq^ &amp;c. I ask this question because I find the ' de * often used synonymously with ' they as Robert de Brus&gt; or Robert the Brus, &amp;c. &amp;c. &amp;c. Besides it is often used as the Latm . preposition, e.g. * Test, domino Hugone de Herle, Sioberto de Hertwayton,' * Rogero Heron filio Walteri Hearon de Chipches,* &amp;c., and * Noverint nniversi per presentes me Johannam nuper uxorem Willelmi ¥enwick de Fenwicke de^ncti/ &amp;c. &quot; Also the de or of y^Si:^ formerly generally the assuetude to point out the residence of people living in the country, of the same name or other- wise,- and in this way to distinguish one from another, which was not easy before Christian names were common,' as 'Fenwicke of Little Harle,' * Dodde of Thorneybum Hall,* &amp;c. This distinction was and is not much required in towns, where citizens were generally known by their trade or callings. This using the ofis^ as has been observed, not only the case at the present day throughout Great Britain, but also on all parts of the continent with which 1 am conversant, viz. * Berckemeyer 0/ Thurowerhoist,' &amp;c. &amp;c. &quot; The name of * Fenwicke ♦ of Fenwyke, or de Fenwyke ' is clearly a Saxon name, and that family (in my opinion) was either an aboriginal one in the country or of Saxon extraction, and consequently the de or of might have been assumed before the Norman Conquest. I mean that the de does not prove that the above mentioned family or families necessarily came over* with William the Conqueror, and were also nohU because they had sometimes the prefix of &lt; de.' *' Second. Could one then i^sume the preposition de when it has laid dormant sometimes for centuries, perhaps from inadvertency? Is one entitled to it (provided, of course, that one can certainly trace an un- broken descent from those families of whom we claim kindred), and if the right to resume the aforementioned prefix of de could be disputed, or if any law has since passed to prevent the families of that day from using the * de * now? &quot; In taking the great liberty of addressing these queries to you, allow me to observe that I know of no gentleman so learned in the historical lore of the country, and consequently your opinion on the aformentioned heads will perfectly set the matter at rest in my mind, and confer a great obligation on, Reverend Sir, your very obedient servant, &quot;Anglo-Saxon. &quot; Address Post Oflfice, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. **
To the Rev. the Vicar of Hartbum, Secretary to the Antiquari&amp;n Society of New* castle.&quot; * Fen. — jpenn is a Saxon word meaning a marsh, a moor, or bog — wich or toic, pic, also from the Saxon, means, according to the different nature and conditions of places, a village, or bay made by the winding banks of a river, or a castle, and often a cot. We have many wickt in Northumberland, as Prestwick, Berwick, &a  
Another subject in which local vanity not infrequently manifests itself is an offer to a County History of the likeness of a mansion house, executed in coarse mezzotint or lithograph, or in some such uncostly way, with trees, as Hodgson has well said,  "like wool packs" around it; and for this contribution, which is in general unworthy of an ordinary Guide Book, the author is expected to be grateful. Some of these, as I have ascertained, Hodgson respectfully declined. He admitted others which do no credit to his book. Instances of real solid disinterested assistance in his case there were few indeed, but those few were bright exceptions in the midst of a gloomy indifference.
From the commencement to the termination of his labours, the county of Northumberland, in a general way, seems to have been contented with folding itself up in its own impenetrable cloak of apathy, either unable or unwilling to appreciate the painful toil of one who was patiently devoting himself to the elucidation of its gallant history in times of old, a history of which every inhabitant within its limits might have been proud; ready enough, however, to depreciate and decry his labour if he had called a man's great grandmother Margey instead of Margaret or had made a mistake in "our coat of arms" or in the number of acres in  our estate. But, as he says in one of his letters, the die was cast, and, heedless of the present generation, he looked to posterity for the due appreciation of his labours.
 The following letters, or portions of letters, all refer to the contemplated history. Sir J. E. SWINBURNE to Mr. HODGSON.
 "My dear Sir, 18, Grosvenor Square, 10th May, 1819.; I enclose you the answer from the Duke of Northumberland; you need not return the letter, as you may wish to keep it. I did not mention subscription ; not knowing that your work was to be so edited. Pray let me know. Yours very sincerely, &quot; J. E. SwnreuRNE. &quot; Rev, J. Hodgson, 2, Southampton Row, Bloomsbury Square.".
 To Sift J. E. SWINBURNE, Babt. &quot;
Dear Sir John, &quot; From the account you give of Mr. Hodgson^s abiKties, I shall have great pleasure in subscribing to his \?ork ; though I fear I can contribute but little information. Collinses history of my family contains the whole of the information that I am possessed of; and if there are any other papers which would add to the history they are either in the possession of Lord Egremont, heir to the Petworth property, or they are to be found in some of the public offices. Yours very truly, * Northumberland.&quot; Mr. HODGSON to Sib J. E. SWINBURNE. &quot; DEAlt Sir John, Upper King Street, Bloomsbuiy, 11th May, 1819. &quot; I fe^ greatly obliged by your kindness in sending the sketch of my intended &gt;vork to his grace the Duke of Northumberland. Before I issued any prospectus of it I was anxious to have his Grace's appro- bation of the measure : and am therefore gratified by the permission I have received to place his Grace at the head of the list of my sub- scribers. I think I mentioned to you that only 300 copies are printing, 50 on royal, and 250 demy, of which only 30 of the royal and 220 of the demy are for sale. **• I am well aware that the antiquarian part of the History of the Percy family has been rendered very complete by Mr. CJollins ;* and that I can have very little to add upon the subject: but there are various matters connected with the County of Northumberland which I cannot with propriety write upon without his Grace's permission, especially upon the castles and other military antiquities which lie within his estates, and which frequently require plans and elevations to illustrate them. In visiting such places the tenants or servants would naturally ask my authority for making drawings or admeasurements ; and I have always refused to obtain information surreptitiously or by bribes. In the use of any facilities which may be afforded me by his Grace in this arduous undertaking, I shall scrupulously avoid the publication of anything which can have the slightest tendency to create litigation; and be always ready to suffer my MS. to be examined, and any ob- jectionable part struck out before it goes to press. * It is in the -fifth edition of Collins, 1779, that the history of the Percy fiunily was given in fullest detail, a contribution of Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore. T 274 MEMOIK OP THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; If 70U can permit me to trespass this much ftirther upon your kindness to solicit this general sort of indulgence from the Duke, in mj rambles over the county, you would confer another great obligation upon/ dear Sir John, your most obedient humble servant, % &quot; John Hodgson.** &quot; Sir John Swinburne to Mr. Hodgson. — 18th May, 1819. I have stated to the Duke your further wishes and have received the inclosed answer ; so that you now see what ground you have to go upon, and should leave your name to thank him. As you publish your work by subscription, I beg you will put my name down for two copies.&quot; The Duke of Northumberland to Sir J. E. Swinburne. — ^ St. James's Square, 17th May, 1819. — Dear Sir John, In answer to your letter, I can have no hesitation in assuring Mr. Hodgson that it will give me great pleasure to facilitate his publication of the History of Northum- berland, by aUowing him to make drawings and plans of any ruined castles, or ancient camps, on my estate, as are likely to prove inter- esting to the historian and antiquarian ; provided Mr. Hodgson adheres to his promise of abstaining from the publication of any matter which is likely to have a tendency to create litigation. When Mr. Hodgson visits Northumberland, I beg to refer him to my commissioners, to whom I will give the necessary directions, to prevent his meeting with any unnecessary obstruction.&quot; ^* The Rev. Mr. Hodgson begs leave to return his respectful thanks to his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, for the obliging facilities which his Grace has been pleased, through Sir John Swinburne, to afford him, in collecting materials for a History of the County of Northumberland. 11, Upper King Street, Bloomsbury, 18th May, 1819.&quot; (From a copy on the hack of Sir J. Swinburne^ s letter. J ^* From Sir John E. Swinburne. — Capheaton, July 23rd, 1819. — ^My dear Sir, I am most extremely obliged to you for all the trouble you have given yourself with arranging my Records; and I hope they have been of some little use to you in your present pursuit. T cannot help thinking you might pick up something from what are remaining here. I wish you would find time to come over, and make search. We shall all be most happy to see you. With our united good wishes, yours very sincerely, J. E. Swinburne.&quot; The reader must now be introduced to Edward Swinburne, Esq., a younger brother of Sir J. E. Swinburne, Bart., an amateur artist of consummate taste and powers, and a gentleman from EDWiIRD SWINBURNE, ESQ. 275 whom Mr. Hodgson received an uninterrupted series of* kindnesses of the most Vftried nature, extending from the commencement ot their acquaintance over the long period of thirty years. Hodgson has left behind him a note, that on the 27th Feb., 1814, he met Mr. Swinburne at dinner, at Mr. Ellison's house at Hebburn ; andj as this name does not occur in any memorandum of an earlier date, it is probable that the two then for the first time became acquainted with each other. Soon after the death of Mr. Swinburne on the 6th of September, 1847, in the eighty-third year of his age,* Sir John Swinburne kindly presented to the author of this Memoir a bundle of letters, addressed at various times to his lamented brother by Mr. Hodgson and Mr. Surtees of Mainsforth, regarding the embellish- ments of their respective histories, to both of which he was at all times ready and even most anxious to contribute elaborate draw- ings ready for the engraver. The letters from Hodgson commence in the year 1819, at which we have arrived in his history, almost, immediately before the publication of his first volume, and they prove the great obligations and gratitude of their writer to Mr. Swinburne for the benefit of his advice and pencil. It may be interesting to trace the progress of one volume at least of the History of Northumberland in an artistic point of view, and there- fore I propose to make a copious use of this correspondence, which proves more satisfactorily than any words of mine could do, Mr,- Swinburne's kindness of heart, his taste, and, I think it may be added, his patience. A few of his other letters on the subject of the History are hereafter printed in their order. To EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. &quot; My dear Sir, Newcastle, STlst August, 1819, &quot; 1 have inclosed in a parcel to your brother Sir John three of Buck'sf views, reduced to half-size; that of Belsay Castle is in an un- finished state, wanting a new sky, shadowing, &amp;c. If you could give * Mr. Swinburne would therefore haye been in this present year of 1857, 9S years of age. And yet his elder broker, Sir John E. Swinburne, has this winter travelled- firom Northumberland to pay a visit in the Isle of Wight with the health and spirits o# a man of forty ! t The Bucks were two brothers, who, in the beginning of the preceding oeiituiy, had publish*ed a series of Views of Castles, Ruined Monasteries, &amp;a., arranged. in T 2 276 MSMOIR OP THS REV. JOHH HODGSON. h Bay tonches of truth or detail I would feel greatly obliged to 7oii;for I know that Buck a yiewa are greatly deficient in accuracy and minute^ *' I have also sent a rough aheet of my book, which will give you an idea of the size in which the drawings for it may be made. ** Will you have the goodness to say to the Mi^s Swinbumes, that I b^ they will not put themselves to any uxconvenience in getting me sketches of Thockrington Chapel, or of the tombstones at Cambo; as I am in no inunediate want of them. '^ The greatest difficulty I labour under is that of supplying mj printer with vignettes for the ends of chapters. Should either yourself or your nieces hare any small sketches of villages or scenery, in North- umberland, such as would come into a compass of from three to four inches by about two inches, or two and a half inches, they would be of the greatest use to me, and I would take great care to return them. ^ I write this in great haste at a bookseller^s shop ; and am, dear Sir, with many thanks for the great and valuable assistance which you have oSsred me, your most obliged and obedient humble servant, &quot; John Hoikjson.** Fbom thb Rev. A. HEDLET. ^* Mt DSAB Sib, Kiikwhelpington, Aug. 29, 1819. « Permit me to return you my best thanks for your communica* tion, which the demon of procrastination has prevented me answering earlier. I have, in the mean time, three other subscriptions for you, which is a great proof that I have not been quite idle in your cause. As this is the only way in which I can give you any effectual assistance, I shall not fail to be as industrious as I can — I really think you should advertise more liberally. *' If you have any rough Uterary work that you think I can perform for you, do not hesitate to apply to me. As Sir John Swinburne has not yet sent me any materials, I have had no opportunity of taking a C0unti6B ; and had met with mnoh patronage. Their Views are yeiy yaiuahle; for, althopgh the principles of perspective were not then well understood, and consequently in this respect they are deficient, yet, in general, they are accurate in detail, and afford ]ie|wesentations of numerons edifices which have, since that time, heen destroyed. That of Widdrington. for instance, one of the four sent to Mr. Swinburne, upqp a reduced scale, affords now the sole representation of that, at one time^ fine old castle. The original copper-plates of Buck's Views were not long ago found and sold in London; Mr. Ghamlegt, a Bookseller in Newcastle, becoming the purchaser of those referring to t e Counties of Duiham and Northumberland. * DESTRUCTION OP RECORDS. 277 deGlpHering lesson. Mr. Treveljan, of Wallington^ with whom I dined a day or two after I saw you, will be happy to see you when you favour us with another visit. He has an immense mass of old deeds f but all unfortunately relating to the Calverley property in Yorkshire! sold by Sir Walter Blackett. They are all copied in a very neat, plain hand and properly authenticated ; with indian-ink drawings o^ the seals. &quot; The late Lady Charles Aynsley, of Little Harle, after the death of * her husband) burnt, most wantonly and wickedly, what would have formed three cart-loads of old papers and deeds I My very blood boils when I think of it. The man who assisted her in this most nefarious transaction now lives in my village. He told me, the other day, thal^ many of the seals were nearly as big as his hand. Many most valuable and, to the antiquary, most curious, documents were thus, I have no doubt, destroyed; as the Aynsleys, though not a very ancient family, had been lawyers, for several generations, and the last of them was chairman of the quarter sessions, for very many years, and was likely to have in his hands many papers, even of public consequence. Yours ever, &quot; Ant. HEDtET.&quot; Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. ** My dear Sir, Capheaton, iBt Sep. 1819, *' Owing to my absence from Capheaton I did not get yours of the 21st August till the day before yesterday. We shall be able to fur- nish you with some vignettes, and speedily, from amongst my Northum-» berland sketches. Having nothing more than general county locality, I cannot offer you subjects specially connected with the contents of your fifth volume, the papers and records. This is an additional reason why I apprehend that, unless you get them etched with taste and spirit, they would be worse than an useless expense to you, for they will be merely ornamental. Now the public has, for some time past, shewn a great relish for topographical representations, which has induced very able artists to bestow their labour on such objects; and the taste of the public, accustomed to such fare, will be ill-disposed to put up with indifferent things in that way: and I apprehend they would even be injurious to the work itself, particularly where they are not immediately illustrative of, and assisting, particular descrip- tions in the body ^f it. I freely express my opinion, as I think 278 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. yoa will not take it amiss. It appears to me, as joar expenses on etchings or engravings cannot be to anj extent, that it were better to limit very much the number of yonr plates, and to hare what yon allot for that department applied in getting those few done by able hands, in . whatever way you may judge it best to get them done — ^and in that case the choice of the subjects should be attended to, and pains taken with them. And, as far as regards myself, though I shall be most happy to afford you all the assistance I can, out of what I have or may get, suitable to your purpose, I must candidly confess I should not like to have whatever merit the designs may possess, and I am aware they could not have much to spare, thrown away in their transfer to the copper by unskilful and tasteless artists; but let that be a secondary consideration. The other is sufficient, in my opinion, to require your mature deliberation. ^ With the same freedom I shall now make some observations on the prints you sent for my inspection. That of Belsay I wholly disapprove of, and for these reasons: There is not one feature of the castle and house which does not now exist, but they are all distorted, and the character and beauty of the tower lost; the lay of the ground is all false, rising where it ought to fall. The only novelty to justify this repetition of Buck is the garden in front; of the accuracy of the details of which we have great doubts, extending further from the door than the road would allow; but, admitting it not to be materially inaccurate in that respect, is the representation of the garden a sufficient apology for so bad a view in all other respects ? I do not think that any alteration in the sky or else- where would do good. *&lt;As to the Widdrington Castle, as nothing of that exists, the details are interesting. As a print it is very deficient : the tint of the middle part of the building is so forced as to look like a shadow; the shadow is too weak; for the shady part of the square tower which throws it, receiving reflection, should be lighter than the shadow it casts. There is a want of keeping in the print: the shadows at a. (red ink) are too strong ; and all the sides of the build- ings are so out of perspective that I do not know where to find the vanishing point of their lines; ii) some it is above, in some it is below the horizon. See b. &amp;c. Would not a mere outline, on the reduced scale, from Buck have been sufficient ? On reflection, in- stead of returning you the print with the marks, I had better keep it by me, in case of further observations from you. The shadows I CORRESPONDENCE ON ENGRAVINGS. 279 meant at a, are those of the square pillars, supporting the stag's heads (which are enormous), and of part of the ballustrades adjoin- ing: they come further forward than the nearest part of the garden walls. For the perspective, look at the windows of both the square and ornamented towers, and then at the side of the square building near the garden. &quot; Of Alnwick we apprehend the inaccuracy is considerable ; the distance without any keeping, &amp;c. I cannot suggest any remedy there; all is so altered. ** Apropos of Belsay, I have a view of it from nearly the same point of view, with quite sufficient accuracy of detail ; which will shortly have, if it has not already, some value for the antiquarian, as it contains the house part, which is in great part now taken down. &quot; Your sheet of letter-press will do to regulate the size of the plates. For the vignettes something between the two measures you gave, viz. about 3} or ^, by 2 J. I can send you a specimen by the next post, and also tell you what I have that might be got for your present volume ; that you may say which you prefer. I have heard it remarked that you will probably find 300 copies too small a number to bear you out in expenses, accidents, &amp;c. incident to your publication; but I hope you have got the best practical information, and that you are not em- barking so far as to involve yourself in a way that may subject you to loss. If I understand it right, you mean this fiflh volume in the press as a trial. Yours very truly, &quot;Ed. Swinburne.&quot; From EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. &quot; Dear Sir, 2nd Sept. 1819. &quot; I have been looking over my sketches, since I wrote to you yesterday (1st Sept.), and as Mr, Ord is going to Newcastle to-day I shall send you a list of what I have met with, which might serve as vignettes. I believe about four inches in width would be a good general proportion to the letter press. '* Copeland Castle — not good enough for a larger plate. &quot; Twysell Bridge— over which Earl Surrey marched to Floddon. &quot; Ghipchase — a distant view of, reserving the nearer one for a plate, &quot; Thirlwall Castle— not good, but might do for a vignette, &quot; Ford Castle — distant view of, would do for ditto. ^* Bothal—- distant,. I have a nearer view with details, for a plate. 280 UEMOIB or THK KKT. JO0V H0DG80H. « St. Cnsiibat • Ckapd on Fane Umd— not good, baft ndghft do. &lt;*yoriiam CMrfai etihcT fcr yignetteor ptoe. I dioiild prefer the Ibnncry m I have a drawing of it to make Sar Mr. Baine's North Dmnanu •&quot; Warinr&lt;»th Bii^e. ^ W jDjmoleswick — pic ture ^ q nc, not modh of hnilding, which is *^ Feathentoo — mig^ft do for a lignette or plate. ** Danstanbofxmgh.I eould giine a dintant, reserring the principal ** Bambro* ) Tiews of eadi §or plates. ^ Ho) J Island — ^wonld do lor a plate. I have nothing but distant riews of die Old Chnrdi, the ndn. ** YeaTering Bell— ootline from a bridge over the Glen on Wooler rood, pictoresqoe. ^ Bellingham Church and ^yer — ^I could make a vignette. ** EEaughtoQ Castle— mi^t be made either a vignette or a plate, as jou like. ^ I might get the bit in Hexham C3iurch, and the Bridge up the Devil, near Battlefield, or Aydon Castle, this autumn. *^ How many would jou want, and saj whidi jou would prefer ? Write me this soon. &quot; I could not convenientlj get at Branxton. It appears » hideous village* Floddon Field has no monument of the event to mark it. I had no opportunity of looking after Fair Cross; nor could I hear of it. Does anything exist ? Nor could I stop for Wooler Church. Mitford Castle I have not yet got. The bit of the Abbey (Newminster) near Morpeth is too shabby. I may perhaps get this autumn up the Beed-water for Otterbume, &amp;c. Point out anything that is come-at-able which you like better* In haste, yours truly &quot; Ed, Swinburnje.&quot; To EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq., Sen. *' Mr DEAR Sir, High Heworth, near Oateshead, 4th Sep. 1819, &quot; I received your two letters this morning; and feel very greatly obliged by your candid and judicious advice ; I will certainly have no more of Buck^s Views reduced. My reasons for having them done at all were that Widdrington Castle does not exist; the view of Alnwick is the oldest of that building; and that of Belsay showed the old style of laying out gardens — and for having them done in NewcastlCi because I J * COBBESPONDEKCE ON ENGRAVINGS. 281 thought that servile reduced copies (I aimed at nothing else) might be made there as well as elsewhere; though I find on comparing the two performances Buck's is every way better. '' My wish respecting the Views, which you have had the kindness to offer me for plates, was that they should be etched by able artists in the style in which Blore has done the church of Houghton-le-Spring for Mr. Surtees's Durham; and that the vignettes should be done by Bewick, on wood; for I could not get the latter either well engraved on oopper or printed well in Newcastle; and it would be very inconvenient to send the paper for the purpose of having them printed upon it in London, on account of the letter-press being printed in Newcastle. I have great promises of having them executed in the best style; though I am aware that wood is not equal to copper for d6ing justice to the original designs. *' For the drawings for plates I am in no great hurry, and shall not want more than six for the present volume. It will be four or five months before I can publish a volume, on account of the slowness of the process of printing my book. It is, however, immaterial what views appear in the volume that will be published first; as no part of the parochial history will be given in it. If it makes no diflference to your- self, I could wish that the views of Bamborough and Prudhoe might be amongst the number, also that of the private bridge at Dilston. '^ Your list of vignettes is interesting to me, as they are the only species of embellishments which I can give in the fiflh volume (I mean permanently to remain in it), and I shall be greatly obliged to you for drawings for that purpose of the following places at your leisure:-— Thirlwall Castle — Dunstanborough — Wyllymoteswick — Copeland Castle — Ford Castle — ^Featherstone Castle — ^Warkworth Bridge — Bothal Castle — Chipchase Castle ; and, at some future opportunity, the remain- ing part of the list, viz. Twizel Bridge — St. Cuthbert^s Chapel on Fame Island — Norham Castle — Holy Island — Yeavering Bell — ^Haughton Castle — ^Bellingham Church. &quot; The Frid-stool in Hexham Church, and the Bridge over Devil's- water at Linnells, whenever you are in that part of the country. I beg you will not go a step out of your way for them. &lt;*Will you also have the goodness to give me the name of any eugraver whom you would recommend me to employ in engraving the plates. It sometimes happens that such plates as mine can be got executed at a moderate charge by giving them into the hand of an .artist, and saying &lt; You may do them at your leisure,'If therefor you could recommend me to any gentLeman in London, I would get my brother there to make arrangements with respect to the time of their being finished, payments^ &amp;c. '' I do not recollect anything about an antiquity of the name of. Fair Gross; but I think I mentioned to you one at the way-side in the parish of Ilderton, which was disoovered some years since under a heap of stones, which had gone by the name of the apron fuU of Mtonss. The base of it is circular, twelve feet in diaiiieter, and has fkYQ rows of steps from it to the remains of the shaft. It is now called Percy's Cross, from a supposition that one of that family fell there, and not on Hedgeley Moor, as has been said by later historians: but on what grounds this new idea is founded I have not examined. ^' I thank you also for your kind solicitude respecting the success of my undertaking. My main inducement for the undertaking is to gain so much by it as to enable me to get my children better educated than my present means will allow; and, if I can sell 300 copies, I have no doubt of realizing my object. The fifUi volume will be dull, but if I can struggle against the difficulties of getting up the second I shall have no apprehensions about the sale of the whole of the copies. ^ I do not intend to give any views of gentlemen's seats at present tenanted by their owners, but confine myself to such buildings as come xmder the class of antiquities. With this rule before me, Chipchase would be admitted; and, if I recollect rightly, you showed me a view of it in which the old tower makes so principal and so interesting an object that I could wish to give it. Belsay Castle is also one of those interesting objects that must not be omitted; and I will thank you to look again at the old painting of Capheaton; and if the labour of re- ducing it be not too great I trust that Sir John will allow me to have a copy of it. With many thanks for your great kindness, I am^ dear Sir, your most obliged humble servant, &quot; John Hodqson.&quot;
 Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Es«. &quot; My dear Sir, Capheaton, Friday, 20 Sept. 1819. &quot; I was prevented by an interruption from getting the vignette of Warkworth Bridge ready, though it was nearly so, by Thursday's post. To make up for it I shall send another with it on Monday in our bag, to be left for you at the Post Office, Newcastle, as being less likely that way to be doubled an J creased. It is a small one. of Chipchase CORREBPONDENCE ON ENGRAVINGS. 283 Castle, at a distance, with the river, and will not interfere with the larger one you wish to have for a plate. I will write to my friends in London to make inquiry about an engraver for the plates ; and I trust we shall not find it difficult to meet with some clever artist to do them as you wish and well. The size of your Buck reduced; which you sent me, seems to me a good one for the proportion of letter-press. There is room enough for what we want, and I hope it is one that would not be a very great expense, even though the engravings were finished rather further in effect than the one you allude to in Surtees's Durham, Some information, which I will obtain, about the price will enable you to judge. You have chosen three good subjects ; and, as I think no time ought to be lost in putting the drawings into the engraver's hands. I shall be getting them forward without delay, I shall think of three other subjects to complete your number. Might not Widdrington Castle be reduced, and the details given in an outline as a vignette ? &quot;It seems of consequence that the plates of your first published volume, if the matter is not very interesting, should be as attractive as you can afford to get them. &quot; Thebit I have of Thirl wall Tower is so small (it is a poor one) and without any of the general situation relative to the great (Roman) wall, I have doubts whether it is worth having. I could make it into a tolerably picturesque vignette. Qusere, would not a small view of Bambro' from the other side of the view you choose for a plate, in- cluding the sea, be a good substitute for it; or would you wish to reserve that for another volume ? ^ ** When you mention Bothal as a vignette I suppose you mean a general and distant view of the Tower, and not the near one I have ; of which, I presume, you would want a plate some time or other. &quot; My brother has not the least objection to the old picture's being copied, and my nieces will make a reduced drawing of it for you. &quot; Lady Swinburne desires to be put down as a subscriber to your work. All unite in best regards. Yours truly, &quot; Ed. Swinburne. . &quot; Your reasons for getting the vignettes done at Newcastle are quite sufficient. You cannot put them into better hands, or so good indeed^ for wood engravings.&quot; 284 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHK HODOSOH* Ma. (AVTBKWAmM Sn A.) CALLOOTT lo Mb. B. SWINBURNE. &quot; Mt deab Edward, &lt;&gt;«*• 18. iw^- '' Toa will see bj the indofled extract from mj letter to tfr. Hodgson what I think a« to the execution of plates to his work If yoa shonld agree in opinion with me a« to their being executed in aqoatinti I should recommend you to use the pen most freely, so as to require little more than flat washes in the tinting. This will make them to give a spirit and detail, in which in general such works are defective. Lewises power of imitation is quite surprising; so much so that his prints are perfectly deceptive on the closest inspection, and when he has good things to work from, beautifuL The specimens inclosed are from very loose sketches of Claude; but, loose as they are, I will be bound to say that there is not a touch or a line but what is a precise fac-simile of the originaL Ton will readily judge from them that his ability is equal to the rendering of any kind of drawing in two colours ; and there is no degree of finish compatible with a drawing, in which the outline is conspicuous, that is not within his power of imi* tation. With regard to the price, of course the difference from seven to ten guineas is to meet the variety of labour that the different subjects will require. ** And. Callcott.&quot; Mb. CALLCOTT to Mr. HODGSON. ^ I have made the necessary inquiries, and see no prospect of the pos- sibility of your obtaining any decorations to your work executed in line engraving; as the expense of any thing tolerable in this way would far *exceed the sum you have named, and add so much to the expenses of the publication that, without a considerable rise in the price, it would be quite ruinous to your profits. &quot; I find, however, that in aquatint you might very well accomplish your object; as the price of engraving plates of the size you mention will be from seven to ten guineas each, and that six of them would be Very well executed within the time specified for the first publication, or at any rate within six months, which would be impossible in the line way. *^ I am the more induced to recommend this style of work for your history, as fac-similes of a most perfect description can be obtained from Mr. SwinbumeV drawings in this way, and the just reputation he COBBE8PONDENCE OK ENGBAYIKOS. 285 has for taste among His friends in the North cannot fail to make this a point of great importance to the work. '^ I shall send to him by to-morrow*s post specimens hj the best engraver we have in this style, Mr. F. Lewis, with my ideas on the subject, and you will no doubt shortly hear from him on the point. The detached architecture, seals, &amp;o. I should think would certainly be best rendered on stone.&quot; 28 Oct. 1819. — ^Mr. Swinbubne to Mb. Hodgson. — &quot;I have sent you, to the care of Mr. J. L. Loraine, at the post office, two more vignettes — ^Wyllymoteswick, of which there is just enough of the Tower to swear by, and a distant view of Bothal Castle. Mr. Bewick will make such alterations in them, and the others, as he may think advisable, to adapt them to engraving ; as I have not sufficient expe^ rience to know what is best in the management for that purpose.. When are we to hear any thing about the larger concerns ?&quot;— E.S. Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. « Mr DEAR Sir, Oct 29, 1819. *^ Line engraving being out of your reach, I do not see that you can do better than put the drawings into the hands of Mr. Lewis, of whose very great powers of imitation Mr. Callcott speaks so decidedly in his letter to me. The specimens he has sent have a peculiarity of touch and manner, which I have observed in sketches of Claude, from which they are done, corroborating his testimony. I am getting, now the thing is decided on (for such I presume is your determination) Bambro* Castle and Prudhoe Gateway ready as fast I can, to be sent off and put into Mr. Lewis's hands, that he may be set agoing ; and the other four (I believe you want six for your first volume, am I right ?) to follow, as soon as I can get them done ; if we keep free from an explosion.* The Bridge at Dilston I propose to make the next : the three others I have not determined on. I cannot say I am satisfied with the first specimen you have sent me of the vignettes: I have compared it with those of Bewick's works, his Birds and ^sop, and can see nothing of the taste and spirited touch to be found in most of them. It is to my eyes generally heavy and tasteless in the execution, with^ deviations from the original in making out parts, which I cannot feel as * AUading probably to tho Radicals of the period. 286 MEMOIB OF TH£ REV. JOHN HODGSON. improvements. I cannot see his hand in it I think it is best not ta notice it till I have had some conversation with you about it. I had intended, weather permitting, to have been in Newcastle on Saturday, but, in consequence of a note I have just received, I shall defer it to Monday, between two and four o*clock« I am to be heard of at Mr. John Ord^s, in Westgate Street. Bad weather will probably prevent me. Yours ever truly, &quot; Ed. SwmBURNE.&quot; In October 1819 Mr. Hodgson was appKed to by Mr. T. M. Kichardson, a well-known and justly-appreciated artist in New- castle, to revise the letter-press of a publication which he contem- plated in conjunction with Mr. William Dixon, who was, I believe, first a scene and then a portrait painter in Newcastle. The work was to be entitled, ** Picturesque Views of the Archi- tectural Antiquities of Northumberland \^ and it was intended to confine it to twelve parts, but, after four had been published, the undertaking appears to have been abandoned. Such plates as were executed are now in the possession of Mr. Chamlpy, a book- seller in Newcastle. The descriptive pages submitted to Mr. Hodgson's inspection in the first instance related to the Town of Alnwick. &quot; I trust,&quot; says Mr. Eichardson, &quot; you will be gratified with the perusal of the accompanying papers, as we consider our- selves exceedingly fortunate in our authoress, who has already appeared before the public in different works with much credit to herself: her services to us are gratuitous, which enhances the favour. Our first description, being the residence of our patroness, may probably be the longest.&quot; Mr. Richardson, as we shall see, afterwards made a second attempt upon a like subject, with Hodgson again as the suJ)etvisor of his descriptions, and in this also he was unsuccessful. In this same year, 1819, a new name was added to the list of Mr. Hodgson's topographical correspondents. John Smart, Esq. of Trewhitt, kindly offered his services in investigating the British and Roman camps and roads in the northern parts of the coimty, and communicated a sketch of old Rothbury, &amp;c., pro- mising further assistance. It must be admitted that in his quest of antiquities of this description Mr. Smart occasionally made a VIEWS IN KORTHUMBERLAND. 287 happy discovery ; and, further, that he took a sincere pleasure in making his friends acquainted with the result of his labours. Occasionally, however, he was fanciful. He was apt to mistake the fosse of a Border tower for the ditch of a Roman camp, or the mounds thrown up as sheep-folds, or night-lairs as they were called, for British fortifications. An outline of one of his dis- coveries may be seen in the second volume of Mackenzie's patch- work History of Northumberland, p. 19, illustrative of what he considered to be the remains of a Eoman camp at Crawley Tower. This cut however had ** a double debt to pay.&quot; At no greater dis- tance than that of two leaves from the page on which it first makes its appearance, the editor adroitly introduces the very same illustration (if I am not mistaken) in an altered position, and makes it do duty as a British camp between Linhope and Hart- side. This however is nothing to the use made of the same em- bellishments, especially the portraits, in that earliest of our Pictorial Histories — the Nuremburgh Chronicle. The self-same woodcut stands in that most amusing book for Zaraya the priest, Solon the philosopher, Salathiel, Demetrius the orator, Pansetius the stoic, Suetonius the historian, Julius- Africanus, the Venerable Bede, Hugh de Sancto Victore, Bemardus of Compostella, Alex- ander de Hales, Johannes Calderinus, and John Gerson. Nov. 19th, 1819. — Hodgson to Mr. Swinburne. — «* Nesbit has Wylly- moteswick in hand. Bothal is still with me, but, if Nesbit succeeds in the cut he is working upon, I will send him it also. You will be glad to hear that Warkworth Bridge looks much better in the book than in the proof, as it is not printed so very black, and the sky has been very lightly borne upon.&quot; To RALPH SPEARMAN, Es«. ** Dear Sir, High Heworth, near Gateshead, 29th Nov, 1819. &quot;On Saturday last I received at Mr. Adamson's office your copy of Mackenzie's Northumberland, with two parcels of papers respecting the families of Widdrington and Errington, all of which shall be gone through with as much expedition as I can make. , &quot; At present I am engaged in making a selection from the Sheriff Book of Sir Thomas Swinburne, and wish to get done with it before I 288 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. make any regular attack upon your papers. Several volumes of the Mickleton and Spearman^s MSS. have gone through my hands, and I hope to be able to get transcripts of the best part of Dr. Hunter*s papers relative to the churches in Northumberland. '^ Have you heard anything respecting a vast mass of ecclesiastical papers at present at Paris, and which are said to have been taken from England to Rome about the time of the Suppression, and brought from Bome to Paris by order of Bonaparte when he meditated the invasion of England ? I have been told that there are several amongst them relative to establishments in Northumberland, particularly the Appro- priation Deeds of several of the Northumberland vicarages. In the spring an opportunity I hope will occur to have them examined, and, if the tale I have been told prove true, I will get fac-simile copies made of such as will be of use to me. *' At present Mr. Raine, of Durham, is gleaning for pedigrees out of a volume of extracts which I made from the MSS. in the British Museum. When he returns it I will let you have a sight of it. Many of my extracts were made on loose paper, and have heen arranged under the several heads which they refer to ; but a few of them which were copied on paper nearly all of a size I have got stitched together^ and send for your perusal. When you have gone through it you can return it to the care of our friend Mr. Adamson. &quot; In a record respecting the manor of Houghton, in Heddon-on-the- Wall, the Roman wall appears to be called Thwertoner Dyke, which is as much as to say the Thwariening Barrier, Thwerton being plainly from a Saxon word for agaimtj &amp;c. •* Did I say to you that while I was in the Tower I met with the original endowment charter of Morpeth School ? It had been brought with a great mass of accounts, &amp;c. from the Paper Office in West- minster, and deposited in the Tower a few weeks before I found it. I suspect that it had been in the custody of Lord Widdrington, or some other Northumberland rebel, and taken to London with the muniments belonging to his estate, for the whole of these papers related to rebellions in the North. I got an exact copy of it, and sent it to the Bailiffs of Morpeth. &lt;^ What think you of the character of Maister Ralph Ilderton, at p. 42 of the extracts ? I like the description of Horsley and Carr. ^ The two printed pages Which I inclose are the only spare leaves of the Placita de quo Warranto which I have in my study. It is a long CORBESPONDENCE. 28 9 article, and very illustrative of the tenures in tlie time of Edward the First. &quot; Allow me to return you my very sincere thanks for the kind and favourable manner in which you have mentioned me to Sir Henry Lawson and Mr. Stapleton. I have had a letter irom Sir Henry offering me the perusal of his papers and title-deeds, when I can find an opportunity of going to Brough Hall. '^ Mr. Lysons at the time of his death was engaged in printing a Calendar of the ' Inquisitiones post Mortem tempore Eliz.^ upon a much better plan than the Calendar for the reigns of Henry the Third and the three first Edwards, printed by the House of Commons, which is nothing but a copy of a very imperfect Catalogue of the extracts in those reigns made by some slovenly clerk a long time ago. The Calendars for the reigns between Edward the Third and Elizabeth are also in the printer^s hands. &quot; With many apologies for the trouble I give you, I am, dear Sir, most truly your obliged and obedient humble servant, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; Pbom JOHN TREVELYAN&quot;, Es&lt;i., aptbrwards Baet. My dear Sib, &quot; Wallington, Deo. 16, 1819. &quot; On our return from a visit at Matfen we heard with regret that you had been at Whelpington * during our absence. We shall be most happy to see you whenever you will favour us with a visit; and perhaps I could shew you one or two MSS. which might afford you some addition to your collections for the history of this county, in which I heartily wish you success ; and remain yours very isincerely, &quot; J. Tbeveltan.&quot; * * Doubtless upon a visit to his friend Mr. Hedley, then curate of that parish.


1820. Correspondence respecting BngraTings continaed — A riyal History of Northnmber- land— Hie Greenwich Hospital and Tower Records— Conc^MMndenoe resumed— W. O. l^rereljfaa, Es^— Hcuy PMrie, Baq. DuBiNO the year at which we have arriyed the Goirespondence with Mr. Edward Swinburne on the subject of drawings and engravings was still carried on, and continued to be of the same interesting nature; until, at length, in November the volume was published for which there had been all this thoughtful preparation; and Mr. Hodgson made his first appear- ance before the world, in a thick quarto, as a County Historian. Along with these letters I print a few on different subjects, and touch upon other matters connected with his personal history. From EDWARD SWINBURNE, Es«. &quot; My dear Sir, Caphe&amp;ton, 9 Jan. 1820, Sunday. '&lt; Mr. Lewis has sent me proofs 'of the aquatints of the two drawings put into his hands.* Mr. Callcott, he says, thought they looked very well, and was to write to me shortly. I have not yet heard from him. This approbation of Mr. Callcott^s is too vague for me to know what he thinks of them as fac-similes, which they profess to be. As for myself, after the very strong manner in which Mr. C. had expressed himself about Mr. Lewis's powers of imitation, I am dis- appointed. There are many deviations in the copies, which appear to me the effect of haste and carelessness. I will send you the aquatints and the drawings next Thursday, either by Lee or the carrier, to Mr. * It may be interesting to compare the plates in the forth-coming volume, as they were eventually published, with the correspondence respecting them whilst they were in a progressive state in the hands of the engraver. The same remark may be made with regard to those in the subsequent volumes of the History, as far as we have any correspondence concerning them. It is not necessary to refer under these letters to the various pages in each portion of the book in which the engravings are respectively contained, as the tabular view given by Hodgson himself at the head of each volume^ which it is my intention to reprint, will sufficiently answer that purpose. GOBBESPOITDBNCE ON EKGBATIKGS, IfiTC. 291 Qrd^s, in Weatgate Street, that you may see them, together with a* note to direct jour attention to the principal faults. I do not know whether Mr. C. has ever seen the drawings either before or since tiie aquatints have been done, to collate them. Mr. L. wishes to know when the six plates must be done, and the so(Hier he has the others the better. The expense is ten guineas each plate. I cannot believe there is a want of power of closer imitation, but rather of some superin- tendence. I am just returned from a visit, and have not had time to think of some arrangement for improvement in tiie execution of any othei*s that may be sent to him. I shall write to Mr. OaJicott on Thursday. My state of progress is— ^ree others nearly finished; and one, the last, advanced ; so all will soon be ready to put out of hand. I will tell you what plan I may hit upon for obtaining better stuff. Yours sincerely, '&lt; £d. SwiNBOBMfi.'* To EDWARD SWINBUBNB, Esq. ^* My dear Sm, High Heworth, 14 Jan. 1820. '' The meeting of our select vestry, on business relating to the poor, prevented my getting out to Newcastle yesterday before two o^clock in the afternoon, which will account for the proofs and drawings not being returned as you requested. &quot; If you had sent the proofs without the drawings I dare say I should have been much gratified with them ; but on comparing them together the marks of carelessness in the copies are every where apparent. The lights especially are too strong, and the shadows too feeble. The detail of the herbage is very imperfectly made out, and the outline in general without force. In Prudhoe the branches in shadow above the figure are almost wholly omitted ; the shadow wants depth, and the figure is inaccurately copied. The character and attitude of the figures on the water-^e^e are mistaken; and there is a want of touching and sharpness about the mullions of the windows, the ouldines of the battle- ments, and crosslet loopholes of the castle. Bamborough wants mellow- ness. The ^ole sky has a harah and tmnalniral dapple, and the angles of the towers are too imperfectly defined ; while the masoniy of the wall below the round tower is too much made out ibr the light that falls upon it Z would not make th«se observations were I not very anxious that ihe taste and spirit of the drawings ^ouid not be lost in trains- ferring them to tiie copper* I hove no knowledge of the daffioaltiies there may be in managing the gum which is used in giving the tint, U2 292 ^lEMOIB OF THE RET. JOHN HOBGSOK. *but surely a little more pains Tnth the needle wonld not fail, in Mr. Lewis's hand, to render the outline and the detail more accurately. But, as you have taken the onus of doing so much for me, I must beg of you to use any freedom of expostulation or advice &quot;with the engraver which you may think likely to be advantageous in getting justice done to your designs. &quot; My printing has of late gone on very slowly: at present, and till about the end of February, I do not expect the printer will be able to give me more than four pages of proof in the week ; which will put off the publication of the first volume to the latter end of May at the soonest. Difficulties and delays occur to me at every step, but I have begun and must go forward. •** As yet I have no tidings from Nesbit: very fortunately I have not wanted his exertions : but they say, that, besides his itching for politics, he has a spark in his throat which ofben requires to be cooled. What do you think of the woodcut of Kelloe church in the first volume of Surtees ? The leaves of the herbage are too large. &quot; I wish the hard edge of shadow in the upper part of the sky of Bam- borough could be a little better softened down into the light. &quot; With respect to the tint in the sky, which Mr. Lewis speaks of, I cannot pretend to judge upon its effect; but wish in every respect to be guided by your good opinion. ^* I am in Newcastle two or three times a week. If you should ever want anything done there which you may think me capable of ma- naging, I beg that you wiU not fail to command my services. Believe me to be most faithfully your obedient servant, &quot; John Hodgson,&quot; Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. « My dear Sir, 20 Jan. 1820. &quot; I have written to Mr. Callcott about the aquatints, expressing my mind on their want of care and fidelity, so little corresponding with those powers of imitation he described, and to which, knowing Callcott's accuracy, I trusted without hesitation. I cannot yet have had an answer; though I expected to have heard from him agreeably to his promise. We shall see what he says; and perhaps he will suggest some means (if he does not differ with us as to their merits), either by remonstrance or superintendence, of getting the others more attended to, and some improvement also of the two that are done. I see therie is time enough, Mr. Lewis's method is evidently a rapid one : we must GORBESFONDENCil OK ENQBAyiKGS, ETC. 293 contrive to get a little more of the slow and sure. The great object is to get them, to be ornamental to your book, and assist the sale. There is the same feeling here as ta the general effect of the aquatints,, when not collated, as jou say yours would have been, without seeing the originals. I agree witk you iu all the omissions and inaccuracies you point out, and had observed them. I am not surprised at your difficul- ties growing upon you; that is a tax upou printing-^uthora which ifl never taken off. As to the carriage of the proofs, and such other incidental trifles as may occur, I should be much obliged to you if you would neither think about them yourself nor oblige me to do so. I grudge that joint trouble. If any material expense should be incurred I will not fail to come upon you for re-imbursement. Our roads are blocking up. Yours sincerely, &quot; Ed. Swinburne.&quot; 24 Jan. ^^ I have heard from Mr. Callcott, who tells me he did not consider the plates aa completed, but looked upon them as successful proofs, to be submitted for my suggestions for further finish* He has no doubt of Lewises ultimate success.&quot; Feb, 2, 1820. — Mb. Hodgson to Mr. Swinburne. &quot;I have not been well for the last week j and the news, of a rival publication, which Sir John has had the goodness to inform me of, has put me into &amp; nervous flutter. I think it right to advertise in the Newcastle papers that my work is in progress ; but in drawing up an advertisement have not ventured to mention to whose kindness I am indebted for the drawings which will embellish it. Should I have occasion to repeat the advertisement, may I have the advantage of saying that the engravings are by Lewis, from drawings by E. Swinburne, Esq.? I mention this, with all deference, begging that if you have the slightest * objection to see your name in the advertisement you will say so. &quot;It is very provoking that I can get no account from Nesbit; and Bewick has made such a set of Ghipchase Castle, that he is under the necessity of making a second attempt. He says that it is not possible to give distant and indefinite objects with any tolerable effect on wood- that his style is best suited to short distances, in which the objects are well defined. Such subjects he had in Warkworth Bridge and Copeland Castle, both of which he has executed very indifferently, with respect to keeping and drawing. &lt;' There is a young man of the name of Nicholson who, I understand^ 294 UEMOIB OF THE BSV. JOmT HODGSON/ was a papil of Bewick, and cuts Terj deaiilj and akilfully; bat has not a good knowledge of drawing: under propcor directions he can, bowery execute his work in a very good style, and I am thinking of giving him a vignette for a trial. ^ It gave me great pleasure to Irear from 3roii that Mr. Calloott says the proofs which Lewis sent ware not finished proofs. : ^Mr« Losh^s speech is in. my msnd sensible, moderate, and full of discretion. There will never be any reform, either in the representatioQ of the country or in the use of its money, till the moderate of all parties join, and firmly and perseveringly demand it. We are now under George the Fourth. We dare not say, ^ Jam redit,' ftc.&quot; Feb. 14. — Mb. Hodgson to Mr. Swinbubke. ^ I have not advertised my book a second time.-^^I think the pretensions of the Alnwick bookseller not so forcible. I have therefore deferred making use of the kind indulgence you have given me of putting your name in an advertise- ment. I intend to ride to Swalwell, and, if Nesbit has not conunitted Wyllimoteswick to wood, to secure the drawing. I have given Nichol- son Bothal Castle. I am much pleased with all the drawings, and especially with the management of the sky and the foreground of By well Tower. There is a charming stillness and solitude about Dilston, which are in unison with the history of the place.'' Feb. 20, 1820. — • Mb. Hodgson to Mb. Swinburne. &quot;Nicholson promised on Saturday to have Bothal Castle drawn upon the wood, and send it, with two or three queries, for your inspection. Should you wish to alter it he tells me that the drawing must be looked at in a mirror.&quot; But in the midst of all this preparation of engravings, &amp;c., Sir John Swinburne wrote, on the 28th January, 1820, to inform * Mr. Hodgson that a bookseller at Alnwick, of the name of Davison, had sent him a prospectus of another, and what ap- peared to him to be a rival. History of Northumberland. This will explain the allusions in the preceding letters. On the 3rd of February following the Mr. Davison above mentioned an- nounced to Hodgson his wish to become a subscriber to his History, and five days afterwards he wrote again, in consequence of having in tlxe mean time received a letter from Sir John, con- A BITAL HISTORY OF NOBTHUMBBBLAND. 29fi taiBing somewhat amounting to an expostulation for his trespass upon Hodgson's ground. In his second letter he stated in justi-- fication that he had been by himself and others engaged for upwards of four years in collecting materials for his projected History — ^had been promised many materials and much support — had had the description of the Roman Wall put into form for twelve months — ^had caused many views to be taken and some engraved — ^and all this before he knew anything of Hodgson's publication. He proceeded to state that he had not made his intention of publishing known until he heard that the copies of Hodgson's intended History were all subscribed for, and offered him any information in his power respecting the town of Alnwick. He fiirther informed Hodgson that Sir John Swin- burne had written to blame him for attempting a History of Northumberland at this time, and added, in conclusion, that at any rate he should have nothing ready to come out for two years. In reply to this communication, Hodgson addressed to him the following letter, conceived and written with much kindness. Mb. HODGSON to M&amp;. DAVISON. «SlB, '* I feel greatly obliged by the ingenuous statement of your progress in a History of Northumberland, with which you have favoured me. Sir John Swinburne has long taken great interest in forwarding my labours on the same subject; but you will be well aware that the letter which he lately addressed to you was without any previous com^ munication with me on the subject; and now I tell you that I had never heard of your intention to publish a History of the County till I received a note from Sir John about a week ago informing me of it. &lt;' My die is now cast, and I must go on. My plates for one volume are all either en^hived, or in the hands of engravers in London. At the advice of persons well acquainted with the sale of Goimty Histories X have only printed 300 copies; but, should I be favoured with subscribers for nearly that number, I intend to print a larger impression of the Parochial History, and reprint the presoit volume to make the impressions correspond. ^'I cannot but feel sorry that we should, without each other's knowledge, have both begim to labour in a field which, though rich in history I ofifers I fear a very bare prospect of pecuniary advantage; but^ 2i96 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. as we have not met on the same ground with any hostile intentions, I trust we shall proceed peacefully together in our endeavours to improve it. . Your name is added to the list of my subscribers; and I will thank you to allow me to take a copy of your work as it comes out, and to be of use to you in collecting information respecting the more southern parts of the county. I am, Sir,— &quot; J. H.&quot; On the 1 1th February following Mr. Davison wrote and offered Hodgson 300 copies of impressions from plates engraved for his History of Alnwick, at little more than the price of throwing off. This offer however was declined, as the plates were of the most humble kind, and in the coarsest style of engraving. I am not aware that any part of Mr. Davison's History was ever published. Many of the plates were sold afterwards by him in a separate state, without letter-press or description. In April 1824 impres- sions of not fewer than forty-three different engravings, chiefly of the quarto size, were advertised by him at Is, 6c?. each, or, in the case of those of a smaller size, at that price in pairs. The subjects engraved were castles, inhabited or in ruins, monasteries, mansion- houses, camps, &amp;c. ; he announced at the same time a series of thirty- six engravings of views of churches on cards at 4d. or 6d. eadi, many' of which were finished, and others in the hands of the engraver. With the exception of a few churches in the county of Durham, most of these engravings had apparently been in- tended for his contemplated History. Feb. 26, 1820. — ^Mb. Hodgson to Mr. Swd^ubne. &lt;^ After drawing Bothal Castle on wood, Nicholson feels so confident of making a true fac-simile of your drawing, as to think it unnecessary to trouble yoit with seeing it till it is in the state of a pretty perfect proof. Bewick's shop is at present quite tormenting. They have Ifed one essay on Chipchase Castle, and made it so totally imlike the drawing that they wish to have another trial; and I fear, by the specimen of it upon wood^ they will not succeed. The engraving of Chipchase, and the rude memory sketch from an old note-book of mine, were shewn to them to give them a notion of the form of the building, which you will see they are now attempting to give too much in detail. The wood itself has none of that fine polish. which it ought to have; and the drawing is so bedaubed with dirt and etching- wax that 1 am ashamed to let you see it.*' . COBBESPOND^NCE ON ENGBAVINQS. 297 - MarcH 21^ 1820. — Mr. Hodgson to Mr. Swinburne. &quot; The volume I am at present engaged in printing is intended to consist of about 400 pages, only 280 of which are printed off. After this week I am, however, promised eight pages in the week; more, I fear, than I can expect, so that the latter end of June wiU be upon me before I can pos-* sibly get delivered of the present volume. I certainly would not per- severe in* getting Chipchase done at Bewick's had they not already spent a great deal of time over a block which failed, and been at the trouble of drawing it a seqond time on wood. Nicholson has not finished Bothal. He is very busy with some things for Charnley*s ^tion of Fables, to which Bewick made blocks when he was a young man. As for Nesbit I have neither succeeded in getting a woodcut nor the drawing back again, though I have commissioned a gentleman near Swalwell to have either one or both,&quot; June 8, 1820. — Mr. Hodgson to Mr. Swinburne. &quot;I take the liberty of troubling you with a proof of the first 'attempt to represent organic remains by wood-cutting.. It may stiU be improved, both in fidelity of representation and in effect, by giving the longitudinal fibres in every leaflet. Will you have the goodness to give me your opinion whether you think such subjects will be interesting or not ? The original, of which this is a representation, is from Fawdon colliery, which abounds with excellent impressions of a great variety of plants, mostly of the fern tribe. I have seen Nesbit. He says his health ia much better, and that he hopes to finish the vignette very soon. At present he is busy with a head of Bewick for an edition of -^sop's Fables, which Mr. Chamley has printed, and which is embellished with woodcuts made by Bewick many years since. The work has been waiting for this head nearly three months. I get quite out of patience with the slow progress of my book. About forty pages of the historical part, besides the indexes, which will occupy at least forty pages more, are still to print.&quot; June 14, 1820. — Mr. Swinburne to Mr. Hodgson. &quot; The specimen you have sent me looks too much like a lady's pattern, whether from incorrectness in the design of the vegetable part, or from its being made so very black, I cannot say, without seeing the original. If intended merely as an ornamental tail-piece I should not think it would do ; if il- lustrative and explanatory of the description of those remains in your History, the imitation should be as close as possible, both in the forms 298 MEHOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. of the plant and its appearance in the substance in vrhioli it is de- posited. In your woodcut it looks as if the vacuum where the plant was were fOled up with coal. I am glad to hear of Nesbit^s reviva). I hope the improvement of his health is an indication of his radioal dedine^-— E. Swusbubne.&quot; June 24y 1820.-^To Mr. SwiNBOiUfE. ^ When I sent j&lt;mr drawings to Messrs. Lewis, through my brother, I wrote their titles upon the back of each of them ; and some time after, finding that ' Bigge^s Main Staith ' was put on one of them instead of ^ Fawdon Staith,' I requested my brother to mention the error to Messrs. Lewis, which I hope he has done. The proof which I sent you is a very faithful representation of a vegetable preserved in a carbonaceous state, and taken from about forty H9ix fathoms below the surface in Fawdon colliery. I never before saw so perfect a specimen as it is. The schist upon which it is im- bedded is of a lightish blue colour; and the vegetable remains of a bright and jetty black. As I shall have several similar subjects to get engraved, I thought they might as well be scattered here and there through my book. Those which I have selected are of kinds of which I have seen no description, and I suppose that such of my readers as are curious in natural history will be gratified with seeing them ; but I would never attempt to give engravings of them if I supposed they woidd not create an interest somewhat equal to the trouble and expense which will attend them.&quot; Faom thb bishop of DURHAM. &quot; Bevd. Sib, Cavendish Square, 17 March, 1820. &quot; I have at length been eiiabled to execute the two commissions in which you feel so warm an interest; and calling on Messrs. Forster and Wailes, agents for Greenwich Hospital, at Newcastle, they will acquaint you with the powers they have received from the Board to communicate such papers as you want. &quot; Mr. Petrie, the successor to Mr. S. Lysons, has given me every assurance he will render you all the assistance which his predecessor in office had promised. &lt;&lt; Wishing you success in this arduous undertaking, which I am per- suaded you will accomplish to your own satisfaction and that of your friends, I am, with much regard, your sincere fiiend, « S. DuNEUi;* . aBEBKWICH HOfiFITAL BBCQRBS. 299 The &quot; papers &quot; referred to by the Bishop in the aboye letter as belonging to Greenwich Hospital were abstracts of the long lost title-deeds of the Earl of Derwentwater, whose forfeited estates had been attached to that charitable institution by Act of Parliament in 1735. The following extract &amp;oin a letter written by Hodgson to the author in 1822, detailing the history of the discovery of these records, is not without its interest. After having long been missing, they were found soon after the second Rebellion of 1745, when the word Derwentwater would not fail to carry suspicion along with it. I have ascertained that during his minority Lord Derwentwater had been a ward of his uncle Colonel Eadcl3rffe, who resided for a while at Capheaton, a cir- cumstance which may account for the finding of the boxes in that mansion-house. 1822. — To the Eev. James RAmE. '^ I have heard from Sir John Swinburne and others, that all the RadclylBfe title-deeds were, for many years after the attainder of the Earl of Derwentwater, concealed at Gap- heaton, and that Greenwich Hospital procured them by the information of a mason, who was employed to mend the roof of the house there. They had been k^t in a garret in boxes marked ' Debwentwatsb.' A writ was issued to search for arms, and put into the hands of Sir William Middleton to execute, who, finding these boxes with a rebel's name upon them, seized them and carried them off. This is the sub-&gt; stance of all I know about the matter. Mr. Wailes and the late Mr. Forster, Receivers for Greenwich Hospital, have told me the same tale. —J. H.&quot; It may be necessary to add to these statements that the docu- ments were immediately removed to Greenwich Hospital, where they are now preserved, and that elaborate abstracts were made of their contents, a copy of which was lodged with the receivers of the estates in Northumberland. It was these abstracts which Hodg- son was anxious to consult, and we may now proceed to the result of the Bishop's application. The ** powers&quot; spoken of by the Bishop in his letter will be best explained by what took place when Hodgson waited upon the Receivers with the Bishop's letter in his hand ; unless, indeed, they themselves, of their own accord, threw obstacles in his way. 300 MEliOIB OF THE BET. JOHN HODGSON. The abstracts were courteously placed before him, and he spent a long day in making such extracts as he was in need of; but upon taking his departure it was intimated to him that his minute- books must be left for inspection by the legal adviser of the Hos- pital. With this request he complied, but he saw them no more. The following extracts and letters tell the remainder of the tale: « Journal. — Feb. 9, 1822. &quot;Called at Greenwich Hospital Office about my MS. book of extracts from their records. Mr. Wailes said Mr Forster had it.&quot; Ibid. — ^Feb. 13. &quot; Called at Greenwich Hospital Office to get my extracts respecting Tynemouth ; but Mrs. Forster could not get them, as her son was from home, and had the key of the drawer where they were.&quot; To Messbs. wailes and BRANDLING, Beceiyebs of G&amp;eenwich Hospital. ' &quot;Gentlemeit, Whelpington, 22 Sep. 1S24. &quot; As I expect to be in the neighbourhood of Newcastle for several days some time daring the next month, you woidd oblige me tDUch by saying whether or not you think there is any probability of my being allowed to make use of such extracts as I have already taken from the abstracts of the deeds of the Greenwich hospital Estates in your office. For if I could see a prospect of deriving any informaticHi from your books I would spend a day or two in going through them ; but, if you think it is unlikely that I should be allowed that indidgence, I would not trouble you any longer with applications on the subject. I have the honour, &amp;c. ** John Hodgson.&quot; Fbom Messbs. WAILES akd BRANDLING. &quot; Sib, Newcastle, 23 Sep. 1824. &quot; We shall gladly be instrumental in furnishing you with any information relating to the Estates of Greenwich Hospital that we can with prudence consent to be published. At the same time it is right to inform you that we do not intend to take this responsibility upon our- selves, but to ask Mr. Williamson^s opinion upon any extracts you may wish to make from our books. With this understanding we shall willingly submit them to your inspection whenever it may suit your convenience to call at our office. We are, Sir, your most obedient servants, ** Thos. Wailes, &quot; Rt. Wm. Bbandlihg.&quot; COBB£SPOND£NC£ ON ENGRAVINGS. 301 Mr. Williamson was Temporal Chancellor of the County Palatine of Durham, Recorder of INTewcastle, and at that time far advanced in years. It is perhaps hardly necessary to say that Hodgson declined to give either that gentleman ol* the Receivers any further trouble. As an indication however that the difficul- ties thrown in his way did not proceed from the Hospital itself, it must be mentioned that upon a change in the management of the Derwentwater Estate, soon afterwards, full access to the Abstracts in question was granted to Hodgson in the most gentle- manly way, by John Grey, Esq., of Dilston, the sole Receiver, to whom the author takes this opportunity of tendering his cordial thanks for a similar obligation. Fboh Edw. SWINBURNE, Esq. *^ Mr DEAB Sir, Penbrook, Hants, 26th June, 1820. ^* I have heard of a mode of proceeding for vignettes, the knowledge of which might I think have been useful to you in an earlier stage of your work, and may do for another volume, which I hope you will have encouragement enough to enter into. It has been adopted by P. C. Lewis's brother (who travelled with Mr. Dibdin), in a book of Travels which Mr. D. has now in the press. The etchings, executed as vignettes, are taken off on fine India paper; and, afber the letter-press is printed, they are pasted on the sheet with fine starch, and then simply passed through the printer^s press. I am told it answers very welL Would not this enable you. to get any vignettes, you might wish to introduce, etched for you in London, where they would be well done^ and with far less trouble than you have had to get them spoiled in the country ? The pasting and pressing, I suppose, you could get done there without difliculty. I will try to get a sight of them when I return to town in the course of a few days. I hope Mr. Lewis will soon be ready for you. As your own operations appeared to be delayed, I have ventured to stop his progress a little, in order to get some details for a view of Newcastle, which I had not with me ; for having thought it advisable to take a more simple point of view (very near Dunstan- Hill grounds,) instead of the one I shewed you, I expect to find those details on my return ; and when they are made out in the aquatint of it which was already much advanced, I presume he will have little else to do before printing them off. Yom's truly, ** Ed. Swinburne.'* ' 308 MEMOIB or THE RKT. lOHir :n r f^;;i '• C TKKTSLTAH, '^IfTMABSn, WdbMkStmft. Joe S9tk, 1890. &lt;^ Tliiiildi^ that joa mmj ifeol hsre met willi a book oititled &lt;&lt; Gfttalogi lifararam MSS. An^iam et HibeniiK&quot; printed at Qzfod in 1697y ItakethelibertyofinrJniBng jog am extract from it of U»ti^ of aome p^ien rdatang to Nortlniinberiaiid, iduch were ccJIcctw^ bj Dodswoiih, and are now preserred in the Bodleian LLbnuy , with nianj othen relating to the North. In ABhmole's Libiaij, toL 834, is a paper which frofm the carrections, dx. in it (though I have not jet com- pared it with his autograph), appears to be the original draft of Flower's Grant of Arms to Newcastle &lt;xi Tjne in 1575 ; a copj of which, inm the papers belonging to the ooxporation, is given bj Brand. In case joa wish fiir copies of an j papers in the Bodleian, thej ma j (1 behere) be obtained by writing to anj of the librarians. If, daring mj short staj in London, I can be of anj aerrioe to yon, it will give me great pleasme. Believe me, dear Sir, Teiy truly yours, &quot; W. a Tbeveltak. ^ Will joa hare the goodness to -forward the accompanying note to Mr. Sorteea.&quot; The writer of the above letter is now Sir Walter Calveiley Tierdijan of Wallingtoii, Bart., a gentleman well-known £&gt;r his literary and scientific pnisnits. Hodgson had, as we have seen, in the preceding year, leoeiTcd a kind invitation to Wallington from Sir John Tievelyan, Mr. Tievelyan's &amp;tlier, and about that period his acquaintance with the fiiinilj seems to have had its commencement. This is the first letter fit&gt;m bis new corre« spondent which he has preserved, and it is probably the first with which he was favoured. Mr. Trevelyan's subsequent communica- tions, and his contributions to Hodgson's materials for his History of Northumberland in its various departments, were extendve and of great importance. I find papers in his neat hand in most of Hodgson's volumes of collections. One book in particular consists entirely of transcripts by him firom various sources, such as the British Museum, the Bodleian Library, Miss Currer's Manuscripts at Eshton Hall, &amp;c, &amp;c., and the assistance which this volume must have rendered to Hodgson in his labours must have COBBBSPONPSNCS OK EKaBATINGS. 303 been great indeed. It is lettered *' MS. Materials. Treyeltana.&quot; As we proceed we shall find that Mr. Trevelyan's sisters were feqnally anxious to promote the History of Northumberland by lightening the labours of its author. Miss Emma Trevelyan, in particular, afterwards Mrs. Wyndham, a lady whose name has been already mentioned, and which will often recur in the sequel, was a frequent copyist in the British Museum on his account during the visits of the fiunily to London, and her pen and pencil were always at his service at home, when a helping hand was needed. Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Es&lt;^ &quot; York Coffee House, St. James'a Street, July 1, 1820. &quot; My dear Sir, ** I saw Mr. Lewis on Saturday. (By the way it is only Mr. F. 0. Lewis who has anything to do with your aquatints.) He was just sending off five proo&amp; to your brother for you to see. There will be some unimportant improvements made in them before they are printed. The Bridge (Dilston), the Staith (the correction from Bigge*s Main to Fawdon is made), and Prudhoe are the best The effect of Bambro* is improved: the building has more substance; the sky, though more appropriate, is liny, and some details about the rocks want taste a little ; upon the whole it does tolerably. The shipping in the Fawdon Staith is somewhat clumsy ; but the rest he has been happy in, and has muck improved several parts. The By well is rather clumsy, mote so than the drawing; a beltter subject should have been furnished by such a spot. The distant view of Newcastle I do not expect to be very well satisfied with: too little was done on the spot, and the change of the point of view, which we thought advisable, has not helped us for details. A substitute was not to be had in time. The cut, of which you sent me a proof, being a faithM representation of the vegetable so curiously preserved in a carbonaceous state, which part I erroneously apprehended was only the engraver's mode of designating the vegetable it«elf, and being illustrative of what you intend to describe, will I hope have its share of intere^^ with its fellows, and assist tine work. In a week or ten days Lewis will be ready to print off the six plates. The Queen has been parading the streets two days together, the mob in harness. *^ I shall call the last yiewj^ewcaatle simply. It will be known to 304 MEMOIR OF THIB RET. JOHK HODOSOK. be from the -vrestward, and distant enough 1 It can scarcely be called from Donstan Hill, being barely from the fbot of it, a little to one side of the Carr ground. If you like any other designation write it quickly to Lewis. Yours trulyi ** Ed. Swihburnb.&quot; To W. 0. TREVELYAN, Es«. '' Mt dear Sm, Upper Heworth, near Ckteiheftd, 10 July, 1820. ^ Unayoidable circumstances have prevented me from answering your very kind and interesting letter so soon as I could have wished, but I now hasten to return you my best thanks, and to acknowledge my obligation for your communication respecting Dodsworth^s collections of Northumberland muniments. The ' Catalogi Librorum MSS. Angliss &amp; Hibemiae* of 1697 is in the Library of the Lit. and Philos. Socof Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and Mr. Surtees mentions Dodsworth's Collec- tions as being in the Bodleian Library. Some years since I attempted, through an application from Mr. Collinson, to obtain a copy of a record in the Bodleian Library; but did not succeed : and why my appli* cation was unsuccessful I cannot at present remember. I shall, how- ever, at your suggestion, through a friend in Oxford, apply to some of the librarians, and have the whole of the charters and papers respecting Northumberland transcribed; excepting such of them as I have already procured copies of; for I f^und Dodsworth's transcript from the Newmin- ster, Brinkbum, and other cartularies in the Britbh Museum ; and I have had the muniments of some of the families, whose names you favour me with, already through my hands. '' Should you have an opportunity before you leave London to look into the British Museum you will greatly oblige me by naming whether any of the papers respecting the afiray at the Reedswyre have sufficient interest to be copied. They are amongst the Gott. MSS. Cal. G. v., and I have already copied those on fols. 31 and 32; those from fol. 33 to fol. 60 appeared to be on the same subject; but I had not leisure to examine them. The transcripts of Dodsworth's papers are in a volume entitled ^Apparatus Grenealogicus Anglicus,* &amp;c.; but I have no minute in which of the Catalogues it is to be found; though I appre- hend it is in the Cotton Catalogue, Yitel. E. xxv. Very proud of the permission to be ranked among the number of your correspondents, either on matters relative to the history of North- umberland, or in furtherance of the objects of our Antiquarian Society, believe me to be, dear Sir, very faithfully yours, * &quot; John Hodgson.&quot;^ HEKBT PETBiE, ESQ. 305 From W. C. TREVELYAN, Esq. ** My DEAB Sib, Wallington, Ang. 16, 1820. &quot; I was sorry that I had not had an opportunity before I left London of examining the papers you mentioned in the British Museum. Should you not be successful in your application to the Bodleian this time, if you will write to the Bevd. A. Nicol, one of the librarians, mentioning my name, he will I am sure give you all the assistance in his power. I hope we shall* have the pleasure of a visit from you this summer. We might perhaps be able to assist you a little in the Concho- logical department of the Natural History of the county. &quot; You will greatly oblige me by sending me the address of the binder who made the volumes for Sir J. E. Swinbume^s muniments, as I wish to arrange some in the same manner. I remain, dear Sir, sincerely yours, &quot; W. C. Trevelyan.&quot; To H. PETRIE, Esq. « Sib, Upper Heworth, near (Gateshead, 2 Oct 1820. '' Though personally a stranger to you, the Bishop of Durham, some time since, informed me that he had done me the honour of men- tioning my name to you in conjunction with my intention of publishing a History of the County of Northumberland, and with some arrange- ments which were made by my late lamented friend Mr. Lysons and myself respecting the manner in which I might be permitted to obtain information out of the Tower. At present it is only in my power to thank you for the favour you have done me in consenting to renew the arrangement with yourself; but I hope that ere long I shall have an opportunity of making a more suitable acknowledgment for your liberality and kindness. &quot; One volume of my work is nearly printed off; but, before I can conclude it, I wish to have full copies of the following escheats, literally and closely written, with all the contractions exactly as they occur in the originals. Should you be unable to send them in a Post-office or Secretary of State's cover, you would oblige me by suffering them to be directed to Cuthbert Ellison, Esq., M.P., Hebbum Hall, Newcastle, in letters under one ounce, and so that only one letter be sent on the same day. &quot; You will also oblige me by informing me whether calendars of any more than one volume of escheats have been hitherto published, and for how many reigns such documents exist in the Tower. Mr. Lysons X 306 MEMOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. told me that he was engaged in printing a calendar or index of the escheats of Elizabeth^s reign, and that he would send me the sheets of it as far as it was printed ; but his death, I fear, put a stop to the progress of the work, as well as deprived him of performing his promise to me. ** Escheats wanted — I. Anno xii. Ed. I. Num. 16. Dominus Rex de * Consuetudinibus vocat. Frescheforce in Com. Northumbr. — ^11. Hen in. anno 41. Num. 25. Rad. super Teys. Norde Goseford. Strodir defen- sum. — ^in. Anno 7 Edw. lU. N. 38. I(ic. de Emeldon. Jesemuthe maner. Goseford South, &amp;c.. to * super Tynam.* &quot; You will oblige me by giving me an account of the charge of copy- ing the above-named records, and by suffering the copies to be forwarded to me as soon as possible. I am. Sir, very respectfully, your obe- dient humble servant, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; Mr. Petrie has been already mentioned in a letter from the Bishop of Durham, to whom Hodgson was indebted for his intro- duction to this most kind-hearted and obliging man. Upon the death of Mr. S. Lysons Mr. Petrie's profound knowledge in the various departments of our national history, and his intimate acquaintance with the writings of our early historians, gave him at once, through the recommendation of Earl Spencer, the vacant appointment of Keeper of the Records in theTower, where he had increased opportunities of prosecuting the studies in which he took a pleasure, and of affording every facility to those who were, like Hodgson, devoting their time to topographical pursuits. To gentlemen so engaged Mr. Petrie's courtesies were of the most extensive and disinterested nature; and the writer, for one, can never forget the patience with which he listened to the wants of his visitors, or the free and hearty way in which those wants were supplied. In his personal appearance he was robust, open-coun- tenanced, and manly, and in his general demeanour courteous and affable. I know not that I ever saw a more perfect specimen of an English gentleman. In the year 1821 Mr. Petrie addressed to the Commissioners on the Public Records of the kingdom a plan of his own drawing up for the publication of materials for the History of Britain. This scheme, which was of a comprehensive and elaborate nature, was approved of not only by the Government of the day, but by a vote HENRY PETRIE, ESQ. 307 of the House of Commons, and in May 1823 he was appointed te be the principal editor of the contemplated woxk^ the Revd. John Sharpe being soon afterwards assigned to him as a oo-adjutor by the same authority. No time was lost in prosecuting the imder- taking, but unhappily in 1832 Mr. Petirie fell into an infirm state of health, which caused a considerable interruption in his labours. Before the year 1835, however, the whgle of the text of the first volume of his contemplated series of historical authorities, under the title of &quot; Monumenta Historica Britannica,&quot; had been pre- pared, and, as we are informed by Mr. Hardy, a considerable col- lection of materials for other volumes had been made, when, owing to some misunderstanding, the work was suspended by the Record Commissioners, and most unhappily Mr. Petrie's labours did not see the light in his lifetime. The publication of the volume was eventually consigned to Thomas Duffus Hardy, Esq., who had long been officially connected with Mr. Petrie, and who in putting a finishing hand to this most valuable volume has caught the spirit of his master, and now sitting officially in his chair in the Tower is equally kind and communicative to those who are engaged in general or local history. In his General Introduction to Mr. Petrie's volume Mr. Hardy makes all due acknowledg- ments to the merits of its compiler, and speaks in the naost' becoming terms of his qualifications for the undertaking which he unfortunately did not live to complete. &quot; Had not the work been su^ended (says he), it is probable Mr. Petrie might have lived to have witnessed the completion of several successive volumes. After the publication of the first, the series would have gone on rapidly, as several works were nearly ready for printing, but the suspen- sion of the undertaking completely paralysed his effiDrts, His ill- health, brought on chiefly by anxiety and disappointment occa- sioned by the interruption, of his work, suspended its completion, and he died on. the 17th of March, 1842, at the advanced age of 74, having acquired the well-merited estimation and deep respect of those who knew his great historical les^ming and high moral integrity. The feeling of unfeigned admiration of his talents and character would dictate, and possibly excuse, a warmer panegyric, but it raight be thought unbecoming in this place to indulge in expressions of esteem and veneration. It is extremely x2 308 IfBMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSOK. to be lamented that Mr. Petrie's valuable life had not been pro- tracted till he had at least completed his intended work down to the period of the Norman Conquest; for he had repeatedly ob- served, that, could he only extend his labours to this epoch, he should establish a base on which any person of common ability and assiduity, who would be content to pursue his plan, might erect a column of authentic history which might rival those raised in any other country, and exhibit the value of our national historians.&quot; Fbom H. PETRIE, Esq. ^ Sm, Record Office, Tower, Oct, 9^ 1820. '' I beg to acknowledge the receipt of yours of Oct. 2, and to repeat, directly, that I shall have great pleasure in facilitating your researches at this place. '* With respect to the escheats, the printed Kalendar comes down to the end of Edward III., the instruments themselves to the end of Richard III. From that time, downwards, they are at the Rolls in Chancery Lane. The Index mentioned by Mr. Lysons related, I pre- sume, to proceedings in Chancery during the reign of Elizabeth, as we have no escheats during that period. '&lt; I have given directions for the copies you wish to have to be sent as you suggest imder cover to Mr. Ellison, as there is no direct or official intercourse between this office and those you mention. I remain, Sir, your obedient and faithful servant, &quot; Henbt Petrie.'* ** Dec. 6th, 1820. (Post-mark.) To Edward Swinburne, Esq.— At length I have got Nesbit's wood-cut of Willymoteswick ; but it is cut so finely that impressions can only be got from it on India-paper. On the strong paper, on which the royals of my book are printed, it makes nothing but a black blot. When Mr. Bewick saw an im- pression of it, he said, * It was very well, but he had forgot to put a moon into it ;' meaning that it had the darkness of a night-scene. He charges me eight guineas for it; and after all I am forced to cancel the page on which it is printed, and get Nicholson to make another block. Nesbit's must be saved till I come to describe &quot;Willymoteswick, when I will contrive to have it printed on India-paper. He has totally mistaken the figure, and made it much too light; and besides that, HENBY PETBIE, ESQ. 309 he appears to have no feeling for the subject; the rocks and broken banks of your drawing being most imperfectly rendered. The cutting is unquestionably fine, but it is a fineness which cannot be made use of. Many of the lines are so extremely tender that even on the India-paper they blur. '' I shall be in the binder's hands next week, and the week after that, publish without fail. — J. H.&quot; &quot; Mr. Swinburne to Mr. Hodgson. Capheaton, 10th Dec. 1820.— If Nesbit has forgotten the moon in his cut, he has made up for it by the introduction of a ghost. If ever you use this vignette, you must get a half-tint on the figure. There is some nice execution, but a great deal too much work for any effect from it. He might produce a good deal with such handling with better management. Your crisis is approaching, I see. Yours, Edw. Swinburne.


1820—1821. Pablicatkm of the tint Yolame (Part III. Tol. I.) of his History of Northumberland-^ Contents — PrefiMM — ^Topographical Qneriea — Letter of eneoluagement from Mr. Sortees — Reply. At length, after much delaj and many annoyances arising from the press and from engravers, at the close of the year 1820, a volume of the History of Northumberland was placed before the public by its author as the first finit of his labour. It is described in the title-page as &quot; Volume V. being the first volume of Part III, consisting of Antient Records and Historical Papers,&quot; and the table of its contents is as follows: '' Article I. A series of royal and private charters, relating to lands in Knaresdale, and at Haughton, in the parish of Simonbume ; copied from original muniments in the possession of Sir J. E. Swin- burne, of Capheaton, Bart. F.ILS., FA.S., &amp;c. ''II. A list of the names of all the castles and towers in the county of Northimiberland, with the names of their proprietors ; made about the year 1460. From a MS. in the possession of Bobert Surtees, of Mainsforth, Esq., F.S.A '' III. Articles of Accusation preferred against Lord Dacre, warden of the East and Middle Marches between England and Scotland, by the inhabitants of NorthimiberlaDd. [Between 1515 and 1530.J Copied from the original in the possession of Sir J. E. Swinburne, Bart. ^IV. The Calendar of the ' Inquisitiones post Mbrtem' or 'Es- cheats,' during the reigns of Hen. III., Edw. I., Edw. IL, and Edw. m., so far as they relate to the county of Northumberland. &quot; V. The ' Rotuli Hundredorum' (a&lt;» 1275), so far as they relate to Northumberland. ** VI. The ' Placita de Quo Warranto' for Northiunberland. [1293.] &quot; VII. The * Testa de Nevil ' so far as it relates to Northumber- land. [Edw. I.] HISTOBY OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 311 ** Yin. Rentals and Bates for Northumberland, with the proprietors* names in 1663. '&lt; IX. ' Taxatio Ecclesiastica Anglis' [1291.] So far as it relates to Northumberland. &quot; X. An Account of the Expenses of Sir Thomas Swinburne, Knt. during his sheriffalty for Northumberland, in the years 1628 and 1629; from his sheriffs book in the Mickleton Collection/* An explanation of the contractions used in the volume, occu- pying seven pages at the end of the Preface, is succeeded by a notice respecting its embellishments, and an acknowledgement of the handsome gift of 20L by George Anderson, Esq. towards their cost, and of the kind and able assistance of Edward Swin- burne, Esq. by whom many of them had been designed with that patient courtesy of which the reader has already had so many striking proofs before him. The volume is accompanied by six engravings in line or aquatint,* and, besides, there are numerous wood-cuts and fac-similes, many of them by the author himself, &quot;solely,&quot; as he says, ** to give an antiquarian character to his book.&quot; Those cuts are chiefly initial letters.f It does not appear that Hodgson contributed any decorations of a similar kind to his subsequent volumes, but it is quite clear that somewhat more of practice would have rendered him emiijiently successful * The following is Mr. Lewis's Bill for his Aquatints : JtUy 2Sth 1820. Rev. J Hodgson to F. C. Lewis, Dr. Engraving Pmdhoe Castle io;.io«. „ Bambrough Castle 10 10 „ Dilston 10 10 „ By well Tower 10 10 „ Wall's End 10 10 „ Newcastle 10 10 SsetsofProofe 10 Writing Engraving 1 10 Printer's bill for 1800 proofs of 6 plates at 128. 10 16 75 sheets of Royal paper • • • 18 876 sheets of Medium • • • 8 5 Ji'V JL ••• ••■ ■•« ••• * • • 10 £S0 9 f It was intended to have placed in the margin a few of these specimens of Mr. Hodgson's skill and ingenuity, but unfortunately the blocks have been mislaid. They may probably be found in time for a page in the Appendix. 312 M£MOIB OF THE BET. JOnN HODQSON. in wood-engraving. It is inteiesting to witness the vaiiety of subjects to which, in the common phrase, he could turn his hand. The importance to any future History of Northumberland of the various documents contained in the volume before us, as materials of the most authentic nature, may not be doubted ; but it may be questioned whether its compiler manifested his judg- ment when he sent forth *to the world as the first specimen of his long-expected work a book, which, to the general reader, con- tained so few attractions. With the seeds of genuine North- umbrian history it was indeed pregnant in every page, but they were in a dormant state. That he himself was apprehensive of the unfavourable impression which the volume would make, is proved by more than one apologetic passage in the preparatory statements and explanations with which it was accompanied. That Preface, containing, as it does, not only the apologies alluded to, but also many indications of Hodgson's peculiar notions on the subject on which he was engaged, and many judi- cious remarks upon the general interest and utility of similar topographical publications, deserves a place in our pages. •« PREFACE TO VOLUME THE FIFTH. &quot; In forming the plan of this work, I have thought it of importance to provide as much as possible against the introduction of forpiga languages into the General and Parochial Histories ; but to give full copies from the originals of some of the most important records of the county, and to arrange them so as to ensure to myself a method of digesting their contents under their proper heads, and to my reader an easy plan of referring to my authorities. On these accounts, this part of my work will be found to consist of Eecords and Historical Papers derived from public and private sources, and from books printed by Royal Authority, but not generally known ; and to conclude with Indexes ♦ referring to the name of every person and place as often as it occurs. ** That the contents of this volume, in their present form, are of a * The Indexes which accoAipanied Mr. Hodgson *s Tolumes (the last excepted), are perfect specimens of their kind, comprising not merely names of men and places with- out, it is believedi a single omission, but subjects also, and every other conmvable PREFACE OF FIRST VOLUME. 313 dry and unamusing kind, is readily admitted. But, while they fail to entertain, I expect they will be considered as free from the attribute of offending, or of creating litigation; and from the inferences I have to draw from them, and the positions I hope to place them in, I have no doubt of rescuing them from the character of dulness ; and under this conviction, I could not be tempted to forego my plan, unpromising as it appears, of publishing this volume the first, for the more flattering reception that one enlivened with anecdote and family and local history might have been expected to meet with. *' And with respect to the utility of collections of this kind, whilst it is admitted, that no immediate pecuniary advantage, an interest of a more tangible and gratifying nature than that of amusement, is to be derived from them, it is maintained that they contain the evi- dences of the improvements and the declensions of nations in the art of government ; how law, and liberty, and knowledge, and social order, and political strength flourish or decay together; and how the application of science and of inductive philosophy to all the natural wants and policies of man dissolve and dissipate the superstitions of ignorant ages. For what tables of logarithms are to mathematicians, and of affinities to chemists, Eecords digested into order are to the lawyer, the landholder, the historian, and the antiquary. ' I dare assure any wise and sober man,* says Dr. White Kennet, the learned Bishop of Peterborough, ' that historical antiquities, especially a search into the notices of our own nation, do deserve and will reward the pains of any English student ; will make him understand the state of former ages, the constitution of governments, the fundamental reasons of equity and law, the rise and succession of doctrines and opinions, the original of ancient and the composition of modem tongues, the tenures of property, the maxims of policy, the rights of religion, the characters of virtue and vice, and indeed the nature of mankind.^ &quot; Out of 1*e numerous ancient and unpublished Charters with which I have been favoured, I have selected those in the First Article solely as specimens of the utility of such instruments, in illustrating the history and customs of places, and in forming pedigrees. &quot; The three Becords given below * were indifferently selected from indication to lighten the lahour of the inquirer and guide him to the object of hiB search. The absence of these Indexes in the volume which terminated his labours will be hereafter accounted for. * The records here printed in a note (which I omit) are a writ and inquisition upon the death of Ralph super Teyse (or Surtees) in 41 Henry III. and two other inquisitions on the subject of Fretcluforce, 314 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. t^e Calendar which commences at p. 41, and are introduced here as examples of the kind of evidence which the Escheats contain. Thej are printed from copies taken at length, and attested by Mr. Bajlej* The printed Calendar reaches no Airther than the time of Edward UI. The instruments themselves to the end of Richard III. to which time thej are preserved in the Tower, and from that time downwards thej are at the Rolls in Chancery Lane. '' The grand totals of the Rates and Rentals, with some reasonings on the comparative rate of assessment in different parts of the county, will be found under the article Revenues, in Part the First. The colunm entitled ^' Names of Proprietors in 1663,'' and the assessment to the trainbands included between pp. 320 and 348, cannot fail of affording- interesting matter for reflection, not only to wealthy families, but to every villager in the county. While they shew the stability of property in a few houses, they are indexes to numerous vicissitudes in human affairs. They call up in the mind traditions and histories of transactions in times of high political excitement, and connect themselves with a great variety of moral considerations. Many persons, too, are noticed here whose names could not have figured in a pedigree ; and many places, which have few other distinctions than one, that is common to them with places that are blazoned on the pages of history, namely, that they are the dwelling places of men, who had for their forefathers, the brave defenders of the English borders in Northumberland. '' Much pains have been bestowed in making the Indexes accurate and copious; and by a slight inspection it will be seen that many places disguised under barbarous spelling and erroneous reading, have been classed under the most modern names in which they occur in this volume. &quot; In the General Introduction, I intend, Deo ced&amp;nie^ to perform the gratifying duty of acknowledging the obligations which I owe to numerous individuals, for large and valuable contributions %f materials to the General and Parochial History; for furtherances and facilities in my researches ; and for much kindness and civility to myself. In the meantime, however, I feel myself called upon to state my obligations for assistance in this part of my work. And, in the first place, my acknowledgments are due to the Lord Bishop of Durham, for permis- sion to enrich my publication with materials out of the archives of the see of Durham, and from the Mickleton and Spearman Manuscripts; and to the Dean and Chapter of Durham, for the favour of being allowed to select out of their very ancient and valuable collection of Records and Charters, whatever relates to my subject. PREFACE OF FIRST VOLUME. 315 ''To Sir John Swinburne, of Gapheaton, Baronet, F.R. and A. S8., I am indebted for the use of seven large manuscript volumes of original charters, letters, and curious papers, highly illustrative of the local and general History of Northumberland; and to his brother Edward Swin- burne, Esq. for the privilege of embellishing my work with designs, the beautiful simplicity of which has been happily imitated in the aqua- tint engravings by Mr. Lewis ; but which, I lament, could not be so uniformly expressed in the wood-cuts which accompany this volume. ** I am obliged to R. W. Grey, Esq. for the loan of the manuscript which contains the first, second, seventh, and eighth columns of Article the Eighth : to C. W. Bigge, of Linden, Esq. for a copy of the present County Kate ; the Rental for building the County Courts in 1809 ; and for a transcript of the Kerr MS. of the Rates and Rentals in 1663 : and to John Adamson, Esq. M.R.A.S. of Lisbon, F.A.S.L. and E. and my fellow-secretary in the Newcastle A. S., for the use of a copy of the County Rate in 1690. '' To Robert Surtees, of Mainsforth, Esq. F.A.S. and author of the splendid and elaborate History of the County of Durham, my obliga- tions are numerous, and especially for a copy, in an old hand, of the list of Castles and Towers in Northumberland, printed in Article the Second. There is another old copy of the same document in the Har- leian Library, No. 309. *^ My acknowledgements were also due to the late Samuel Lysons, Esq. Keeper of his Majesty's Records in the Tower of London, for offers of assistance, of which I was prevented availing myself to any extent by his lamented death. To Henry Petrie, Esq. however, my warmest thanks are due for his ready and frank renewal of the liberal offers of forwarding my undertaking, which I had from his predecessor Mr. Lysons. I am also much indebted to Mr. Bayley, of the Record Office, for the voluntary tender of rendering me every assistance. &quot; In this department of my work 1 am also under great obligations to Sir M. W. Ridley, of Blagdon, Bart. M.P. ; to T. H. Bigge, of Little Benton, Esq. ; to Ralph Spearman of Eachwick Hall, Esq. ; James Ellis, of Otterbume Castle, Esq. ; Thomas Davidson, Esq. ; A. Donkin, Esq. ; the Rev. A. Hedley, A.M.; and Messrs. John Murray and George Burnett, of Newcastle; and most particularly I am indebted to the Rev. James Raine, of Durham, for numerous facilities and valuable contri- butions to my work. &quot; That 1 have not been guilty of literal errors, and larger blunders, is more than I expect ; but while I trust that the consideration of the 316 HEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. magnitude of mj undertaking and ihat it is not rising under the in- fluences of ease and uninterrupted leisure, but under the laborious avocations of a minister in a very extensive and populous parish, and of a father and a tutor in a numerous family, will in many minds stand as a sufficient apology for the imperfections of my work; yet I have no wish on these accounts, or on the ground that I give no pledges to the public respecting my work, to lighten my obligations as an author to fidelity and accuracy, or to hide myself from the just severity of criticism. '^ John Hodgsok. *&lt; Upper Heworth, 11th Norember, 1820.*' Along with this volume Mr. Hodgson published the following statements with respect to the plan of the future Parts or portions of his work, and also the Queries which are subjoined ; soliciting information on almost every topic which could possibly come within the scope of his intended History. The Queries may be useftd to other topographers. His proposed arrangement of volumes was, as we shall see afterwards, not strictly adhered to. '&lt; In presenting to the public this Fifth Volume of a History of the County of Northumberland, I beg leave to accompany it with the fol- lowing sketch of the plan upon which I propose to execute it. '* Part L vol. i. will contain the General and Border History of the County, with separate Articles on its Natural History, Agriculture, Geology, Mining, Revenues, &lt;&amp;c. &quot; Part n. vols. ii. iii. and iv. will include the Parochial History, i.e., descriptions of towns, viUages, antiquities, and curiosities, pedigrees of families of rank, memoirs of remarkable persons, &amp;c. &lt;&lt; The first Tolume of this part, containing the History of the parishes in Castle Ward, will be the next in the order of publication. '' Part HI. vols. v. and vi. will consist of Ancient Becords and His* torical Papers, relative to Northumberland and the English and Scottish borders. &quot; Only 300 copies are printed: 60 on royal paper at three guineas a volume, and 250 on demy at two guineas. Each volume will contain engravings on copper and wood. &quot; A list of the wood-cuts and copper-plate engravings which belong to the Fifth Volume, will be found in it at page xiv. The following eight prints which accompany it are intended to be bound up in the HISTOBICAL QUERIES. 317 future volumes where the places which they represent are described. I. The Gateway to Prudhoe Castle. 11. Newcastle. HI. The Tyne&gt; from Fawdon Staith. IV. Dilston. V. Bywell Tower. VI. Bam- borough Castle. These six are designed by Edward Swinburne, Esq., and engraved by F. C. Lewis. VII. Alnwick Castle. VIII. Wark- worth Castle: the last two reduced one half in size from Buck^s Views in 1728, and engraved by M. Lambert, of Newcastle. '^ Though I have collected a large mass of original and unpublished materials for this work, and intend to visit every part of the county that is worthy of notice, before I print an account of it, yet, aware that it often requires long residence on a spot to become intimately ac- quainted with its history, I take the liberty of soliciting answers to the following QUERIES. ** 1. Of a Parish, — Its ancient and modem name and etymology — how* many chapelries, townships, constableries, villages, and hamlets it con- tains, with the name of each — ^by what parishes it is bounded — does it contain or make a part of any ancient barony or manor, and what are the nature of the courts holden within them — ^the number of inclosed and uninclosed acres in each township — which of the townships main- tain their poor separately, and which conjointly, what is the annual rental of each township, the number of its weekly and casual poor, and the sum annually paid for their maintenance — ^has it a workhouse, and when was it built ? &quot; 2. Church or Chapel, — To what Saint is it dedicated — by whom built and founded — ^what are its dimensions, its form, and style of architecture —has it any oratories, porches, or aisles — any shrines, remarkable monuments, or inscriptions — any family vaults, heraldic devices, any painted walls or windows — had it ever any peculiar immunities — if a chapel of ease, how connected with the mother church ? &quot;3. In the Churchyard. — ^Any crosses, pillars, remarkable vaults, monuments, or inscriptions — have any remarkable antiquities, such as coins or coffins, been found in it, or any human skeleton of extraordinary size ? &quot; 4. Endowment of a Living, — Can a copy of its terrier be procured —if not, what quantity of glebe land has it, and where is it situated— who has the great tythes — what do the vicarial tythes consist of, and who has them — has it any annual pension, and by whom paid, or has it been augmented by Queen Anne's Bounty, and to what extent ? 318 MEMOIR or THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. &quot; 5. IncumbetUir^Csoi any addition or correction be made to the list of them published by Mr. Allan, and usually annexed to Mr. Hutchin- son*8 View of Nortihumberland ? Can biographical sketches be given of such of them as were remarkable for their writings pr in their minis- terial capacity ? ^ 6. Parish Regiiters^^^WheD. do each of them commence, and do they contain any entries of persons of rank or learning, or eminent for their talents or public services, or remarkable for their stature or longevity ? When do the parish books commence, and do they contain any curious information respecting the mode of relieving the poor prior to the 42 of Eliz., or any curious records or agreements ? '' 7. Concerning Abbeys^ Priories, and other Religious Houses* — ^Are there any manuscripts, books, charters, or other writings belonging to them, and in whose possession ? Have any curious discoveries been made among their ruins ? '' 8. Concerning Chapels and Meeting-houses of Dissenters, — The proper designation of each of them«»when built, its size, and form— &gt; names and a biographical account of the succession of its ministers — has it any endowment in trust, or otherwise ? ^' 9. Of Public Librariesy Endowed Schools, Hosptals, Annual Doles, or other Charities. — Bj whom were they founded or bequeathed — ^tlie annual amount of their revenues — and a description of each charity ? ^' 10. Antiquities, — ^Accounts of any remarkable camps, cairns, or barrows — any ancient altars, coins, arms, or utensils, that have not been noticed or imperfectly described in printed books ? ^'11. Trade and Manufactories, — The number and kinds of mills anciently and at present used in grinding com, forging iron, making paper, spinning, or in manufacturing or dressing cloth, making oil, &amp;c. &amp;C.— or any potteries, foundries, tanneries, or other kinds of manu- factories — ^how long have they existed — ^the number of persons em* ployed in each of them ? &quot; 12. Agriculture, — Commons or town-fields, their names, kinds of herbage, and extent — if inclosed, whether by mutual consent, when, and to what purposes have they been turned — the quantity of ground an- ciently inclosed by walls, hedges, or marches, in meadow, in tilh^, and the kinds and rotations of crops ; in grass, and whether grazed principally by breeding or fattening stock; in wood, and whether natural or planted, the kinds of trees, and which of them are most pro- fitable — marie and clay beds, their extent, an^ how applied ? HISTORICAL QUERIES. 319 ^13. Otology^ Mineralogy ^ Mining, — Alluvium, what it consists of, its form, and depth, and from whence it is supposed to have been brought; does it contain any remains of organized bodies ? The cropping, incli- nation, line of bearing, thicknesses, and kinds of strata ; accounts of borings or sinkings through them ; drawings or specimens of the organic remains found in each of them ; notices to what purposes they are or may be put, whether they can be advantageously employed in building, will take the' marble polish, can be used as millstones, grindstones, or whetstones, or contain clay for china or earthenware, crucibles, glass- house pots, or fire-bricks.—-—^ what direction dykes and metallic veins traverse the county ; the kinds of metals and spars they contain ; where they are filled or surmoimted with such whin as is found between Glenwhelt and Kirkwhelpington, at Coaleyhill, Dunstanborough, Bam- borough, &amp;c. ; how the strata lie, are elevated or depressed on each side of such dykes, with descriptions of the strata in which the metals are found, and which of them is most and which the least metalliferous;. also accounts of the mineral springs that occur near such dykes. Of nines, when they began to work, the quantity and kinds of metals they have produced; the kind of spars that coat their sides; their depth, extent of drifts, the size of the natural caves found in exploring them; modes of working them; the kinds of furnaces and the pro- cesses used in smelting and refining metals; notices of old mines, where unsuccessful attempts have been made to obtain metals, where bloomeries have been, and of the sites and kinds of ancient heaps of scoria ? '' 14. Respecting ColUeries. — Of the winning — when it commenced and when it was completed — what is the depth and nature of the alluvium above the rock; the kinds and thicknesses of the several strata sunk through — the power of the engines employed in sinking — and the sum expended in making the shaft. The names of the lessors of the mine, and the ejctent, name, and boundary of their royalty — ^the names of the lessees — the thickness of the several seams that have been worked —and the quantity of coal annually worked and vended since the commencement of the colliery. Remarkable fossil substances or im- pressions of organized bodies found in the mine, and the name, and depth from the surface of the stratum in which they were foimd — ^have any extraneous substances, such as pieces of wood or rounded stones been foimd amongst the coal. ^Accidents by fire or water— when they occurred, and the number of persons and horses lost in each accident; the means that have been resorted to, to give light when steel- 320 MEMOIR OF THE BET. JOHN HODGSON. mills were found inseeiire, and before the use of safety-lamps. Of dykes or Teins — their bearing — whether upcast or downcast — and to what height or depth, and what are their contents. ^Notices respect- ing any old workings, the names, qoalitiesy and thicknesses of the strata worked, and the period, extent, and mode of working ? ^' 15. Natural Hilary, — ^Bare or carious plants — ^their scientific or provincial names, where they grow, especially the esculent and medicinal species found near monasteries, castles, or ancient villages. — l^ells, whether found on land, in fresh water, or in the sea, their names, and drawings or specimens of them, their localities, and the habits of the animals that live in them. — ^Insects, the names, drawings, or specimens of each species, with such information as can be procured respecting it in its several states of an egg, a caterpillar, pupa, and perfect state. — ^Also anecdotes or notices on the natural history of the birds and quadrupeds that frequent the county, and the names and descriptions of the rarer sort of fishes that frequent its coasts. '^ John Hodgson.** ^ Upper Heworth, near Ckteahead, December 11th, 1820.&quot; Under his doubts with respect to the popularity of this his first volume, Mr. Hodgson must have been much comforted by the following letter from his fellow-labourer in the field of topo- graphy, Mr. Surtees of Mainsforth : &lt;' Dear Sib, Mainsliartli, Dee. SUt, 1820. &quot;^ I have just had time to cast a hasty glance at your volume. I like your brave plan of laying the foundation of Becords first; and then referring to them. But, whatever it may be to the general reader, these documents are as amusing to me, and give occasion to as much reflection on the ups and downs of families and estates, as any regular narrative. The list of 1663 is very interesting in this respect. I write however, chiefly under an anxious wish that something should be done towards perpetuating the Towers and Peds of Northumberland. I would wish to see every old Strength and Castle preserved, and really, if you can g^such an artist as Edward Swinburne, and have his beau- tifiil sketches executed so as to preserve their delightfiil truth and simplicity, you will be a greater benefactor to Northumberland than by throwing out a few expensive plates for the benefit of connoisseurs. The plan also of reducing Buck pleases me mightily. Widdrington looks like a gorgeous old dame in fiill dress. The very bull's heads are oa LETTER FROM HODGSON. 321 the great flight of steps, and one imagines knights and ladies pacing up * with solemn step and slow ' to feast in the great bay-window'd room on the left. Now, is there not spirit enough in Northumberland to raise a fund for illustrating your pages with the views above hinted at ? I should realljr hope it only wants setting a-going, and that Major Ander- son would not stand alone in such a list. At all events, permit me to book myself ten guineas towards your iiiture volumes. I am afraid I have not sufSicient acquaintance in Northumberland to set the stone a- rolling; but I really hope it may be done. &quot; I think your Society condescends to give tradesmen's tokens of the old issue a place on their shelves. I take this opportunity of sending a few of these nick-nacks, and some other trash, which may sleep in their drawers till age makes them venerable. Eaine, you probably know, is in Londoii. His direction: E. Blore, 56, Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square. ** I send an old Northumbrian deed which you may perhaps wish to copy, — John de Vaux, Lord of Beaufront, to Adam Menvyle, of lands in Whittonstall. Be so good as return it at leisure. It was found among a parcel of Durham deeds not connected with it except by the occur- rence of the name of Menvyle. •* The mutilated lar was found at Piersebridge ; give it to the Society, or keep it to preside over your own household. Yours very sincerely, &quot; R. SURTEES.&quot; Hodgson's reply to this characteristic letter was as follows: To ROBERT SURTEES, Esq. « My dear Sib, 8th Feb. 1821. &quot; I have very severely to reproach myself for neglecting so long to answer your kind congratulations on the ddfiU of my book ; and es- pecially to beg your acceptance of my best thanks for your liberal con- tribution towards the embellishments of the future volumes, and for your scheme of having all the old Castles and fortified dwellings engraved. The truth is, when I received your favour I was confined to my bed ; and for nearly a fortnigSt after, and since that time I have been so harassed with duty and unfit to go through it, that till within these few days I have had no heart to write more than I was forced to dp by sheer necessity. '' My plan from the first was to give no engravings but on antiqua- T 322 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. rian subjects: but really the materials of that kind are so numerous in Northumberland that I could not give half of them ivithout being a loser by doing so. Not being able to attend the Anniversary of the Antiquarian Society (of Newcastle) myself, I sen^ my ^unanuensis with your present of coins, &amp;c., and took the liberty qf accon^panying them with your letter; and I now find that a subscription is talked of; at the Spring Assizes it may probably be set a-going ; though. I am apprehensive that it will be starved between the Whig and Tory storms that rage at present. When I was in London, I got Sir John Swinburne to mention my plans of publishing a History of Northwpberland to the Duke of Northumberland, and at that time thought the measure veiy coldly received. His Grace offered to become a subscriber to it. Before that time I had never thought of publishing by subscription. When a copy of the work was at Christmas sent to Alnwick Castle directions were given to an agent at Newcastle to inquire at the printer's whose authority he had for sending it; though I had the Duke's letter requesting his name to be put down. But I will go on, and endeavour to write my work into notice: for I have no fear that the public will neglect me after my next volume appears. I have.no arts of flattery. It is a thing I both hate to offer and to have, offered to me. 1 cannot think that mere pique can be the c^use of the. coldness that is shown me, but interested motives; and that to arise from the idea that I may publish records &amp;c. which may cause litigation and loss of property. (Notes of two early documents respecting Tudhoe are here given, and the copy is unfinished.)


 1821. Gorraspondence. — Second Visit to London. — Letters to Mrs. Hodgson. — Visit to Oxford. — Other Correspondence.— The Linng of Whitfield.— Roman Altars, &amp;o. at Byton. — Subscription for Engravings for his History.

The correspondence with Mr. Swinburne proceeds, and we have some further remarks upon the embellishments of the volume published in the preceding year, together with details of plans for those by which it was to be succeeded.
From EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. ** My dear Sir, Jan. 1821. '^ I hope you are satisfied with the printing of your book. It appears to me very well, but I am no judge. It is handsomely got up, I apprehend at no small expense. The initial letters are good, and your knight on horseback very spirited.* What has cost the most trouble is the least creditable: the vignettes from my drawings are failures. They were not the right sort of things for engravers, who have no knowledge of landscape. Willymoteswick (second trial) is not a blot like the first, but it wants point. It will be easy 'to get upon a better scent for the next volume. The view of Newcastle by Lewis is rather heavy in execution, and its details less correct than the sketch, which was meagre for want of nature and attention. The one from Dunstan Hill, which had been prepared to make one of the six, was not liked by Lewis. The details of Fawdon Staith in the shipping part are. coarsely imitated ; the rest well. Bywell is heavier than the drawing. Prudhoe and Bridge ^re the best.. I have as yet looked but hastily at the old deeds, &amp;c. of your work. « Have you got. the djoawings of Willymoteswick and Chipchase? Did you send me Bothal and Copeland? Wark worth I have. Don^t trouble yourself much about them. Yours very truly, &quot; Edw. Swinburne.&quot; *
A tail-piece cut by Hodgson. See p. 811 above, and p. 118 of the volume.
Fbom MAJOR ANDERSON. &quot; Mr DBAR S1B9 AndeiBoii Place, Jan. 6, 1821. &quot; I feel myself much obliged to you for the very flattering com- pliment you have been pleased to pay me in your History of Northum- berland. I should hare been more pleased if I had seen it followed by the more wealthy and higher classes of the county; but they are not encouragers of the Arts and Sciences. I should have thought that the example of the neighbouring county * would have inspired them to have assisted you ; but their assistance is only to be had by servility, which I think you very right in not crouching to. Your illustrations are not equal to Mr. Surtees's splendid work, but they are respectable: ^With sentiments of the highest consideration and regard, I remain, your very much obliged humble servant, &quot; G. Ahdekson.&quot;
Fbom Sia J. E. SWINBURNl^, Babt. ^* My DEAR Sir, C5apheaton, Jan. 6, 1821. &quot; I am much gratified with the volume of your History I have just received, and shall on Monday pay Walker for the two copies he has sent me, and for Lady Swinburne's copy at the same time. &quot; You have published my ancient deeds in so splendid a way, and have had so much trouble about them, that I must beg you will allow me to contribute my mite towards the expense by the inclosed draft. A weakness in my eye prevents me from saying more than that I most heartily wish you success, and remain, my dear Sir, ever most truly yours, ** John E. Swinbubne.&quot; ''Pray thank the Antiquarian Society in my name for the honour they have done me in again electing me their President. I live at so inconyenient a distance, and my time has of late been so entirely taken ^ up with various serious and not pleasant businesses, that I have not had it in my power to attend; and pray assure the Society that it is not from want of respect or neglect. J. E. S.&quot; • *
On the subject of the County of Durham and its splendid subscription to the embel- lishments of Mr. Surtees*s Histoiy, the reader b referred to a subsequent page. The zeal of the county seems to have evaporated in the effort which was then made, and that noble History remains in the imperfect state in which it was left by its author. CORRESPONDENCE. 325 We now find Hodgson engaged in performing a debt of gratitude, and laying further plans for future operations. He thus writes to bis friend Mr. E. Swinburne on the 10th Jan. 1821. '* Jan. 10,1821. — -To Edward Swinburne, Esq. — I have a royal copy of my book at Newcastle, of which I beg your acceptance, and will forward it as soon as I can get from home to see it before it be sent. I have been nearly a fortnight confined at home by bad health. You will perceive by the title-pages of the copies sent to Sir John and Lady Swinburne that Nesbit's cut has been rejected. It would not print An impression of the title-page was worked off from it, but it was so bad as to render it necessary to cancel it. It would work on nothing but India paper. He charges me eight guineas for it, and Nicholson in one week cut the block, which has been made use of, for three. I found some fault with the stiffness and inaccuracy of the figure, and when I went back he had altered it as it now stands; and I trust you will pardon the liberty, as it has a much better effect than his first attempt produced; though he might have chosen a better subject than that of age on two sticks, and placed even it in a more natural attitude, as it does not seem to find that support from the sticks which their use would naturally demand. Mr. Surtees in a letter to me expresses an anxious wish to see many of the strongholds of Northumberland in your ^' beauti^ sketches, and executed so as to preserve their delightful truth and simplicity.*' I wish I could have a day or two's leisure to consult you about future operations, and to have your influence to impress your nieces into the services of the County so far as to get a few sketches of *• Peel or Tower or Castle hoary &quot; from their pencils. Belsay is a favourite subject with me, also Haughton Castle, and I should like a nearer view of Chipchase, making the old tower of the De Insula's the chief object. Bewick's woodcut of Chipchase, though the second attempt, is a most miserable failure.&quot; Edward Swdj^burne, Esq., to Mr. Hodqson. — ^^^ Capheaton, 18 Jan. 1821. — ^I am much obliged to you for your handsome present, and, though it is not well bestowed on one who has not a library, I will accept of it, as 1 believe that 1 shall pay more regard to your feelings by doing so than by declining it, on account of your great expenses incurred. I had given some thoughts to subjects for your next volume, and wanted no retaining fee to make me anxious to give you whatever assistance lies in my power. I shall have sufiicient opportunities. 324 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. before tbe winter is ovw of coiif4aTiiig with 700 on the tubjeoi. I am 80x77 to hear 70U have been unwell, as we all are here. M7 nieces want no influence on m7 part to make them ready to aaaifit jou, and most cheerfully, with their pencils, whenever an7 thing comes in their wa7 that can be tamed to an7 account; and so the7 ^^ '^^ ^^ J^^ nem. con. If you have not forwarded the cop7 70U destine for me, you will oblige me by sending it, in the interim, to John Brough Taylor, Esq., Yilliers Street^ Bishopwearmouth, who has expressed to me his anxiety to see it: the documents of former times have much interest for him. I will write him a line to-^ay mentioning the probability of his getting a sight of my copy. I have more to say, but am short of time this post and must defer it Tours very truly, &quot; Ed. Swinburne.&quot; Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Es&lt;i. &quot; My deab Sib, 21 Jan. 1821. &quot; If it would be any gratification to you to possess the drawings I did for your work, 1 should be happy if you would accept of them ; and in that case, in what shape would 70U have them? If it were your wish to insert them into the books themselves, I could, I dare say, con- trive to take them off the present mounting and fix them on to a single sheet, which would bind up with the work ; or would you like them better hung up in your study? ** There is a great deal of clearness in Nicholson's Willymoteswick ; and if he had had more time, and I could have had access to him while about it, to call his attention more to some characteristic features, and management of the drawing, and to arrange with him such devia- tions from it as that st7le of engraving may have required, it would have come out more to our satisfaction: it is the best of them; the foliage is prettily cut. &quot; I shall be very glad to hear you have got your health again ^ Don't worry yourself about the false grammar,* it is so evidently a mere oversight, and moreover cannot be helped now: but the cause of it can be explained the next time you come before the public with new matter. Yours, ** Ed. Swinburne.&quot; * In the quotation from Cicero on the title-page, the word delecta is in some copies of the Tolnme printed deleetant. COttRBSPONDENCte. 32 1 ToEdw. SwamutoK, fesq;— &lt;* 26 Jau. 1821. — ^^t would be a great grati- ficatioki to me to possess the drawings which you made for my work; but I am unwilling that you shotdd have any trouble about dis- mountii^ them^ because I would like best to bind them up with my work, with the description of the places which they represent; and it will be a long time before the whole of the work be printed, and con- sequently ready to bind uniformly. They would, therefore, be quite as well in their present form to put into my Northumberland portfolio of drawings; and when the work is complete the bookbinder could marshal and mount them on suitable steeds. &quot; I have discovered that the blunder delectant does not pervade the whole impression of my book, and consteqiiehtly that the error is not chargeable upon me, but lays at the door of the compositor. I am quite well. After Easter I propose to go to Oxford and London, to complete my search for records, &amp;c. for the next volume. « J. H.&quot; To THE Rev. J. ^AlKE. • -J &quot; Dear Sir, Upper Heworth, 12th Feb. 1821. &quot; A week since I had planned to be at Durham on the 19 th instant, for the purpose of copying and availing myself of your kind offer of being my guide through the labyrinths of ancient days in Dur- ham. But a friend having offered to take my duty for a month, and 1 finding it indispensable to be in London aad Oxford before I put another volume to press, I have taken my seat for Londbn this morning. Lest you should Vant your books, I return the whole of them. Such as are marked with copied or ^ we have transcribed, ana 1 hope in six weeks* time for an opportunity of comparing the transcripts with the originals. My address will be at Mr. Robert Hodgson's, book- seller, 22, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, where I shall be happy to receive your commands, if I can be of any use to you. Always, my dear Sir, very faithfully yours, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; Hodgson, therefore, did not wait till Easter had conle and gone, 88 hsld been his intention when writing to Mr. Swinbulrne in January, but proceeded at once to pay his second visit to London, having obtained the kind assistance of a friend in his parochial duties during his absence. 328 MEHOIB OF THB RBY. JOHN HODGSON. In this journey Hodgaon had again two objects in yiew. The rebuilding of his chapel of Heworth, upon an enlarged scale, for the better accommodation of his numerous flock had noT&lt;^ begun to occupy his mind in earnest, and for so good a purpose he was intent upon raising the necessary funds; and he was anxious also to lay in an additional stock of information for the subsequent volumes of his great undertaking. For Northum- brian History the treasure-house is of course London, in its public and private repositories of documentary evidence; and he had heard and read enough of the Bodleian Library and its stores to make him wish to pay a visit to Oxford. His proceed- ings during a six weeks' absence from home on this second occa- sion are fully detailed in the following communications, addressed by him to Mrs. Hodgson, and, as I have already remarked upon the importance of his family letters^ towards a correct delineation of his character as a husband and a father, I gladly avail myself of this further assistance in the task which I have imdertaken, and without any additional preamble lay them before my readers. •* 34, Hart Street, Bloonubury, London, 15th Feb. 1821. ** Mr DEAR Jake, &quot; It will be very gratifying to you to leam that I performed my journey to this place without fatigue. Indeed I think I grew stronger and into better enjoyment of myself the further I proceeded. But I will endeavour to-morrow morning to recollect the observations I made in my way, and put them into the form of a journal for the amusement of our children, and send them in a frank. To-day I cannot be favoured with that indulgence, and must therefore be brief in my ob- servations. ** My journey has not been costly, and, though I have been a day in London and had some extra expenses in the outfit, the one pound fourteen shillings and sixpence of silver with which I set out is not all expended. &quot; Robert,* I hope, is doing very well. He is, as must be supposed, in a small way — ^himself, a man, a boy, and a sewing girl comprising * His brother the bookbinder, so often mentioned in the letters of 1819. SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 329 his establishment: all his implements are new. Of bookselling he does nothing but bj commission ; he has therefore no shop : and I am apprehensive he 'would be better quit of that department of his business, as it calls him out from the persons whom he employs : and requires a larger capital to conduct it than he can possibly command. For instance, if any one in Newcastle give him an order, he cannot here, till his credit is established, get the books till he has paid for them, and his customers cannot be supposed to advance him money. But more of this hereafter. ''As soon as 'i'got here I, called on Mr. Ellison, who was as much surprised to see me as Robert had been. From him I went to William and Charles Grey, and called on Sir H. Davy, whom I did not find in the house: but, on my return from the Bull and Mouth to my lodgings, I found an invitation from him to make one of his evening party, which was large, and consisted of the first scientific men in the nation. &quot; To-day I dine at the Crown and Anchor with the Boyal Society, and to-morrow with Mr. Ellison. &quot; You will have found before this that I came off with my keys. When writing-paper is wanted, a sheet of the kind we are using must be sent to Mr. Akenhead's, and a quire or two of the same kind procured. '' I write this at Robertas lodgings, where I am breakfasting, but have put my own address at the head of it. '' Robert's landlady is a Newcastle woman, a widow of a Captain Elliot, who commanded a West Indiaman. *' On Monday I hope you may expect a larger packet from me. The weather continues cold and frosty, with a dark fpg. Compliments at the Shore. God bless you all. Thine sincerely, &quot;John Hodgson.&quot; &quot; Mt dear Jane, 84, Hart Street, Bloonubury, 15th Feby. 1821. &quot; I promised you in a hasty note, which I wrote from Robert's lodgings this morning, that I would send you a journal of my travels to this place for the amusement of our dear children, which promise I will attempt to realise as well as I can. &quot; During the first stage I had three fellow-travellers, a gentleman and a lady and her infant child, a fine baby that slept, and sucked, and cat sweet-cake, but never cried. All these left me at Durham, where a young lady got in who was very fond of talking about the handsome. !}!S0 MEMOIR OF THE ItEY. JOHN HODGSON. pte^y nttd Tottiatttic walks About the places wliicli slie had visited'; but foiher appeared to hare no gevdtis to ei^nd her eonvetiteldo^ &lt;' The fog atid hoar-fhwt eontStttied idl way to near Rttshj-fbrd, where We began to have a prospect into the fields At 8dm6 distance ftom the road. Ab we descended into the low country towards the Tees the air gffew gradually clearer, till th« forms of the clouds bi^axi to appear, though the sun could not get a ray thtongh even their thinnesit part. Hie hoar-Arost aftefr mid-day, and till four o^slock, hoVe'^^r, Was con- verted into tears on the hedges, every liltle twig being ornamented with ft toW of brilliant drops, which as th^ suh began t&lt;r*Bink below the ^eatth were in their turn changed into pearls of ice. ** The road fh&gt;m Durham to Rushy-ford is through a cold and bairen eMinlry^ fi*om Bushy-ford to Darlington it gradually improves in interest* * The county of Dnrham is divided from that of Yorkshire by the tiret Tees, and at the villi^ of Croft that rivisr is crossed with a very handsome stone bridge, which for about 200 yaids on the Durham side ttlses delightftdly with the little, low-towered, and humble but ancient and bte\!italul chnirch of Croft, and the dwellings, and trees, and orchards of thai charming place. When Richard begins to have a knowledge of the different sorts of stones, and of the different situations which they OCCnpy, he Will be interested in being tbld that the Tees at Croft rolls over red sandstone. At Northallerton, th^^ fourth stage from Newcastle^ we arHved during a large horse-fair. The busiest part of it indeed was bver; but the streets were still occupied by stalls^ with horse-cloths, i&amp;c., and the dealer in inferior animals Werfe vei»y tu^tive. Here we got four fresh passengers, Messrs. Dy^on, Shilleto, Dell, and a London dealei^, whose name I cannot remember. My companion soon found that Mr. Shil- leto was a distant relation; and the whole history of the Shilleto family, from Dick, a sort of jobber and cattle doctor, to the great dealer, with whom she had the honour of claiming acquaintance, was minutely related. &lt;' It was still daylight when we got to Thirsk, and between that place and Easingwold a sudden alarm was made^ and the cry raised, * Stop 1 stop I here is a passenger a-missing; he has, I am surci fallen off.' And, to be sure, on looking back a long moticMiless lump, not unlike a man, was seen at some distance lying on the road. The guard and two or three outside passengers ran back, and a man they found breath- ing and edive : on raising him up he could mumble and talk, but partly SECOND VliMT TO^JONDON. 331 by ihe fall and more from the effeots of wkat he had got at the mfarket fit Thirsk, he had a very indifferent use of his legs: as he came up the horse-dealers gare their advice-^* Bleed the drunken dog''^^' Loose his neckcloth ^ — ' Dick, whwe^s yonr fleaans ? — Hoist him up again, and tie him on with a rope.' It was indeed impossible either entirely to pity him or to be merry with him. He was all blood about the i^e^ but he could ^mutter that he was no worse* Afber being conveyed without his neckcloth or a great nonHt in hard £po0t fbr three or fbur miles further, he was set down cool enough, but still drunk enough ; and it was quite a fflght to observe with what full eyes and with what fear and surprise the whiie^piXHi'd cdd landlord of the public hotise where he chose to be lefb held the candle to his iace^ bul; kept back, as if in dread of losing the h^ivlest part of his body. « From Easingwold to York we had hard frost And moonlight all the way ; but, the coach being fall, I was much warmer than I had been between the Cannon* and Northallerton^ We stayed about eighty minutes at York, and before daylight all my amusing companions had lefl me, and I had not again a person to speak to thorough the whole of my journey. &quot; The moruii^ of the 18th opened very calmly; it was grey tod sober: ail the way from Doncaster to Barnby Moor the light gradually unveiled the coimtry, and the stillness of night gave way to the sounds of human voices and of human labours; for the roads were in such excellent order that through a great part of the wAy the horses' ieet and the wheels of the coach went as silently over them as if they were passing over a carpet. At a village not very far from Bawtry I saw several children frisking about a neat sohoolohouse before 7 o'clock in the morning. Would there be any person at home in bed at that time ? The fields of wheat from this part of Yorkshire all the way to the south were of a beautiful green, and completely matted the earths ^ We breakfasted at Barnby Moor, which was the first meal I paid for. This place is a large and excellent inn, much difierent from that at Markham Moor, where I dined in my way to London in 1819) when a rice pudding, with lumps of rancid suet in it, made a part of the dinner. At Barnby Moor I noticed that the gooseberry bushes were pruned in the same manner that James Torrence prunes his at Heb- burn: all the old wood is cut away and the shoots of the last year left. &quot; It would be about 8 o'clock when we passed East Betford, where * At that time a well-known inn on Gateshead Fell, at which Hodgson had joined the coach. 332 MEMOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. , Mr. Whitens * brotlier-in-law is rector. The church has a yery hand- some stone spire; the nave and chancel are plastered, and its chnrch- yard is ornamented with hoUies and other evei^reens, which give a solemn and sacred aspect to the spot. These trees I apprehend were planted in the late Mr. White's time. He resided here before he settled at Woodlands* ** The next stage was to Tuzford, a little to the south of which place there are two hop-grounds on the right ; with the poles piled in bundles, in this manner fa drawing J, fix&gt;m twelye to twenty feet long; and in summer thej are stuck into the earth for the hops to climb upon. ** All through Lincolnshire there are great numbers of handsome churches with towers and spires. *^ I think it was between Tuxford and Newark, near a village called North Muskham, that the coachman and guard stopped to regale them- selves at Mr. Harrold's, the sign of the Lord Nelson. Mrs. H. was a perfect character; from the coach, which was close to the door, I could observe all her motions and hear all her speeches. Tou may remember Mrs. Lancaster in the Newcastle theatre. In Mrs. H. I heard the same shrill-toned voice, saw the same lilting quick step ; and the same hurried gestures ; and, bj-the-bje, the same sort of low cunning ; as many of the characters which Mrs. Lancaster used to personate, were very prominent features of Mrs. Harrold's character — ^for I could observe her watering her rum bottle before she measured out the guard and driver's drams. '' Newark was the next stage: it stands on a very extensive, dry, and fertile plain; has a fine old castle built in the time of King Stephen, but much ruined. Some of the towers are covered with ivy. As we ap- proached and passed this place the mild light of the sun, beaming through thin films of cloudiness, gilded the fine trees and the white windmills that appear all around: and at a little distance we b^an to have distant glimpses of Belvoir Castle, the magnificent seat of the Duke of Butland. With the various turns of the road this fine edifice, seen at several miles' distance, crowning the summit of a wooded hill, in Milton^s language, ' bosomed high in tufted trees,' took a variety of interesting shapes. Its towers were all sky-tinted and in shadow, for it appeared between us and the sun in a gush of purple and yellow light. ^ From the sketch in the next page you will have some idea of the magnitude and bold situation of this famous seat; bearing in mind that you must imagine it five or six miles, if not more, from you fa sketch J. * His old friend Mr. WUte of WoodUndc SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 333 &quot;I must now abridge mj. observations into a narrow compass. We changed horses at Grantham, next at Witham Common, then at Stam- ford, which is a curious, old, and well-built town. After this it was night all the way, and the stages were in this order — Huntingdon, . . . Lane, Buntingford, Ware, Waltham Cross, Bull and Mouth, London, where we arrived soon after 7 o'clock. After breakfast I hasted to Bobert. I believe I gave you some description of Wednesday's opera- tions in my letter of this morning. &quot; Friday, 16th Feby. 1821. Yesterday I dined with the members of the Boyal Society, where Sir H. Davy was in the chair, and the Earl of Aberdeen, the Bishop of Carlisle, &amp;c. &amp;c., were of the party. At 8 o'clock we went to the weekly meeting of the Boyal and Antiquarian Societies. Yesterday and to-day I have laboured hard in the British Museum, where I will finish before I go to any other repository of records. I have just received an invitation from Sir Charles Grey to dine with him on Thursday next, where I hope to meet Mr. Beaumont, the Member for Northumberland. &quot; The weather continues very cold, dry, and frosty. I am going to Mr. Ellison's to dinner at 7 o'clock. It is now half-past 6. I breakfasted with Bobert yesterday, but do not expect to see him again till Sunday morning, which day^ we purpose spending together. &quot; I inclosed Miss Wylam's letter with a note, saying I would call on Mrs. Meek some day next week. &quot; Thine, my dear Jane, with my love to the children, and at the Shore, always. ** John Hodgsok.&quot; &quot; My dear Jake, 84, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, 17th Feb. 1821. &quot; I gave to Mr. Ellison yesterday evening a letter to frank to you, but, as he had not a pen and ink in the room, he put it in his pocket, and, I fear, may forget to have it posted before it be too late for you to receive it. Mr. Ellison is very well, better I think than I have, usually seen him. &quot; Though it is nine o'clock in the morning, there is so thick a yellow fog that I am writing with a candle. The weather still continues very cold, though I cannot think that the frost is intense. &quot; Since I came here I have felt every day better enjoyment of my health ; for the two last nights I have slept very soundly. 934l memoir of thb rbv. jobst rodgson. ^ Satucdaop: eveniog.. I h&amp;fr% beooi to^iay with Measrr. Nidbois and C(hf, locking some arwuaggjnenta abqnlithe advertising of my book ^ihey 810601 to, appi:ov/9 both, of il and: my pkoB of publuhiiig tiie; fiitnre YoligiiAiiy aad promise to review it in their Gientleman's Magatginp £ar Marcbv Alter settling with them, I caUjed at Baldwin's^ and requealsad: t]brem to advertise in the Courier and the Times^ '^ I. siaot called on Mr. Coulthard, but found that he. had returned on. Thursday, and on Mr. Nichol, who was not at his. office* At one, L found Robert at dinner, and had a chop with him ; since that time I have been. from one bookseller's shop to another, in quest of the CalisjidaTs Qf Jtecord^: published by order, of the House of Commons. I hope our Antiquarian Society will buy as many of them as have anything iu them x;elative to Northumberland. This is thye first evening I have, ^eht by myself, and, as I have no books&gt;. you may be sure I am not over wide awake, especially as I have had some very long walks. ^' 19th Feb., Sunday. Robert breakfasted with' me to-day, and at eleven w^ went to Mary-le.-bone New Church, where Dr. Heslop ia rector, and read the communion service; and Mr. Phillpottsj the rector of Stanhope, preached a sermon replete with nice arguments, aad fine distinctions,, but, as I thought, ill adapted to make any strong im- pression on his audience, which was very great. I nuist give some, account of the church: its dimensions I cannot guess at, but it has two tiers of elegant galleries, which occupy the south, west, and north sides ; and at the east end there are also two tiers of galleries on each aide of the organ, and with seats for charity-boys and charity-gixds who siug. The altar-table is hung and covered with fine red cloth; and there' is a beautifiil picture by West, of the Nativity, behind it ; and over the picture backwards is the organ gallery, the performer in which is screened from the view of the congregation by a long curtain of crimson velvet. Above these again is a large east window, with a sun-blind representing the angel Peace) with, crowds of seraphs coming in clouds to proclaim ' Feaoe on earth and good will towards men.' The charity-giris were neatly dressed, and some of them sung well ; their head-dress is remark- ably neat, and becoming: a plain white cap somewhat in this form fa drawing). Mr. Phillpotts's text was: * As many as. are led by the Spirit of God they are the sons of God.' &quot; The whole congregation was a very interesting sight, and very attentive. After calling at Lewis the engraver's,, at nearly three, we dined at an eating-house, and went to ailernoon prayers at St. Paul's, where we stood among the crowd until I began to feel tired, and then SSCOND VISIT TO lon£k&gt;;k. 335 asked qae of the vergers lor 9eat6, which we re^^y obtained. One of t^ minor canons, preached a. plain* elegant, a^d impressiye discourse: his argiuqaents -^ere strikingly conviiicing, his diction remarkable, for. propriety ; his tez;t ' And His commandI;o^nt^ are not grievous/ St. Paul, he said, preached toinfidels in the Jewisl^i i^^ipn, and to the Gen- tile nations, and. t^her^x^jDe, inis^ted upon, Faith.. $t, c[ames long after wrote to cp]:rect som^ 9usconQeption&amp; which Paul^Si doctrines had inr duced, ai^d therefore insisted upon the necessity of good works. St John, at a still greater period from the promulgation of the gospel, laid the greatest stress upon love. Now where love is, there is the fulfiLUing of thp law,, religion is bearing its proper fruit, happiness is produced; and the grand discovery is made to the human mind that the command- ments of Crod are not grievous ; but that all the precepts that restrict our tempers and passion^, within the limits of moderation are merciful in* junctions imposed upon us for our greatest beoiefit. Indeed, who can contemplate, who can but once come to see, to comprehend, and feel the beneficent designs of the great Father of Spirits in those acts of grace and favour wh^ch he h^ bestowed, upon his rebellious creatures by the preaching and the passion of Jesus Christ, without exclaiming with the. Apostle, ' Beloved, if God so loved us, how ought we to love one another r &quot; St. Paul's is a very cold chui'ch, but a very interesting edifice,, though I don't think its Greek style of architecture, so suitable for a place of worship as that which is usually called the Gqtbic style. The organ was well played, and I thi^k of exceedingly fine tones, but whether it wa^ the noise with which it.wa^^ drowned, or the bustle that constantly preyails about .the place,.! caonot, t(ell, but certainly I felt i^one of those efiects. from the singing which have&lt;im[uallybQen produced upon me by the Chpir of Ii)urham, where *'TluKMigb iMig-drawnaiflles-and fretted vaults Ijk^ fljkyeamuig.aiitb^m awoUs the note of pn4»9.*' *' Tuesday Feb. 20th, 1821. Yesterday, my dear Jane, my time was so fully occupied that I had not a moment's leisure to write at my lodg- ings. I had great difiiculty to find my friend Carlisle ; but, learning that he would be at the King's Library in Buckingham House by eleven o'clock, I took the opportunity of calling at Grosvenor Place on Sir John Swinburne, with whom I also dined at half-past six. Mr« Carlisle gave me a letter of introduction to the Land Revenue Ofiioey and 'now I hope that there will be very few difBculties in my way. Hitherto my researches have been confined to the Museum, where I shall not be engaged for more than another day. 336 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. &quot;If 70a look into the last number of the London Magazine, which I left tmcut-open, 70a will find in the beginning a Yer7 warm correspond- ence between Mr. Lockhart, of Edinburgh, and Mr. Scott, the Editor; which arose out of an article in the London Magazine for the preceding month. The affair has at length terminated fatall7. A &amp;iend of Mr. Lockhart wrote such a letter to Scott as compelled him in his opinion to challenge him to fight. The7 met not far from London on Saturday night, and Scott was shot through the body. — Sir J. E. Swinburne told me yesterday night that he was not dead, but that there were no hopes of his recovery. ^ I have had a cold, which affects my nose, ever since I came here, and the sharp weather does not suffer it to grow better. &quot; Tou will think it fortunate that I made no engagement with a Magazine,* the Editor of which is likely to go or has gone out of the world in so conspicuous a manner. I am every day more and more con- vinced that persons meddling in political matters are all the while forging to ^emselves chains of slavery. It was on political subjects that Scott and Lockhart quarrelled. Happiness is only to be had in the calm, sober, equal, and philosophical contemplation of passing events : if they are viewed in any other manner, if suffered to raise any other feelings than those which should arise out of inquiry directed by a love of truth, they are sure to create all kinds of uneasy, restless, and miserable tempers. There is no slavery equal to that into which the passions, induced by party feeling and political rancour, bring men. &quot; Since I wrote the above, I have seen in the ** Times &quot; that Mr. Scott is in a hopeful way of recovery : the ball passed through his body and lodged in his back, but without injuring the intestines, and has been extracted. His antagonist was a Mr. Guthrie, who fired the first time into the air; but Mr. Scott's second and himself, either- not perceiving him to do so, or being determined to fight to extremity, Mr. G. levelled his pistol at the second shot, which took effect. '&lt; I called on Mrs. Meek this evening, and found her well. But her daughter, who was lately married, has of late been suffering grievously of the tooth-ache. Since last Friday she has had three teeth extracted, and could not say she was any better. Mr. Smithers sets out for the North, I think he said, on Friday first, and will travel nearly direct for Newcastle. * The following extract of a letter from Messrs Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, to Mr. Hodgson, dated Not. 16, 1820, explains the above allusion, &quot; We know not if you have ever by chance seen the London Magazine, published by ns. Should you approve of it, and ever condescend to contribute to the pages of a periodical work, we would be most happy to add your name to our list of remunerated contributors.^* SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 337 ** Nothing new has occurred to me to-day worth relating. I go to see no sights; indeed t have no inclination to do so. London is as tame and uninviting as' if I had lived always in it. The only inconvenience I should be liable to feel as a lodger, were I long here and without books, would be how to dispose of myself in the evenings. Hitherto it has not been so ; for I have found my spare time, when I have not dined in company, sufficiently occupied in arranging my plan of operations in the Museum, which contains very abundant and rich stores of materials for my work. ** Wednesday Feb. 2l8t. We had some rain yesterday evening, which made the streets dirty; so that I have had a full half-hour's work in brushing my coats and pantaloons ; they were not merely bespattered with dirt, but literally had a layer of it upon them — though my walk extended no further than to Mr. Smithers* in Doughty Street, from thence to my brother's lodgings, and back to my own — ^as if I had gone to Crowhall, then to Nether Heworth, and thence home. *' I have been all day at the Museum ; and the more I am there the more I would be ; I am the &amp;st every morning into the room, and with the last to leave it; it would take a couple of months to exhaust the rich repository of historical materials of the subject into which I am inqidring. I begin to doubt whether I shall go to Oxford or not, as I have found a part of the articles which were formerly there, in the British Museum : at any rate my stay in Oxford will be very short. &quot; I would most gladly ask for another week or even a fortnight's absence more than I at first mentioned, but cannot tell how to do it : really all that can be got in three weeks is not worth the expense of travelling so far, and in a month's absence there are only eighteen days to work in, and in them only six hours a day; for on the Saturdays the Museum is shut, and one £bds one's self an unwelcome intruder at the Public Offices on that day, though on all others there is every liberality shown to publishing authors. ^' I see Mr. Ellison this time very seldom ; indeed I wish to be left to myself as much as possible. Should I not be able to get a frank before to-morrow evening, you will not receive this letter before Monday. '' I hope Richard and the rest of the children are very diligent with their work. Richard I hope will show me some neat work which he has done for me, when I return. He can be copjdng out of the Rolls of Parliament.* &quot; There is no need to do anything more with the garden, till the * A somewhat singular employment for a boy of nine years of age. Z 338 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. weather is mild; then plant about half-a-^ozen tows of potatos; two next to the two already planted, of the early kind* under the cellar window ; and three or four rows, of the other early kind, at the upper end of the pit in the north border of the garden. As I cannot get a fire in my room before eight in the morning, I am getting into the habit of sitting up till twelve o'clock. I have constantly breakfasted on coffee ; only twice dined at an eating-house. My cold has wholly left me; indeed I believe it was noihing more than the sharpness of the air which affected my nose, for in every other way I have been uncommonly welL « Thursday Feb. 22nd. The coach in which I came to London set me down at the Bull and Mouth, which is an inn after the old fashion of our country. Many of the monasteries were built after the same manner, and many inns on the continent are of the same kind now. It is a square differing only from the old Custom House in its having only one entrance to it, through large folding gates, which are closed in the night, so that no person can enter the premises without climbing over the roof. The second floor of the building is approached by staircases and a gallery which runs round the inside of the square; but is covered over ; also the doors of the lodging rooms, or most of them, open into this gallery, and, as the building is old, the doors are none of the best kind. The room I was shown into was black and dirty, had a crazy door, and was so miserably cold, that I instantly came up into this quarter of the town to seek some roosting place that had more of the appearance of comfort in it; and I am certainly comfortably .enough situated, but am much deceived as to the expense. This morning, being the beginning of a new week, I asked for my bill for the last, and find, besides my I85. a-week for my rooms, I have Is. a-day to pay for fire, besides candles. On inquiry, I am satisfied that it is usual to pay for fire, and therefore must submit to the charge : the whole expense of a week's breakfasting, lodging &amp;c., amounts to IZ. IBs.; independent of which, my payments have been very small. &quot; This evening I dine where I hope to get a frank, and will resume my journal, God willing, to-morrow. I have none, however, of the variety to amuse my. dear children with which I might have had if I could spare time and money to go and see sights. They must, however, all have some token of papa's love brought home : for Bessy some article of dress; for Richard, perhaps a Pandean pipe, so that he can get under the sycamores, and imagine himself under a beech, and, playing on his whistle, John Thomhill must come and say. ■^ SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 339 *^ Tityre, tu patulse recubans sub tegmine fagi, Sylvestrem tenui musam meditaris avena.'* John, a new knife, Jane and Sann * dolls ; and Ikee,* what ? I must think of something. My afPectionate remembranee to jour father and all at the Shore. Grod bless you alL Thine, my dear Jane, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; &quot; My dear Jane, &quot; 34, Hart Street, Bloomsbuiy, 23rd February, 1821. &quot; I am much distressed at your melancholy letter. I have a long one written for you, but cannot get it franked till to-morrow. It will reach Gateshead on Simday, and will contain one for Mr. Hedley. '&lt; I am making some arrangements about the sale of my book, and hope by Monday to have completed them. Should your father's symptoms not grow more favourable, pray let me know and I will certainly retum» for I cannot enjoy a moment's happiness in being here if he continues ill. '^ I have nothing that I can say to you. My health and spirits have been exceedingly good since I arrived in London : but the idea of your father and yourself both being out of health will make me anxious to have all things in readiness to return to you. &quot; Mr. Ellison had kept my last letter over Saturday. I shall get Mr. Beaumont to frank the one I have to send, as well as one for Mr. Hedley. Pray assure your father, how much I feel for the return of his complaint; and give me a report by return of post of the state he is in, describing how he is affected ; and say how much and how sincerely I sympathize with him. Having got your letter late in the day, I am compelled to be brief to win the post. Do not write to me under cover, but address me here. My most dutiful and affectionate remembrance and regard to your father ; and my love to you, my children, and the family at the Shore. I have been just one week here, and the distance from you makes the time look longer than it really is. Thine, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; &quot; My dear Jane, 34, Hart Street, Bloomsbuiy, Feb. 23, 1821. &quot; Ever since the receipt of your melancholy letter I have been much depressed in spirits ; and am more so to-day than I was yester- day : I know the nature of your father's complaint too well not to be apprehensive of its consequences, if it be not combated in time. The reflection that I am so far from him, and cannot sit and sympathize with him in his illness, constantly rises up in my mind, as a reproof for hav- * Susanna and Isaac. z2 340 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HOD080K. ing come hither on an errand which may never be of benefit to mj family, nor any way useful to the public. Till yesterday morning I had bright prospects of seeing the schemes I have formed of accomplishing my work brought into realization. Now the whole thing seems to have been constructed upon a foundation little more solid than air; and presents nothing to my view but useless labour and perpetual em- barrassment. I will certainly never attempt to print any more till the expenses of the present volume be all paid, and I see some fiind established for defraying the heavy expense of the engravings. ** You must, my dear, by all means endeavour to raise up your own spirits, and to rest in the belief that your indisposition is only temporary; for I have no doubt or fear about me but you will soon throw it off; it might perhaps be some amusement to your father to send Richard down now and then, even if it were only for an hour or two : it would be alittle variety to him, for I know how heavily the hours pass away in sickness, and without some one endeavouring to divert the mind from its prone- ness to partake with the body in its sufferings. &quot; I dined yesterday with Sir Charles Grey. Mr. Beaumont, the member for Northumberland, and one of his brothers ; Mr. Collingwood, whose name was Newnham, and who married one of the daughters of the late Lord Collingwood ; Mr. Pearce, who travelled in Egypt, the Holy Land, &amp;c., Mr. Walker, Mr. Alderson,* and another gentleman, composed the party. Alderson appeared to me to be a clever fellow. He, as well as the whole of the party but the two Beaumonts and myself, are all lawyers. Alderson has much of life, wit, strong sense, and bluntness. He is a plain man, thick-lipped, and wide-mouthed, and is very free and not very gentle in his remarks. Mr. Walker is a very mild, well-informed, and gentlemanlike character. Mr. Collingwood) you would suppose, while he is talking, to be imitating some affected young lady ; he draws in his chin, and sets out his chest, and simpers over his words ; and after all it is but manner; for he is full of freedom, good humour, good sense, and has considerable fluency and choice of language for conversation. Mr. Beaumont, the member, I should say, is one who is very anxious to do what is right, to say nothing unadvisedly. His gravity (perhaps pomp) is very remarkable for so young a man ; and when any subject is agitated which has any pretensions to interest him, his ey^s and whole countenance are fixed on the speaker, with the most marked attention. Of his brother I could not hear or observe enough to form any opinion ; and the gentleman whose name I * Afterwards one of the Barons of the Exchequer. SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 341 haye forgot, or indeed never thoiight of, had not, so far as I recoUect, an3rthing very remarkable about him. He was, as our old writers about plants and cookery would say, one of a wearish taste, &quot; February 26th, 1821. I have been two days without setting down a word respecting my proceedings. On Saturday morning it was so dark when I lefl my lodgings at half-past ten o'clock, that I could not see to write my name on a card but close to the window. I went out at that time and found gas-lights and lamps in great numbers of shops in Holborn and the lower part of Oxford Street. The fog was dense, bitterly cold, yellow, and stunk of soot and coal-gas most abominably. I have had ever since a slight cough ; I could feel it cold about my lungs, and it produced sickness. When I reached the Regent Circus, it became suddenly lighter; but still the sim appeared shorn of his beams, not like the moon, for his margin was more distinctly marked than hers ever is, and his orb more candescent and uniform in its colour. At eleven I called on Dr. Haggitt, who is sub-dean of Durham according to the intimation that I had from him the evening before respecting Heworih Chapel. Dr. Gray had sent him my letter which I left for Mr. Woodifield on my way through Durham, which con- tained a request that Mr. W. would write to me, informing me of the determination of the Chapter on our petition. Dr. Gray requested Dr. Haggitt to see Mr. Phillpotts and myself on the subject, as Mr. P. had had the petition intrusted to his care, and the Chapter could not find it. Dr. H. promised me to write back to the Chapter immediately, and recommend them to subscribe liberally ; and desired me, if I possibly could, to stay in town till their answer should arrive, which I do not expect before to-morrow week. He thought lOOZ- would be liberal ; and I took the liberty of saying that if they did not subscribe more it would effectually prevent any further progress in the business. After a very friendly interview with him I called upon the bishop, who, in the course of observation, fell upon the subject of the chapel, the success of building which I told him 1 greatly feared; and his answer was '' Come, come, Mr. Hodgson, you must not. be dis- appointed in realizing your plan ; I will give lOOZ. ; I have many calls upon my purse, but the Christian religion, and especially that part of it which is under the Church of England, has the strongest claim upon me. *^ &quot; Among the inquiries, the bishop asked what was said in the North about Mr. Phillpotts's letter to Lord Grey. I told him, as indeed I have heard it said, that it was considered unanswerable. &lt; So I 342 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. think/ was the replj. Speaking about my book, he said, ' I am no antiquary, Mr. Hodgson, and at my time of life you will not expect I should begin to learn to read it. The matter you have collected together is imquestionably very valuable, and the county of Northum- berland is much indebted to you for your zealous labours.' ** At half-past eleven I proceeded to the Land Revenue Office, and in going downwards dipped again into the thick cold and choking fog. After copying the titles of a few interesting surveys of places in Northumberland, such as Tynemouthshire, the Begality of Hexhami the baronies of Bolbeck and Bywell, the manor of Whalton, &lt;&amp;c. &amp;c. I went by appointment to Mr. Palmer's house at half -past two, in Abchurch Street. He took me down to Bromley in his gig, ten miles exactly, in one hour. My aunt and all my friends there are quite well. At the illumination for the Queen, Mr. Robert Rawes did not think it right to agree in opinion with the populace, and consequently had his windows broken to the amount of 22Z., which sum he intends to recover of the county. This morning I returned from Bromley in the same conveyance that took me down ; and I have been occupied since eleven in the Museum. &quot; February 27th. While I was at Bromley I slept at Mr. Palmer's. On Sunday we dined with my aunt, and had a green goose, four months old, to dinner ; it was of a Chinese breed, and the most tender and well-flavoured bird of its kind that I ever tasted. Yesterday evening I spent with Robert in his lodgings. &quot; The weather still continues dry and cold ; the wind is in the east. I have written to Mr. Russell informing him of the Bishop's contribu- tion to the church. We have now 800Z., and want 700/. more. I reckon-in the materials of the old chapel. It is quite indispensable that I continue here till after this day week, in order that I may have the Dean and Chapter's answer, and appear before the Society for enlarging Churches: if therefore, my duty cannot be got done on Sunday, March 11th, I must abandon my plan of returning by way of Oxford. You will by this have learned how Mr. Hedley is situated;* * The following very kind letter from Mr. Hedley, which must have been thought of whilst Hodgson was writing, would set his mind at ease on the subject of his church duties. From the Rev. A. Hbdlet. Mt dear Hodoson, Summer Hill, Feb. 28, 1821. To save post, I have little more than time to say that I have it now in my power to give you an unlimited extension of your furlough. You may riot among .1 . N. . r ; 3J5, SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 343 . ^_ if he cannot supply my place, perhaps Mr. Collinson would do it or one of his curates. Mr. Harrison is indebted to me two or three , _ Sundays' duty, for the very inconvenient liberty which I gave Mr. Gib- ' &quot;&quot; son to assist him in April and May, 1819. Mr. Snowdon, I know, would ask Mr. Collinson ; and I have no doubt but Mr. Heslop, at **.V&quot; Hebbum Quay, would ride down to Mr. Harrison's to ask him, if it &quot;' -were necessary. It gives me pain to think that I may cause you and many of my friends much trouble; but I am not asking assistance for myself, but for the parish ; for the ultimate success* of the subscription towards a new chapel depends now very much upon my staying here, to give explanations to, and to get an answer from, the Society in Lincoln's Inn Fields. On the receipt of this, I must, therefore, press you for an answer. '' I had written thus far, and was rising to go to the Land Revenue Office, when I received your very welcome and acceptable letter. It is a great relief to me to hear of your father's recovery ; and either Bessy or Bichard must go down and say how glad I have been to read mamma's account of him. But, my dear Jane, I cannot be exempted / i*^' &quot;&quot; from being a sharer in suffering, until I hear that your accustomed good health has returned to you. In being here I have no other consola- tory reflection than that I am persuaded you will have as much atten- i .':!^'.' tion shown you, as can be hoped for, both from our dear children, and jji'--- from the servants. When I was last here, I constantly wished that \^d you had been with me. But as I am now occupied all the day, and the weather is extremely cold, I am glad you are at home; for it is comfortless to be in London for any lady in such extremely cold rro':^ I.. &quot;- ' •■ .-il l:— ' i'-' w &gt; &gt;' &gt;'- the luxuries of the Brit. Mus., &amp;c. till Easter, if yon please. What a Joyous and most uncanonical Lent for an antiquary ! Keep yourself quite easy as to every part of your duty, and reserve all the energies of your mind to gather in the harvest you have gone so far to reap. The pleasure I feel in serving you on such an occasion is a rich and most abundant reward. I am obliged to you for your little tid^hiJt about Warke Castle. Wheii you spend an evening by yourself and have nothing better to do, I shall thank you for a few ' more of the crumbs that are falling from your rich table. You will, of course, secure the i&gt;edigree of the Shaftoes. In Caligula, B. ii. 257, are the &quot; Names of Pensioners, with their fees, on the Borders.'&quot; See if there be anything worth copying as an addition to Browne's List ; but I have no time for a word more, except to add that I am now as ever, yours very faithfully, Ant. Hedlby. P.S. When you see the Swinburne &amp;mily, pray give my affectionate remembrance to them all. 344 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. weather, unless she has a gentleman to accompany her, or a carriage of her own. After spending three hours in the Land Berenue Office, and running back to the Museum for half-an-hour, I dined, and then -went to see Mrs. Gordon at half-past six. I stayed about three-quarters of an hour, and had a cup of tea with her. Mr. G. was not at home; George is at school. Their little girl is much grown and has very pretty manners — no forwardness, no cockney tongue or airs in them : but very modest and gentle. The little boy James took more notice of the cat while he was in the room, than of me. '^ On my return to my lodgings at half-past seven, I found the damsel that waits on me had lost the use of her eyes. It was with difficulty I could persuade her that the pen and ink was not a candle and a candle- stick, and she was quite amazed that the top of the pen would not bum. I fear that to the crime of drunkenness she adds that of dis- honesty, for I have had a pound of coffee since I came, and though I have never used it but at breakfast, and been several times out at breakfast, I have none lefl; but I have locked up everything. Her mistress, while I am writing this, has come to me, in great distress, having not discovered her state till she had lighted me up-stairs. My landlord, Mr. Deville, in seeking for his great-coat, missed Isabella, and came up stairs halloing '^Isabell, Isabellf' She had hid herself or gone to her bed-room in the garret, and Monsieur, for he is a Frenchman, was mightily amazed at Isabellas entrance into his presence, with her light in one hand, and her pot-de-chambre in the other. ^' I foirgot to say to you that I met in the narrow part of Chancery Lane the great procession carrying the address to Her Most Gracious Majesty. It was near to Temple-bar when the formidable cavalcade, accompanied with the drowning din of all sorts of music, first presented itself to my astonished senses ; I was afraid of being run down, and therefore lodged myself in a recess. A turn in the street prevented the whole j)rocession being seen in the street at once : it was preceded by a few dirty men, boys, and drunken-looking women; then came music and banners, many of them bearing mottoes taken from Southey, &amp;c. A more wretched crowd under richly-decorated ensigns you need not imagine. The few persons in the procession were dressed in their best clothes ; but their long hair and dark beards showed that they were in their holiday's dress. No more notice seemed to be taken of them than is usually taken of the clowns and trumpeters that ride about towns and fairs giving notice of the wild beasts to be seen ; the SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 345 passing crowd stared and went on; there were no plaudits, no ex- pressions of unison in sentiment or sympathetic feeling between the populace and the addressers. &quot; February 28th. This morning the streets and houses are thinly covered with snow. Yesterday was the first time since before Christmas that I ventured out without a great-coat; it was very cold but dry, and I could keep myself warm with walking. After break- fast I called at ten on Sir H. Davy; he was not out of his room, having been much indisposed. On returning to my lodgings, I find, as I had left a note to request, a letter of introduction from him to the Library of the Royal Society. ** From Grosvenor Street I proceeded to Craig's Court, where I saw. Mr. Burke,* who is a much older man than I thought. After getting to see that I was really the person I described myself to be (for at first he seemed very cold and suspicious that I was an impostor), he was very friendly with me, and pressed me to dine with him to-morrpw, which I could not do, having previously engaged myself for that day with the Bishop of Durham. I did not see his mother, whom he represents as still enjoying good hetdth, but so lame and infirm as not to be able to leave her room. If nothing came in the way to prevent me, I have promised to dine 'with him on Sunday. '* The Auditor of the Land Revenues Ofiice, at which I have been writing for the last two days, is in Spring Gardens, very near to Craig's Court. I was permitted to remain in that office till four to- day, and have got access to it in the morning in friture : it contains a great deal of interesting material for my work, and every facility and attention is shown to me. &quot; Since ten it has been snowing gently all day : near the river the streets are full of sludge, and in the upper parts of the town, where the passage is fr^uent, the snow half-melted; but it lies white and dry on the tops of the houses. &quot; I have been very sleepy this evening, and got little written ; indeed I can think of nothing I have to write, but to tell you of what I have been doing. Of news I know nothing, as I see newspapers more seldom than I do when at home. &quot; Have you ever seen Widow Haggerston, of High Felling, or Widow Robson, at Windy-nook? Should you be able to get to church on Sunday, pray send Haggerston half-a-crown out of the collection. * A reUtion of Mn. Hodgson. 346 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. &lt;^ At nine I am going to the Wedneadaj evening paity of the Bojai Society at Sir Uumphry Davy's,* where I hope to meet some one or other who can supply me with a frank for this letter; if not, I will endeavour to spare time to call upon Mr. Ellison for the purpose. '' Pray tell Mr. Hedley that I meet with nothing I can fix upon as a paper for the Antiquarian Society, as he requested, unless such a one as this would answer his purpose. &quot;A Survey anno 6 Jacobi L 'Hexham Manor and S^alitie,' anciently parcel of the possessions that belonged to the Archbishop of York and which came to the crown by exchange made between King Henry VUL and Cardinal Wolsey, then Archbishop of York, and in the possession of the crown at the time of this survey.' It is a curious document made by Bartholomew Haggat and Greorge Ward, gent., by virtue of a commission. '' I have nothing more to add but my prayer to you, my dear Jane, that you will take care of yourself, and endeavour to get well as fast as possible. My affectionate remembrance to your &amp;ther, mother, and sisters, my blessing to my children, my kind regard to Mr. Hedley, and all my good smiles to yourself. From thine always, my dear Jane, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; P.S. You can get Mr. ThomhiU or Eichard to copy out from A survey, &amp;c. to this survey, and give it to Mr. Hedley, as my letters are not fit for any person but yourself to see. ** Thursday, March 1st. Not having succeeded in getting a frank last evening, I have opened the covering of this letter to say that I now hope to fall in with something that will answer Mr. Hedley 's purpose very well. Mr. Caley, the Keeper of the Eecords in the Augmentation Oflfice and in the Chapter Office, Westminster, as also the Secretary to the Conmiissioners for Printing the Public Eecords, came to Sir H. Davy's party. When I was in London before, it was in vain that I tried to get him to stand straight before me ; he eyed me askance, as if I was wanting to pick his pocket ; but, when he found that I was a friend of the President of the Eoyal Society, his optics underwent some sort of philosophic change, and represented me as an animal of whicb, with abundance of smiles and sparkling expressions of his eye, he was pleased to express himself proud of being honoured with the acquaint- * Sir H. Davy was at that time President of the Society. SECOND VISIT TO LOKDON. 347 ance, and being in the presence of. He has promised to (Communicate to our Society some very curious and unsunned letters of Lord Dacre's, which were this week found in an obscure comer of the Chapter House ; and I have no doubt but an honorary diploma will attract much valuable information from him; for he is a walking depository of records, and is said, though I do not believe it, to know more of them than any man in the kingdom. Thine dear Jane, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; &quot; My DEAB Jane, 34, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, March 2nd, 1821. &quot; I think I brought up my journal to you to yesterday morning. &quot; The weather these two days has been bad, having rained gently, but constantly, the whole time. At 10 yesterday I went to the Eoyal Society's Eooms, and by an introduction from the President obtained access to the library, in which I wished to consult a MS. for materials respecting Tynemouth. It occupied me nearly two hours, when I went to Mr. Ellison's to get the packet franked, which you will receive to- morrow. I found him at breakfast, as he had been late upon the sub- ject of the Catholic Claims in the House of Commons. At half-past one I went to the Kecord Eoom in Spring Gardens, where I continued nearly to four, and was much hurried to get to the Bishop's by five. Mr. and Mrs. Tristram (whom you saw at Tully's sale), and Mr. Terrot, the lecturer at South Shields New Chapel, dined there. The Bishop seems in perfect health, and is veiy cheerful and fuU of spirits. The conver- sation turned upon longevity, and his nephew the Honourable Mr. Russell Barrington told a tale about a rich man of sixty manying a girl of eighteen, who expected at the time to live him out, and then marry a young man to whom she was attached. * Now,' said the Bishop, ' you have told a tale about an old man marrying a yoimg woman of eighteen^ I will give you some verses which I have here, and which were related to me a few days ago, about a man of eighty going to marry a lady of eighteen.' The old gentleman addressed his friend thus — ^his name was Gould:— ' Can yon credit the tale, my dear friend, when you are told That a girl of eighteen is in love with old Gould ?* &quot; The friend's answer was : — ' A girl of eighteen may love gold, it is true ; But trust me, dear friend, it is gold without u.' 348 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHH H0D080N. ^ The Bishop's memoiy is verj accurate. He is 87 jean dd. He said he was ordained a deacon in 1756, being then twenty-two and Sr-half jears old. He was consequently ten years (dd at the Rebellion of 1745. I left him a little bef&lt;Hre eight; and before bed-time ran over an unpub- lished index of the Records in the Tower, by the late Mr. Lysons. ^ To-day I was occupied in going back and forwards about the chapel. The subscriptions now amount to 1,005^; the Dean and Chapter haying promised to give at their July meeting 1052., and Dr. Haggitt has sent me a note, saying that he will give me 202. There are now I hope few difficulties in the way; though I fear I shall not accom- plish my scheme of seeing a chapel built this year. To-morrow^ I hare an appointment at half-past one on the subject with one of the secretaries. '' Robert has been an hour or more with me this evening; and since he left me I hare devoted the time I have been in writing this to the remembrance of you and your dear children. &quot; I must not, however, forget to say that I have this aftemocm had a most kind letter from Mr. Hedley, giving me licence of leave till Easter, if I choose to take it.* I shall certainly endeavour to profit by his kindness, and defer my departure somewhat longer than I first intended. My health is very good. I wish I could have so good an account from yourself and jour father. &quot; When you write again, pray address me under cover to Mr. Ellison. Mr. Hedley's letter came in that manner. ^ March drd. I have not been out this morning. It is wet and un- comfortable ; so that till twelve I have employed myself in writing out some statements respecting the chapel. I have also felt myself a little indisposed ; my old complaint of bile having come to plague me. In future, I fear, you must not expect such long letters from me as I have already sent, as Mr. Hedley must have a few extracts, and Mr. Caley has kindly sent me some indexes to copy out of in the evenings. I am going to see the Secretary to the Society for Enlarging Churches. You will have seen that Scott, who fought with Guthrie, is dead. His second is much blamed here. &quot; I will not omit to tell you a word or two which the Bishop said when I entered the room yesterday. * Oh I here he is; we have just been talking about you: I have been saying that you are not only an excel- lent antiquary, but an excellent poet. I assure you I have read your * See p. 342. \-s SECOND VIBIT TO LONDON. 349 poems * all through more than thrice; and I have been advising the company to do the same ; they are full of genius.* I mention this, not fix)m vanity, because I have no vanity about the work which the Bishop honoured me with his opinion of; and I often wish, on account of its faults, that every copy of it was burnt; but I mention it because he is considered a man of taste, and he could have no object in flattering me; and more so, because the world is much more apt to find fault with inferior poets like myself, than to give them their just portion of praise. &quot; Four o'clock. You will rejoice to hear that I have every encourage- ment given at the Society for Enlarging Churches ; and that I may expect to have the matter finally settled on the third Monday in this month. I am to have another hearing at one o'clock on Tuesday. The gentleman with whom I have had an interview has been at Heworth, and feels interested in forwarding my views. Afler Tuesday he will be able to tell me finally whether my petition is to go before the Commis- sioners or before his Society. '^ Mr. Burke left a card here yesterday when I was out. I have fixed to dine with him to-morrow. It was very wet yesterday, and I got cold by waiting so long about Doctors' Commons respecting the chapel ; so that I am very uncomfortable to-day. London is a filthy dirty place with the rain. &quot; At the Bishop of Durham's party last Thursday there was a conver- sation respecting the Quakers; in the course of which the Bishop related the following anecdotes. Mr. Barrington and himself had a female friend in one of the places where they resided, who was a Quaker ; and he once asked her to tell him the true secret why, under all circumstances, they preserved such a remarkable equality of mind? The reason assigned was ' they took much pains with their children to get them into the habit of neither laughing loud nor talking loud.* Another was, His saddler, who had always attended the Church of England, one day came to him in a drab coat and a broad-brimmed hat : ' Well !' said the Bishop, ' what is the reason of all this change ? have you turned Quaker ? ' He answered * Yes I ' * Now pray sit down and tell me the arguments which persuaded you to leave the Church of England and become a Quaker.' * To speak the truth, I have married the widow of a Friend, and, in order to keep the business together, I have joined the Society.' This reminded me of a saying of Sir Carnaby Haggerstone, who was a Roman Catholic, that ' his wife made more converts to mass with the kale-pot than the priest did with preaching.' * Woodlands, &amp;c. See p. 42. 350 MEMOIR OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. ^* March 4th. This is the third Sondaj on which I have been absent irom 70U : I hope I shall be away only one more. I laid upon the 80&amp; all the aftemooon yesterday, and went to bed soon ; and am now, at nine o'clock, much refreshed, though I cannot get my stomach into a right state. I know I have some cold, and the weather is so thick and wet that there is no getting out to have any exercise. ** I intend to go to St. Greorge's Church, Bloomsburjy which is only a few doors from me. At present, I think I can see you all in a bnstle preparing for the chapel, at which, I have every hope, we shall not have to assemble for many weeks more. *' It will give me pain to see the workmen begin to pull down a place which I have now been familiar with for nearly thirteen years, ad which attaches itself more to me from the certainty I have befoi^ me that it will soon be removed out of sight. &quot; There is something, my dear Jane, very lonely and melancholj in being left entirely to one's self in this mighly metropolis, without anyone to speak to, and neither in the best enjojrment of health nor spints; but it is a situation in which much improvement of the mind and mucli inward satisfaction may be gained. When we are shut up from the view and a share in the business and the hurry of worldly affairs, we the more readily and the more clearly turn ourselves to the contemplation of the end to which all our labours and our own lives are tending. It is when we are thus lefl alone that the questions * From whence are we, and Whither are we going ? ' come upon us with more force, and represent themselves to us with more importance, and furnish us with answers more convincing to ourselves, than ever can be obtained in the common and almost momentary allowances of time which we commonlj gi^^ ourselves for meditating on our present duties and our future destinj' If the sabbath, with aU of us, were spent as it ought to be — partly id public worship and mainly in private and solitary devotions, in reading the Bible, and in contemplating the love of God to sinful man, I &amp;^ persuaded that nothing could so greatly tend to our happiness or lead to such beneficial results in our several pursuits in life. For, if a servant, for instance, was anxious all the week to get everything done that she might have nothing to do on the Sabbath, and on the Sabbath endeavoured to learn for what purpose she was created, and how, a^d by what course of conduct, she would be most happy in this world, she would soon get to understand that her best interest, and her purest enjoyment of life, arise from a faithful discharge of her duties during the other days of the week ; and this course of exercise would lead to T',. .s SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 351 wider views of the love of God, and more anxious desires to do His ;^ will. Of all the subjects that can engage the human mind there is . ^ none which contains everything that it should admire, or is so capable of satisfying its large desires after knowledge, as the scheme of salva- ! , tion which the Almighty has submitted to our choice through Jesus Christ. It is there we learn that all the knowledge we enjoy of Grod, of what we are and what we shall be, is grace, is a favour, is some- thing that we have not in common with all mankind, that we derive :; not from birthright and bring into the worid with us. The worid neither by wisdom nor by nature knows God. He is only known by revelation. By nature the nations who bow down to idols, and still sit in the shadow and in the darkness of death, have flesh and blood and all the other faculties and properties of life in common with ourselves. But the grace of God, that free gift and favour which we enjoy beyond our natural functions of body and mind, has not hitherto been vouch- safed to them ; and it is this talent, this piece of gold, this field, which it is our business and our wisdom to improve. It is in this point of view too, in which all the beautiful allusions in Scripture to the kingdom of God, and its progress in the souls of men, are to be taken. This know- ledge, when the heart has once taken hold of it, it covets with more desire than a miser loves his gold ; and that Spirit, which, like the wind, blows where it listeth, and no man can hear the sound thereof, or ' tell whence it cometh or whither it goeth,' day and night breatheth upon it, and causes it to grow up and increase, gradually and imper- ceptibly indeed, till that which in the beginning was small as a grain of mustard-seed, attains to such a height that the fowls of the air come to lodge amongst its branches. '' I have been to church ; Robert went with me. The sermon was good and sufSciently striking ; the text, * And as Paul reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled.* In one part of the discourse the preacher compared the conduct of Felix, and his fearfulness at the reasoning of Paul, to the self-conviction of Joseph's brethren at selling him into Egjrpt, when they were accused of being spies. * We were verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul when he sought us, and we did not hear, iic- therefore is this distress come upon us.' Their conscience flew in their i:;: faces. Belshazzar, too, when he was sitting in the banquet, with his •X nobles, saw a mysterious hand, in still more mysterious characters, writing on the wall of his palace, and the consciousnes of his guilty life led him to interpret the writing as some accusation against him, so 352 MSMOIB OF TH£ BEY. JOHN HODGSON. that his ooontenanoe was changed and his thoughts troubled him, so that the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees smote one against another.' And Herod, when he had put John the Baptist to death, when he heard of Jesus, was struck with the injustice of his sentence, and became afraid. ' This,* said he, ' is John the Baptist whom I beheaded; he is risen from the dead, and, therefore, mighty works do show themselTes in him.' &quot; TwelTe o'clock. Now, my dear, I haTe been to dine at Mr. Burke s, and will relate to you, before I go to bed, what I have to say respecting my visit : — ^I went, by appointment, at half-past four, and found Mr. Burke and your aunt alone. She receiTed me very kindly, and was yery full of inquiries after all her friends at Heworth Shore, especially after the state of health in which I left her brothers and sister. But I shall be able to recollect all these things when I come home, and to give you more full details. She looks well, is in a perfect state of health, and not so lame as I expected to find her. Her spirits and appetite are very good; in appearance I should say that she bears a striking resemblance, in features, to Mrs. Bewicke, of Gateshead, only that she is much older, rather more jolly, and has more regular lines and better expression of coimtenance, than Mrs. B. At five, a gentleman, a Mr. Thomas, and his lady, came; and, I should have said, about five minutes before them Mrs. Burke made her appearance, a much younger person than Mr. Burke. She has two children, a boj called William, and a little girl, a perfect doll, about two years old, very talkative, playful, and engaging. At half-past five we sat down to dinner. Will you have a description of the dinner? — Soup at the head of the table and roast beef at the foot, with a ham in the centre, and four vegetable dishes ; two with potatos and two with greens. The soup was removed with two barn-door fowls, and the whole of that course with an apple and a Damascene plum tart; cheese to conclude with, and a dessert of oranges, almonds and raisins. I staid at tea, and to half-past eleven. Supper, of sandwiches and tarts, was introduced just before I came away, when I left the whole party. Tour aunt ate heartily of the sandwiches, remarking that her meat always agreed well with her, and that while she lived, which could not be long, she would not deprive herself of it. ** I have promised to call upon her before I leave London. I must relate two anecdotes which she told me. Admiral Delaval and his servant coming late one night past Benton church,* they observed a * Near Newcastle. SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 353 light in it. He desired his man to get off and see what was doing : but the man refused, sajing he did not dare to do it. The admiral therefore gave his horse to his servant, and went himself. Through a window he observed a man and a woman busj about a corpse. He found the door unlocked, and, stepping up quickly to the persons, found them cutting off the breast of a female corpse. The man vanished, and was supposed to be the devil; the woman he secured and carried off, but when his servant was requested to take her up behind him, he again refused through fear: the admiral therefore had her put and tied on behind himself. On examining her at the proper court, she was found to be a witch, and was of course hanged. *' The other tale was this: — The clergyman who preceded Mr. Hall at Earsdon* had a school of young gentlemen. A beggar-woman came to a poor person's house in the village where a child was crying; and its mother, being angry with it, dismissed the beggar with some sharp observations. The old mendicant had scarcely gone out of their presence than the child began to cry, &lt;' Mother, mother, that old woman is tearing my heart out of me ! '^ Alarm was given ; the young gentle-&gt; men ran after the old woman, whom the child pricked in the forehead with a pin till the blood came, when the spell of torment which she had laid upon it was dissolved. ** Grod Almighty make all your slumbers sound, and shield you all with his arm I It is past midnight. &quot; March 5th. I have been from ten to four at the Land Revenue Office, and at seven go to dine with Mr. Ellison. I have little to say; only in addition to what I wrote yesterday night, that your Aunt Burke tells me that when you were in London nobody could get you to speak lest you should be laughed at : but that your sisters never minded their brogue. ** My kind compliments to all at the Shore, and love to you and all the children. How does Ikey get forward? You don't say. Thine, my dear Jane, always, &quot; John Hodgson.&quot; &quot; My dear Jane, London, March 8, 1821. &quot; This will probably be the last letter that you will receive from me from this place, as I purpose going to Oxford on Wednesday * Near Newcastlo, 2a 354 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. week) and I find that Mr. Ellison has very sddom a cover to spare. &quot; Since I last wrote to jon I have been so hurried that I have not had a moment to spare to set down day by day how I have been occupied. But I will endeavour to recollect. One thing, however, let me disemburden myself of — ^I have received another letter from Mr. Hedley, dated on Tuesday last, giving me the option of the same un~ limited absence as his last allowed me. What must I say to him? I have not answered his first letter. The truth is, I have wished to give him some extracts out of the Museum which I made about a week ago, and to send them under a frank, as they are in two sheets; but finding on Monday from Mrs. Ellison that she could not but very rarely be indulged with Mr. E.'s name to an address, I have been dis- appointed, and would not send my thanks unaccompanied with some evidence of their sincerity. ** The affairs of the chapel since Tuesday morning have almost wholly engrossed my time, and I have promised Mr, Bodber, the secretary to the society to which my application for assistance to re- build Heworth is to be presented, to remain in town till Tuesday morning the twentieth instant, when he will communicate to me the final answer which I am to have. But I will throw my aocoimt into the form of a journal. &quot; Tuesday, March 6. I wrote an hour out of an unpublished printed volume of Escheats which Mr. Galey has lent me, and at half-past nine went to breakfast with Mr. Young, the York Herald, in the CoUege of Arms. A Mr. Benson of the Temple, and who is engaged with Sir Richard Hoare and several other gentlemen in compiling a History of the County of Wiltshire, was also of the party. It was nearly twelve before I could get from Mr. Young*s books and his pedigrees, and in my way from thence heavy rain compelled me to shelter at Robertas lodgings till half-past one, the hour I had fixed to meet Mr« Rodber to hear how it was judged I could most efiectually apply for assistance to rebuild the chapel — that is, whether my case should wait to be taken up by the King's Commissioners for building additional churches under a new Act, or that it should be taken before the Enlargement Society — and I found that it was thought every way- most advisable to trust my case to the latter. I had therefore imme- diately to repair to my lodgings and draw up statements showing the whole history and nature of my cure, the quantity and kind of the popu- lation of the parish, and certain answers to a printed form of questions. SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 355 the last of which had to be signed by the Bishop, Mr. Ellison, Mr. Brown, and myself; at which work I fagged hard till five o'clock, when I went to dine with the President of the Royal Society. A Mr. Clifford was to have been there, but did not come, so that I had the benefit of enjoying the whole of the attention and conversation of Sir H. Davy and his lady. I must be very brief in the account of my visit. Mrs. Beecher, who was Miss O'Neil, was spoken of, and X»ady D. wondered how a person who had enjoyed so much of the applause and popular good opinion of the country could be satisfied all at once to give it up and retire into the quiet and unobserved retirement of domestic life. She indeed had heard that Mrs. B. never liked the life she had chosen, that it was painful to her feelings to be set up every night as a show, and in that capacity to have the plaudits of the mob lavished upon her ; ' but, for my part, if I had once been the object of so much public admiration, I should not have been easily satisfied with giving it up. I own that I have a taste for popular applause, and that I had rather have the hearty and undisguised shouts of the many, than the cold and capricious praise of the learned and reflecting few.' Sir Humphry agreed with her that the taste she described was one which prevailed among mankind ; and Sir Francis Burdett was an example of it — a gentleman who, he believed, considered the voice of the public as the only oracular one, the only true standard of truth and merit : but for his part, both his taste for approbation and his opinion of the public as fit judges of men's merits and of all kinds of public questions were quite of a contrary kind. *' But I must not go on with anecdotes and conversations ; I will only say that Sir H. D. told me that when he first came to London he lodged in Southampton Sow, in rooms for which he paid 14^. a- week, and that his friend Mr. (did he say the present Clerk of the House of Commons?) had rooms near him on a second floor, for which he paid only 32« a-month. Both of them complain of being unwell — my lady of a cold, and Sir H. of a pain in his stomach and bowels. He how- ever ate very plentifully, so that I should say that his disordered state of body is produced by confinement and anxiety : for on the Tuesday he dines at the club of the Royal Society, on Wednesday has a party at his own house, and on Thursday presides at the R. S. ; besides the calls upon him now are very numerous^ and this routine is from the middle of November into June. Trust me that the office of P. R. S., while it is surrounded with the glories of honour and distinction, is followed by a numerous and gloomy tr%in of disquietudes, and that 2 A 2 356 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN H0D080K. these gentleman-ushers seldom fail to fill the food of their lord with condiments of indigestive and painful qualities. This evening I wrote from eleven till half-past twelve. '' March 7tb. I continued to-day at the case of the chapel and plans of the parish till half-past eleven. At twelve I called upon the Bishop. I found him at his Greek Testament and with a tract by Orton and others on Ash Wednesday before him. He was in his audience- room and his porters and servants in attendance, doubtless in case any heathen should call on that day. ■ He was very cold with me, and asked me if I knew the tract which I have mentioned, and said it was a very excellent work and recommended it to my perusal — ^I might get it at Hatchard's. I felt the reproof. I ought not to have gone, at least till twenty minutes afler that time: perhaps it was nothing more than my own consciousness that I had been spending one . of the most solemn days of our Church too secularly that made me feel the Bishop's remark as a reproof. He however signed the consent very pleasantly, talked about Mr. Baine's History, and the delay which the engravers cause * to you antiquaries,' and dismissed me with the assurance how heartily he wished well to me and all my undertakings. &quot; Though I felt, and always shall, conscious that he was displeased with me as a clergyman for calling upon him during the time of service on Ash Wednesday, yet it is difficult to be in his company without being both pleased with him and one's self. His conversation always tends to have this effect : yet, among the numbers that enter his doors and are admitted to hia table, how impossible it is that he can realize the expecta- tions of even a very small part of the tithe of those whom his seductive conversation has flattered into hopes of preferment. I do not mean this observation as a censure; though I do think tliat a great man, who has much preferment at his disposal, should be careful not to touch the vanity of persons, whom he may suppose candidates for his favours, too magically ; for there is nothing more sickening and full of death than hope oflen raised, deferred, and at length disappointed. There is an old maxim applicable to some who have shared the good opinion of the disposers of rewards, but have been suffered to perish under the languishment of hope thus deferred—* He is praised, but starves,' which great men should carefully, as a matter of charity, beware of inflicting ; for it is better far that great talent should live and die in obscurity than that, after it has figured on the theatre of life, and received the praise and approbation of the world, it should be left to retire out of notice and to consiune the oil of its own life in lighting up tjie darkness into which it is driven back' SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 357 On leaving his lordship I repaired to Mr. Ellison's, and readily obtained his signature, and in passing through the Strand went in to see the Panorama of Naples now exhibiting there. When I reached Mr. Brown's in Fenchurch Street, he had gone out on some parish business, and was not expected till four, so that I had about two hours and a half to wait, which time I employed in reading an account of the South Sea Islands, Owyhee and Otaheite, by the Missionaries, about the year 1797* Their description of the vegetable productions is very curious and very interesting: for it would appear that they are so well supplied, and with so great variety of excellent roots, that the garden productions of this country, which had been introduced among them from time to time, were neglected, as very inferior to their own, and as almost unfit for use. When Mr. Brown came, I had a difficulty in persuading him that his consent to pull down and rebuild Heworth Chapel should not be some disadvantage to him, though he had not an inch of land in the chapelry, nor could ever be called upon to contribute towards its rates. I could see that he could not find a reason why I should take so much interest in a matter which should not bring some great pecuniary benefit to myself. How shocking it is to see a human mind driven by the mercenary tyrannies of a worldly spirit into so narrow a space that it has scarcely a loophole left out of which it can get a glance upon anything that is liberal or strictly rational ! Afler I had got his name, as his brother had before requested me, I showed him a list of the sub- scribers to rebuilding the chapel, upon which he very crossly and inso- lently said, &quot; Gome, Sir, you came only to ask for my name ; be content without begging.&quot; His brother explained that he had requested me to write out the list and show it: and he saw well enough that I looked indignant at his remark. As soon as he found he could get off without being importuned for his money, he was all smiles and mildness. I do not believe that he would have signed the consent, if he had thought that no advantage was to arise out of it to himself. &quot; At ^ye I had my dinner on my way home : and at six called on Eobert, and, though I got a part of my work done, yet I became so over- powered with sleep before ten that I judged it best to take one long night*s indulgence, and therefore went to bed at that hour. &quot; May 8th. I finished my statement respecting Heworth and the necessary plans to illustrate its situation with respect to Jarrow, South Shields,* and its own population, to-day at one o'clock. They occupied * South Shields, it will be remembered, was another chapel of ease within the parish of Jarrow. 358 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. three cloBely- written sheets of foolscap paper. At half-past one I was at Mr. Rodber's chambers; but he did not come to them-to day, owing I suppose to its being very wet. I have been an hour at the Museum to copy a paper for Mr. Hedley, and am now at the end of my narratiye for this day. ** I have however forgot to mention that in the Strand, in my way from Mr. Ellison's to Mr. Brown's, I called to see a very interesting panorama of the Bay of Naples. It is indeed a very interesting sight. Mr. and Mrs. Ellison had told me that it was a very faithful representation, both of the features and colouring of the country, and Sir U. and Lady Davy both gave the same account of it, observing that it gftve the charaetei of Vesuvius and Mount St. Michael, as well as all. the distances, veiy faithfully. I had there before me the house the Queen of England occupied at the time she went to the masquerade, and the moles and forts so near that I could see distinctly how each person upon tbem was occupied, and the wood of ships in the harbours, the Royal Palace, &amp;c. &amp;c«, and at a distance the Appennines and the mountainous defiles through which the Austrians would have to march upon Naples. The sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii were so distinctly pointed out under Vesuvius, that I shall always imagine that I have been almost within sight of these celebrated cities of antiquity : but it is in vain to give you any adequate or intelligible notion of this interesting picture; for even the key of it which I got at the room gives a very imperfect notion of the original. &quot; Sir H. Davy told me, that when he first came to London he lodged in Southampton Bow, and paid 14«. a-week for his rooms, and that Mr. (I think he said), Clerk to the House of Commons, lodged near him and only paid 328, a-month for his rooms. Both of them had second floors. &quot; Lady Davy, in talking about the different d^rees and kinds of de- sire persons have for having praise, said she must freely own that she had rather have the applause of the multitude than of the few — that the expression of the mob was more sincere than that of the learned and wealthy. Sir Humphry said his feeling was directly of an opposite kind — a mob could not judge whether a person was deserving of the praise for which he was a candidate and became an object, or not: it most commonly followed at the heels of impostors and cried them np: and besides, its good opinion was not lasting ; it was fickle and incon- stant, though he owned tfiat he believed that many persons had a taste for popular applause, and he believed that Sir Francis Burdett L 8KCOND VISIT TO LONDON. 359 thought there was more honour in the shouts of the mob as he went to the House of Commons than there was of glory in being applauded by the most upright of his fellow-senators. ^* March 9th, Friday. In the morning I was at the Museum till one^ &quot;vsrhen I went in quest of Mr. Bodber, whom I found at his chambers, and after a few minutes' conversation with him lefl him with the strongest hopes that I shall get something very handsome from the society to which he is the secretary. I have at present 1005/., and have given in Stokoe's larger estimate, that of 1,666/., with the addition of 19Z. for a stove. After two I copied some curious papers for Mr. Hedley, and am now, at six o'clock, left for the remainder of the evening to myself and my books. &quot; March 10th. Yesterday evening I wrote out of the books Mr. Galey lent me till a late hour — ^till after twelve : and was at them again this morning before seven : at ten I was at the Auditor of the Land Revenue's Office, and since my return here at half-past four have finished my extracts from Mr. Caley's books, and sat with Robert till half-past ten. I write this after eleven, and, as I shall not post it till Monday at the soonest, I will leave it open for such reflections as may occur to me on the important duties of to-morrow. '^ Mr. Hedley in his letter reminds me that I should write to Mr. Jackson telling him that I had prolonged my visit longer than I in- tended, but he told me that he could take my duty till May if I chose, and he would continue to do it as long as he was sent for. Pray say, my dear, to Mr. Hedley how much I am sensible of his kindness, and that he shall have the free use of all my MSS. when I get home ; and that I shall on no account stop in London any longer than Wednesday morning, 21st instant. I am executing his commission; but fear that with my knowledge of London, and especially of its ecclesiastical matters, 1 shall prove a very unsuccessftd applicant for him. Before his last letter I had been making inquiries, and have extended them since. Franks are so bad to get, or perhaps 1 am so bad an asker for them else 1 should send Mr. Hedley some of my extracts as 1 make them : for I find the masses of interesting unpublished documents are so nume- rous that 1 must in most cases be content with giving the mere titles of them and saying where they are to be found. During this week 1 have got a list of all the causes that have been tried in the Court of Ex- chequer on tithes, commons, and boundaries in Northumberland from the reign of Henry VHL to the beginning of the reign of George HL, as well as of all the decrees that issued out of that court upon Northum- berland affairs. 360 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. ** March 12th, Monday. I must, my dear, endeavour to be very brief. My time is of great importance; but I cannot keep my thoughts from home, and must devote a moment to you and our dear children. Yesterday I breakfasted with Robert. After ten I called for a moment at Sir J. Swinbume^s, and went to the Lock Hospital Chapel, where the prayers were very well read, in a devout and natural strain of piety; espt'cially I thought the poetry of Isaiah charmingly delivered; and there was a thrilling tone of feeling in the reader^s voice given to all the awful solemnities recorded in the narrative and dialogue of the second Lesson.* The preacher delivered his discourse extemporaneously : his text was the six first verses of the second Psalm, which he explained to belong to the several circumstances respecting the reception of Ghrist^s kingdom upon earth. I have not either room or time to give you an abstract of the discourse. The only person of note whom I saw- there was Mr, Wilberforce. In the afternoon I intended to have gone to St. Martin's Church to prayers: but in my way thither, and near that church, I observed a number of Quakers flocking through a narrow alley and followed them to the meeting. It lasted a full hour-and-a-half, and not a word was said. It was however impossible not to be struck with the solemnity that reigned in the place — ^not to consider that one was iu a house dedicated to God, and amongst a congregation of Christians employed in silent and inward prayer: and before 1 left the meeting I had got my mind into a temper that induced forgetfulness of the dulness and want of effect that struck me when I first entered the place. I was in fact loath to rise, and allow ideas of natural objects to break in upon the happy train of meditations into which I had fallen. &quot; Now, my dear Jane, tell the children that I have settled to leave this place on the morning of Wednesday, the 21st instant, for Oxford; where I shall stay a day or two at the least : it will be impossible for me to get home, I fear, to do any duty on the Sunday following, so that I must throw the onus for two Sundays more on Mr. Hedley. It will be no more expensive to me returning by Oxford, Birmingham, and Leeds, than by York. Something must be done to the garden. In half a day Boiston would sow such things as are wanted, especially onions. But I will leave everything of the kind to yourself. The carrots too should be taken up. I grow very anxious to get home, and very uneasy about it; but I am so desirous of arranging all matters so that I need not return hither on the errand on which I am, that I think it right to stay another week, if even tlie business of the chapel did not interfere to * Luke xxii. S£CONI&gt; VISIT TO LONDON. 361 : - xevent my getting away till next Wednesday. 1 dined at five yesterday 7 j^irening with Mr. Burke. They had no other person, which was much . leasanter to me than the formality of the former party, especially as . v^e sat down to a plain family dinner. &quot; My kind love to all at the Shore, to the children, and to yourself. Grod bless you all. From thine always, dear Jane, ** John Hodgson.&quot; '* I have been with Mr. Caley this morning, and am waiting to go with &quot; him to the Chapter House in Westminster. I fear this letter will ~ abound with blunderS| and be bad to make out, as I have written in * great haste.&quot; &quot;My dear Jane, 28, Hart Street, 14th March. '* Thank you a thousand times for your very affectionate and acceptable letter, and for your account of the children ; and especially for Mr. Thorp's letter. Every moment I grow more and more anxious to get home, but I am sorry to say (and especially because the account you give of your father'is not so favourable as I had flattered myself I might have expected,) that you must not expect me for a little more than a fortnight. I intend to go to Oxford on this day week, and to stay there for a week ; at any rate, I will endeavour to get you one letter after this, before I leave this place, but while I am in Oxford I shall not be able to get one sent free. You must therefore not expect to hear from me after Tuesday next, till you hear me vivd voce about to-morrow fortnight. To stay and work here would be endless: the more I extend my inquiries the greater store of unexplored infor- mation pours itself upon me ; besides, every time I go out I meet with some one or other who offers, or who is ready to give me, every assistance, and access to materials. I have left a letter with Sir John Swinburne to-day to get franked, and it is a pity I did not speak to him before, because he can, through Sir W. Grordon, the Duke of York's secretary, get franks for letters above an ounce. The letter I am speaking of is for Mr. Hedley, and is pretty long, but not half so long or half so interesting as it should have been, to one who has shown you so many kindnesses, and who, with so much openness and sincerity, allowed me to remain here so much longer than I could reasonably have expected. &quot; On Monday I wrote a few lines to you after getting Mr. Ellison to frank my packet, and posted it myself. Yesterday I was all day in the 36S MEMOIR OF THE REY. JOHN HODGSON. Mufienm, as well as to-daj, copying some letters lespectiiig Border quarrels Sec. for Mr. Hedlej ; and this evening, after dining with Sir John Swinburne, I went with him to the meeting of the Bojal Socie^ at Sir Humphry Davy's ; but, as the President had gone into the country for his health for a few days, and as there was nobody with whom we were acquainted, we left our names and came off very soon. '' For the last few days the weather here has been very fine, which is a great relief, for London is a shocking dirty place in wet weather, and expensive also when one has to hire coaches to take one to dinner; the dirt I often experienced, but the expense only twice ; and I shall not dine out again during my stay, excepting I should go on Sunday to Mr. Burke's. *' The cold I got in St. Paul's left me soon, and since that time I have been in excellent health ; though I do feel myself a little disordered to-day by staying too long on Monday in the Chapter House in West- minster, which is a very large circular room, without fires, and fitted up quite to the top with shelves and racks for books, sacks of papers, and mighty rolls of parchment, which are Hke so many huge pieces of collared brawn, or rather like large Cheshire cheeses brown with dirt, and a cord bound about them to keep them together. I also visited on the same day the Augmentation Office ; from both of which repositories of the l^al and civil transactions of our country I am promised every assistance I may want. &quot; Thursday, 15th March. The weather, my dear, is now delightfiol; somewhat cold during the day, andf rosty in the nights. This morning there is a fog, attended with its usual filthy smell of coal-gas. The sun through it appears like a rising ftdl moon, and reminds me of the length of time I have been here ; for he is now, at half-past seven, high above the horizon. I went to bed soon last night on account of my cold, and therefore am soon at work this morning, and quite well. To-day my evening and morning writing will be done unless I can get a ^ceeih supply fit&gt;m Mr. Caley. &quot; I really am forced to write to you on trifies if I write at all; for my employment and observations are so imvaried, and to you so un- important to describe, that if I write at all it must be either on subjects of invention, or a journal of petty things. I have thought of John Thomhill,* and also of his father, having a book for each, which * A youth who at that time acted as his amanuensis, and ii now librarian of the Literary and Philoaophioal Society of Newcastle. His &amp;ther was the parish clerk and schoolmastw at He worth. SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 363 will be sent down with a parcel containing part of mj wardrobe, to the wharf on Saturday, to come to you by sea. The more I know of the Swinburne family the more I am delighted with them. On Sunday I saw that they had just got Jeremy Taylor^s Works, with which Lady S. was highly delighted^and yesterday they had brought home Law's Serious Call, of which they were anxious to learn the character. The volume was still uncut, and I was disappointed in not finding the account which Boswell gives of Johnson's opinion of it, in the account of Mr. Law's life, prefixed to it; certainly it is in my copy; or if it be not, the com- piler of that memoir has evinced his ignorance in the commonest department of English literature. I would not be Yerj anxious to see the Miss Swinbumes get married, unless I could be sure it was to gentlemen who had education, and feeling, and habits, to watch over and protect so much that is amiable and excellent, and unaffected, with the most affectionate care. Their brother Charles also is a very charming young man, as much delighted with the piety and excellence of Jeremy Taylor as his mother and sisters; and was anxious in his inquiries about the merits of Doyly and Mant's Bible, of which he had lately got a glimpse, and with which he was highly pleased ; inasmuch as it ex- plained the history, habits, and customs narrated in the Bible, in a plain and less dogmatical way than he had before seen them illustrated. (This reminds me that your father's and my copy of Mant's Bible should come hither to be bound ; as Bobert only charges 10s. a volume for doing them very neatly, and John Akenhead said they would cost me 14a. a volume at the least.) What a contrast, my dear Jane, what a gloomy contrast, 1 felt on leaving the company of the Swinbumes, and going into that of Sir Everard Home at the President's house : the Swinburnes encouraging the belief that when man ceases to exist here he commences a new existence — that we do not all die, but that we have immortality in our nature — that some part of us escapes the grave — and, full of this hope, anxiously preparing themselves for being welcomed into the felicities of that new existence; Sir Everard, on the contrary, inquiring no doubt very sincerely afler truth, but seeing truth in that discouraging doctrine, that man is but a more beautiful and more perfect system of organization than the rest of the mechanical bodies that live and move upon the earth ; that his mind and powers of reasoning are only the properties and effects of nice arrangements of matter, which receives the attributes of intelligence in the construction of the human brain, and of speech in the human lips and tongue, but wants them in those of the brute creation. This philosopher has 364 MEMOIB OF THE REV. JOHN HODOSOX. diaseoted thousands of animals to discover their construction, and to illustrate and support the doctrine of materialism; and in the first meeting at which I attended in the President's house he was all tlie CTening engaged in experiments tending to bring back life into a frug that had been for some time shut up with ice in a coating of sheet lead« ^ Friday morning has opened with a dense fog. I spent six hoars of yesterday in the Museum. In the evening I went to the meeting of the Boyal and Antiquarian Societies. Sir John Swinburne soon came after me, and continued with me till the meeting closed. &quot; At the Antiquarian Society, an extract of a letter was read respect- ing the hilt of a sword of curious workmanship, of bronze, found near Capua; also a paper on some rare coins discovered lately in England; and a part of a paper on Grothic architecture, which was illustrated with curious drawings. ** The proceedings of the Royal Society were more interesting. In the President's absence, on account of his health, at Buxton, Sir Everard Home took the chair, and filled it well, for he is a fat, bulky fellow, and, as far as organisation goes, the same order and beauty and exquisite mechanical arrangement, not a doubt ofit^ pervades his frame as does the rest of his species ; but as to symmetry of form, or liveliness of expres- sion in his looks, or grace, or dignity of action, or the wilings and seducings of eloquence, poor man, Sir Everard has as little of any of them as the lowest of his kind. He rolled into the chair, put on his hat of office as if he had been putting on his night-cap, and when he rose to read the list of strangers introduced, he put it off, and laid it down just as you would do a cannister lid. Having short sight and lost some teeth, he made a sad bother of the list. The names (and there were many) dropped from him one by one, slower than shillings come from the die at the Miut, and all more or less nicknamed ; there was a good- tempered half-suppressed laugh during the whole of the performance, oi which Sir Everard sat down as perfectly uncqnscious as the statue of Newton behind him. After the routine of business, such as reading oy&amp; the Proceedings of the last meeting, and proposing and balloting for fellows, was gone through, Mr. Secretary Gombe read a most interesting paper by Sir Humphry Davy, detailing all his experiments and observations upon the papyrus manuscript rolls found in Herculaneum (Pompeii ?). I am not able to give you a sketch of the contents of this curious paper. It abounded with curious facts, deductions, and reasonings derived from the rolls themselves, and the methods he had tried to unroll them ; on SECOND VISIT TO LONDON. 365 the progress of the arts of makiDg ink and the substances used to write upon ; upon the state of the rolls and the foreign matters which had filtered into them. He showed that the ink of the Komans was charcoal combined with glue : but I have no more leisure till the evening, when you shall have my time for a quarter of an hour longer; I fear I cannot spare more. I am in great good health. I wish jour father and you could say the same of yourselves when I get home. '^ 16. This evening I have bought two dolls, both alike, and both of a price, one for Jane and one for Susannah. Also a packet for Ikee, which you will find inclosed with Priestley's Catalogue, and directed for ' papa's man.' It is of the same value as one of the dolls. The parcel will be sent down to Mr. Nichol's wharf to-morrow, so that it stands a chance of arriving before myself, and even before this letter. In it you will also find some old books, which I got of Robert ; one of them a Law Dictionary, price 15s., for Mr. Snowdon, if he chooses to take it; but I wish to have a further sight of it before it gets out of my possession. There is also a History of England for Richard. The parcel will be directed to Mr. Atkinson, as. it contains some books for him, but will have separate covers directed to you; and I will in a letter on Monday request Mr. A. to order it to be forwarded to your father's by Laws. The little parcel, for Mr. Adamson, and that for Miss Bewicke, may be delivered as an opportunity occurs. ** You have not said whether you have seen widows Haggerston and Robson, though I have no doubt but you have. Pray say to Mr. Thornhill on Sunday that I will thank him to be preparing a class of his best scholars to be publicly catechised; and if you can get any method of having Dale and the masters of High Felling and the Shore informed of my wish that they should be doing the same, you would remove from me the uneasy reflection that I had not seen them on the subject before I left. At any rate, it must be one of my first objects of attention when I reach home. &quot; Robert stayed with me from nine till eleven. He is grown a much btjtter goer to bed than he was when he was with us. It is now striking twelve by St. George's Bloomsbury, and St. GUes, in a lower tone, seems to be mocking his neighbour St. George. Still the streets sound with the quick motion of the wheels of carriages, not as at an earlier hour with a continuous din ; for the noise momentarily dies away, and * Past twelve o'clock ' on all sides, and every variety of tone, fills up the interval. But it is only momentarily that the ear of night in this great theatre of activity is suffered to distinguish the sound of the human 366 MEMOIU OF THE BET. JOHK HODGSON. voice at more than a few jardd* distance; for no sooner does the rmited sound of the trampling of horses' feet and the rattling of the wheels of coaches begin to be faintly heard than that of others rises and roars up the short streets between this place and Holborn, like the rising* and retiring of a heavy sea, or of a long peal of thunder. Grood night, tnj love, good night. The blessing of Grod Almighty be with you all ! &quot; March 17th, Saturday. My dear Jane, can you contrive to get a note or a message sent to Mr. Fisher, saying that as soon as 1 get home I will get him the money which I promised — in the latter end of March. The signatures of two clergymen of the diocese and that of the Bishop are requisite before I can procure it at the Bank, which process cannot be well gone through till I reach home. &quot; To-day I called in the morning on Mr. Ellison to get a parcel of seeds, which I knew he wished to send to his gardener. They will come off in a parcel, directed to Mr. Adamson, and containing some drawings for the N. Antiquarian Society ; and under them is a parcel directed to you, containing the plans of the chapel, and some other things which I could not possibly take to Oxford with me, nor durst venture to send by sea. 1 hope Mr. A. will not delay sending them a moment, as it is of im- portance that they should get to James (the gardener) as soon as possible. &quot; After leaving Mr. Ellison I called upon Mr. Grey of Acton, who has been ill ever since he came to London. He was a fortnight at Brighton* and improved ; but since that time his complaint, which is a swelling occasioned by cold in the wind-pipe and soreness in the chest, has re- turned, and he is not able to get out. From him I went to his brother Sir Charles, who promised to furnish me with letters to the Master of Oriel and other persons of influence in Oxford. ** From ten till three I was at the Land Revenue Office, paying my last visit there : at five I went to Mr. Lewis's* to dinner, at Paddington, at whose house I met the Academicians Callcott and Mulready, and Mr. Lewises brother, who is the artist who made the drawings and super- intended the engravings of the forthcoming work of Mr. Dibdin, viz, his Bibliographical I'our to Vienna. The engravings are very numerous and very well executed. It cannot fail of being an interesting book, from the account Mr. Lewis gives of his travels with Mr. Dibdin. 1 grow worse and worse in getting to bed. It was twelve before I left Mr. Lewis's house, and is now considerably past one o'clock. Again, my dear, good night ; and the blessing of God be with you all ! * The eograver who had executed some plates for his lately published Tolume. 8£GOND VISIT TO LONDON. 367 u Monday morniog. I must be very brief. Yesterday I was at two places of worship. At a very large Methodist meeting-house in the morning, where the service was done exactly the same as in our churches, excepting that in the Litany the words ' all bishops and curates* were omitted and ' ministers ' used ; and the minister himself was habited in an ordinary dress of black. He read the prayers very unsolemnly, in my opinion, making no pause between each collect: the Psalms were well read, especially by the congregation ; the preaching, however, seemed to be that part of the service which the minister and the congregation held as of the greatest importance. The congregation before the conclusion was very large, for they were coming in, and partly going out, during the whole of the service, and there was something in the whole that struck me as too familiar and wanting solemnity. After the minister ascended the pulpit he hawcked and spitted very disgustingly, spitting upon the floor of the pulpit, and rubbing it with his foot. '* In the afVemoon I was at St. George^s Bloomsbury, where the prayers were rather well read; but the sermon, by an elderly man, was laboriously performed, and an attempt was made at something sublime and magnificent; and certainly the tones of the speaker's voice were very often deep and mellow — but he filled his cheeks full, and set himself in such a determined posture to discharge his affecting and sublime passages, that to m&amp; the thing appeared to be very burlesque ; ' though I could see it was all seriousness with him, but, poor man, there was little but pompous sound in his discourse. The Methodist I heard in the morning was incomparably the better divine. The text in the morning was — ^^ And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.&quot; That in the afternoon was — &quot; Seek ye the Lord while he may be found, call upon him while he is near.&quot; &lt;' I dined at 5 at Mr. Burke's : we were the same party as on the first Sunday on which I dined there. &quot; 5 o'clock. I hav0 sent off a letter this moment to Mr. Snowdon, informing him that the Society for assisting in the enlargement of churches have granted 400/. towards the rebuilding of Heworth chapel. So that the subscription is now 1145/., (? 1405/.) independent of the materials of the old chapel, the sale of seats, and such additional sub- scriptions as may be gleaned up from persons having interest in the chapelry. Pray tell your father and Mr. Wylam of my success. &quot; I am going to dine with Mr. Ellison this evening, and promise to call at Craig's Court in my way to his house, and inform your aunt of the fate of my application respecting the chapel, and to bid good bye to the family. 368 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. ** Pray think of the seeds as soon as thej reach you. '^ My very dutifiil and affectionate remembrance to your father and mother, kisses for my dear children, and love and tenderness to thee, my dear Jane, from thine always, ^' John Hodgson. ^ The weather is again yeiy cold ; I have been much pinched with it tonSay.&quot; 84, Hart Street, Bloomabuiy, March 22nd, 1821. •* Mt dear Jane, ** I wrote an hasty note to you on Tuesday, and sent it with the plans of the parish directed to Mr. Snowdon. ** Yesterday I went to the Bishop to inform him of my success before the Enlargement Society. He was in great spirits, but I had onlj a moment*s hearing with him, as some gentleman on business drove rapidly to the door and was announced, on which I retired ; not baring really anything in the way of business with his lordship. He cautioned me, not only to hare a man of the law, but one who understood the matter, to draw up the minutes respecting the rebuilding of the chapel. He was engaged writing letters, and while I was with him sealed one, rising 'to the light and handling the wax and seal with as much dexterity as a young man. After leaving him I called for a letter of introduction at Oxford on Sir Charles Grey; but, not finding him at his lodgings, I went to see Martin's much celebrated picture of Belshazzar's Feast. It is really an astonishing thing, quite different from any painting I ever saw; though the perspective is erroneous, the diameters of the pillars being enormously greater than they ought to be, and the colouring all florid, and in detail such as no good artist or critic whose judgment has been formed upon the acknowledged rules of art could commend; yet the mightiness of the space which the picture embraces, the simple grandeur of the architecture, the colour of the granite walls, columns, and piazzas, the flood of light emanating from the mysterious characters traced on the wall, and the bursting of lightning and a thunder-storm over the battlements where the menacing sentence appears, and the consternation into which the king, his courtiers, and the thousands of people that were enjoying the banquet are thrown, make this perform- ance upon the whole, certainly, I say the most singular effort of art that I ever saw. ** Fi-om the British Gallery I was going through the passage at St. SECOND VISIT TO LONDON* 369 Jameses to visit Mr. Barne in the Dean's Yard. Bat the number of carriages passing along Pall Mall towards the EJing^s palace at Carlton House reminded me that His Majesty's levee was. holding; I therefore passed the gates of Carlton House to observe the throng: but little was to be learnt; there was a continued line of carriages passing in at one gateway, each only stopping while the party aUghted from it, and going, out at the other, and then sweeping round to fall into the sarnie order ia their return in which they came. Ajs I passed the Park going by the way of Sprii^ Gardens I observed that several carriages went and returned by the back way to Carlton House: these I supposed were those of His Majesty's Ministers. *^ I called at Dean's Yard respecting Queen Anne's Bounty. Burne is far from a civil man. He is cross and cold: but I urged the considera- tion of the case of Heworth so strongly that he promised me at length with some good temper that he would make himself master of it and see if any thing could be done. • '' On Tuesday night and all day yesterday I was very uncomfortably unwell; but I am in good enjoyment of myself this morning. ^' 22nd. Evening. I have been six hours to-day writing in the office* of the Duchy of Lancaster, and nearly all of the time was violently affected with rheumatic pains in my knees, which have continued ever; since to such a degree as to make me very lame. I have, however, hobbled out to get a few things by way of presents when I get home. ^&lt; March 23rd. This is a delightful morning: but I was so sadly. afficted with pains till I went to slieep last night that I did not dare ^ determine to set out for Oxford till I felt whether I should be able to bear the cold and the fatigue of travelling. I have, however, thank God 1 had a very refreshing sleep, but am too late in rising to take th^ advantage of the coaches this morning. ^' Evening. I wrote in the Museum till one, dined at two, and then: went to call on Mr. Nichol, but, not finding him, proceeded for the first time to the Tower, where I wrote one-and-a-half hours: but Mr. Bayley^^ seeing that I could not accomplish my object, kindly promised to have it copied out by one of the clerks. From the Tow^r I went into Wapping to search for George Glover, and readily found him. Mr. T.. Barnes was with him in his warehouse. That I might see his wife and sister, I consented to go and sit down to dinner with them. They are well: the children two boys and two girls. Bell must be eventually an old maid. Mr. G. set me into Street, I called on Robert at ten, and bid good-bye to him. 2 B 870 MEMOIB OT THE BET. JOHN HODGSON. Oxfi&gt;fd, 24th Maidi, 1821. '' I left London to-day at half-past eight, from the Geoige Blue Boar in Holbom. The moniing was fiae, bat cold. At deven it b^an to rain, and contimied to do so tiU after we reached this place at 4 pjf. I took my seat on the ontside of the coach, and, thongli the wind was both strong and cold, I soffered much less from, cold tliaii I did in my way np to London in the inside of the coach. There were ^w objects in this day^s journey that were particnlarly attractiye; the cold and wet, and especially the heavy wind, made everythizig un- interesting: the preyailing desire I had was that I might be driven as last as possible to my joamey*s end. I will, however, note a few thiiigs which are fastened in my memory. After crossing the small barren conunon of Gerard^s Cross, we passed the fine Park of Bulstrode on the feft: it is an irregnlar ground, and the property of the Duke of Port- land. The coimtry nearly the ^ole of the way from IJxbridge is liilly; the hills consisting of chalk out of which fiints are procured for making the roads. From London to Uxbridge the flints for the roads are pro- cured by passing the alluvium through riddles ; and the quantity thus procured to the west of Kensington is so great that in many places in about eight or nine feet that are dug up, more than two-thirds are taken away. The re-covered space thus dug over is carefully levelled and re-covered with soil — ^the whole of the process being remarkably systematic. Near to Oxford limestone begins to prevail. &quot; Near Loudwater, and towards High Wycombe, the ordinary process of cultivation forms the sides of the steep hills into terraces, a process by which I have no doubt but the terraces on the ^des of the hills in Westmerland were formed. ** On the west side of Stokenchurch Hill, juniper grows abundantlj and in great luxuriance. . &quot; The flints in the alluvia near London, appear to be the remains of ohalk hills in the neighbourhood that have been washed away; more properly the remains of the valleys that have been formed between the hills that remain. The prospect from Stokenchurch HUl is extensive over the valley to the west, north, and south. '&lt; March 25th. I have been to New College Chapel and heard part of a sermon, for, though it was not eleven o'clock, the service was so fb^r gone through that it did not last above half-an-hour after I entered the chapel: there was a large attendance, nearly the whole standing, for the area of the place where the sermon was preached is neither TI8IT TO OXPOBB. 371 nor'pewed* (mly there are k few forms in its centre, and seats in the Tnithner of the stalls in cathedrals all round against the walls: its form is thus : CA drawing with the pen), ' &quot;** The windows are ornamented with very beautiful paintings* of glass ; those in the chancel representing the Apostles and numerous other saints whose names appear in the calendar of the Latin Church ; and in levery window is written in Latin, * Pray for William of Wykeham Bishop of Winchester, the founder of this ' college (O. pro Willelmo de Wiccam Wihton. fundatore istiiis coU^ii). In the west window is a painting of the Nativity, which is seen through an arch in the organ gallery from the altar to good effect* The whole is a most beautiful piece of architecture and art» '^ Since* h^-pas€ twelve I have called on the Provost of Oriel, on Mr. Howley of University College, -Mr. Ellison' of Balliol, all of lyhom I have seen, but have not been able to' deliver my letter from the Bishop of Durham to Mr. Bandinel, Librarian of the Bodleian Library, and another letter to Mr. Lightfoot of Merton - College. At half-past two I was at prayers at St^ Peter^s, where the Bishop of Oxford and the corporation' of the city attended. They were also at New College Chapel in the morning. To-day has been very fine. In a very short time I should become well acquainted with this celebrated seat of learning; but my stay must be as short as possible; for I apprehend I have got to a most expensive inn, though it is the one the coach came to and to which Mr. Burke recommended me. It would be in vain to b^n any description of this place. The walks, avenues, and buildings are all upon a grand scale. The elm tree here is in its perfection. Merton College is a peculiarly neat, ancient, and interesting, building. I do not covet apartments here: but if Providence had thrown a University life in my way, and my habits and pursuits had been such as they are, it does appear to me that such a life would have been best suited to the construction of my mind: but it has not been my lot to be* sheltered und^ academic bowers ; to have my genius fostered and my habits formed by this kind mother of all good arts: and I have nq. right to repine that it has not been so. - '^ Nine o'clock. I have just returned from dining, I think they pall, it, in Commons, that is, the Common Hall, in University College, having been the guest of Mr. Rowley, who is Tutor and Senior Fellow of diat college: I was at the Fellows* table: besides which there are two other desonptions of Undergraduates— the one, caHed the Fellow-Commoners^ ^c, but I jntist not bt!^n to describe, for I anx utterly ij^orant of the 2 B 2 372 H£MOIB OF THE RET. JOHN HODOSOK. terms. Nothing can be more pleaaant. As soon as eating was done the Undetgradnates retiredi and in a short time the Fellows went into their room, where we had some wine and afterwards some tea. - &quot;March 26th. This morning I breakfiuted with the Prorost of Oriel tHoll^e (Dr. Copleston), who at ten went with me to the 1Vv^1«M! Library and introduced me to Mr. Nichol the librarian. When I was in London I asked Mr. Phil^mtts for letters of introduction to the Bo^Lan, and about a week after reoeiTed a note from the Bishop of Dmliam, inclosing a letter to Mr. Bandinel, the head-libnrian there. Yeiy fortonatelj, Sir G. Grey had supplied me with an introduoticm to the ProYost of Oriel, for Mr. Bandinel is at present out of Oiford. I con- tinued in the library till four, and at half-past lour went to dine with Mr. Wilson, a Fellow of Queen's College, and sUjed with him till near eleven. I had letters of introduction from Mr. Kawes of Broml^. Be is a modest and serious person: I dare say a good divine too^ fbor he has just finished printing a work on the Thirty-Nine Articles, the plan of which I think is a good one ; but I had no time to examine whetiier it be judiciously executed or not. He was Proctor of Oxford last y^ar; die person who originated the inquiry into 8L Bee*s School: and a native of Kendal. Below you will see on what aooount I became anxious to be introduced to him. Rawe8P7= WilMii=7= r«p^ wiuoii=T=. — , WiUiam IUwe0=Flflabella Robert Wi]flon=f: I Wilaon. r r I &quot; I I n r — ^ Jol&quot;&gt; Wilaoii.=p 1. Robert. 6. Agnes, o. Elizabeih^IiBftae Hodgwii. | 2. Richitfd. 7. Janet J , 1 8. Wilaon. i ' , WilliMn Wilsoo, 4. Gerard. John Hodgion.&amp;pjAiie Bridget KelL Fellow of Qneen'V 5. Lancelot* r*rnr 1 r i ^ College, Oicfiprd, Richard W. Elizabeth HUda. Maich 26, 1821, John. Jane. tnnnanied* laaae. Snuannah. ''The Bodleian library is in the form of the letter H., and lias galleries around ' it. The roof is of oak, curiously ornamented with armorial bearings, &amp;c. Adjoining it in the same building is an exte:!^ sive galleiy of pictures, and in it the Bawlinson MSS. are kept in presses, but are so ill arranged that I was unable to find the volumes which I had expected to consult. The Dodsworth collections are in the room caUed Gough's Room, which contains the library of the late llfr* Gotfgh, the Editor of Camden^s Britannia, to which there is a printed catalogue^ *^ Before breakfast I walked round Christ Church Meadow» which on VISIT TO OXFOHD. 373 the flonth is bounded bj the Xsia. The walk called Christ Church Walk is a broad grayel walk between two rows of verjr large and aged elms, the finest and largest avenue I ever walked along. There is also a very fine avenue of elms belonging to Magdalene College, and called the Maudlen Walk, in the Maudlen Meadows, bj the margin of the CherwelL The Isis is a fine stream^ fiill of boats; some of them verj large, like floating houses, having windows and brick chimneys ; others, and the greatest number of them, light pleasure*boats, painted green. ^^ March 27th. I have to-day breakfasted in Queen's with Mr. Wilson. He showed me the Hall Library-: in it a fine copy of Wiokliffe's Bible, which has been mutilated by cutting out the first leaf of the Old Testa- ment and a part of the first leaf in the New, for the sake of the illumi* Bated letters* . '*At ten I went to the Bodleian Library, finished there at two, and then made my third unsuccessful attempt to get into the treasury of Merton College. I have been round the upper part of the town, seen the Gaol where there is a singular old tower, called the Castle, and a very laige mound of earth of the shape of a truncated cone. My seat for Birmingham is taken for Thursday. '^11 o*clock« I have been dining with the Provost of Oriel. His other guests were Mr. Bowley of University College, Mr. Ellison of Balliol, Mr. Nichol, one of the Bodleian librarians, and Dr. Bliss of St. John's College* The Provost contrived the topics of conversation to fall on Antiquarian subjects. I could get no opinion either there or at University College on Mr. Hedley's inscription. Dr. Copleston showed the list of the books given to his college by its founder: it is a catalogue xaisonn^, and not only classes the books in subjects^ but gives the price and the name of the illuminations of each MS. He also showed me the first book of accounts of their college: it begins about the year 1400, and the series I think he said is perfect since. ^ Mr. Nichol and myself on leaving the Provost of Oriel went with Dr. Bliss to St. John^s College, and had bread and cheese with him in the oommon room there. It is an excellent room, and well furnished. ^&lt; Wednesday, Mar. 28th. I breakfasted with Mr. Nichol, one of the librarians, &amp;c* in the department of Oriental literature, in which he has the reputation of a. great master. He is a native of Aberdeen, and came to Balliol College, Oxford, as a Scotch exhibitioner, in which capacity he was entitled as a student for about eleven years to about 160/. per annum. He married a Danish lady, who died of a consumption three weeks after they were married; a mild, kind, excellent man. 374 HEHOIB OF THE REV. JOHN H0DG80K. &lt;&lt; At ten I was introduced bj Mr. Ellison to the master of Balliol, whir not only refased me a sight of the records of their possessions, but even a copy of the rftWndftr of them. When he put the calendar of the Mickle Benton box into my hand, I reftised to look at it unless I might be permitted to make use of it. I told him that my avowed object was to obtain evidence how they came into their. possessicHL. The deeds respecting Heugh and Stamfordham are first enumerated ; then those of Mickle Benton. A Balliol gave the first, whidii I think he purchased for 200^, then some of the Swinbumes, &amp;c. The Benton property was granted by the Somervilles. Their grants are curious ; but be advanced the case of Brand's History losing rights to Newcastle as a reason for refusing me. He could not see haw it could be interesting to the kingdom that such documents should be published, and it was in vaia that I pleaded the precedent of such documents forming the main interest of Dugdale's Monasticon, that they were historical evidences as well as title-deeds, and that no manner of loss could come to their body by their being published. It did appear that thiere are three keys, and that I could not have gained access to their deeds without the consent of their corporation as a body; but as an individual his mind was. decidedly against permitting me to see or use anything. . '^ At eleven I went to the Bodleian, copied, and conversed with Dt&lt;» Bliss. The Bawiinson MSS. are rich in topography. At half-past four dined in the Hall in Balliol College. Mr. Hugh Moises was there as a guest, Mr. Ellison, Mr. Cleeve, and Mr. : Mr. Qeeve thought the master had done perfectly right Wine, dessert, and tea in the Common Hall. Mr. Ellison desired me to state in writing to him what I wanted, and he would lay it before the college when they mei as a body. ^' Leland^s MS. works are in Grough's library, in a plain, strong handwriting. Mr. talked much this evening about the respectability of Mr. Hodgson's character and his work, and that if a person not so well known, and so well reconmiended, had asked the favour they might have hesitated in giving an answer. But civility and compliment are not always inseparable from a narrow-mindedness; I do conceive that the college had planned a refusal. The condescension I had shown me in the Common Boom convinced me that it was so, and fruit, wine, and tea, and smiles, and compliments were given to me in lieu of records. Poor souls I I tried all I could to put them out of pain that I thought them illiberal, that their refusal was not grounded on reason, by saying that I could not expect that all persons could be VISIT TO OXFORD. 375 brought to have the same feeling for my work, and for illustrating its history, as myself: that I had no right to expect every one would give me what I asked , however reasonable in fact- my request might be; that I considered their evidences as historical facts, that the statute of limitations, &lt;&amp;c. secured to them their possessions, and that Dugdale^s wol'ks had published the deeds of the monasteries, &lt;&amp;c. without injury to the proprietors, &lt;&amp;c. &quot; My dear Jane, Star Inn, Oxford, Wednesday, March 28th, 1821. ^' Yesterday I intended to have set off from this place this morning : but, finding that I cannot get from Birmingham till Friday mprning, the Telegraph Coach only going from that place to Leeds on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, I think it better to stay here over to-day, and set my face homewards to-morrow, than to spend all day to-morrow in Birmingham, where I know nobody and have no objects of . inquiry. You may therefore expect me about nine o'clock on Saturday evening ; I shall get out at the Red Robins, and contrive to find there some person to help me home with my things. Mr. Ellison of Balliol College here tells me the Telegraph usually passes the Red Robins about seven o'clock, but I apprehend it is later. Every atten- tion has been shown me here. You will not get this note till Saturday^ and a few hours afi;er it arrives papa expects to reach home. Thine^ my dear Jane, .&quot; John Hodgson, ' From JAMES ELLIS, Esq. &quot; Dear Sir, Otterboume, 23 June, 1821. &quot; A few days ago I accompanied Mr, Singleton * and Mr. Vernonf to look at «ome minerals collected by a self-taught genius in our village commonly called the Philosopher. It then struck me for the first time that he was the kind of man you wished for to assist you in * Rector of Elsden, afterwards Archdeacon of Northumberland — the Archdeacon Shigleton of Sidney Smith's famous letters, f Son of the Archbishop of York, and Rector of Rothbury. 1^ The philosopher's name was James Thomson. 376 MEMOIR OF THE RET. JOHK HODGSON. the minendogy of this district, and on mj mentioiiing it to the above gentlemea thej were of the same opinion. I dare saj he would be glad of the employment *^ I am happy to fiuniah you with another snbscribery and you will please to insert in your list the name of Matthew Beed, Esq. of Old- town. If you send the present volume to me I will convey it to him. Sir, yours yeij sincerely, &lt;&lt; Jas. Elus.&quot; To JAMES ELLIS, Ea^., of OnsEBOuaifs Cistlb.* **^EhR Sir, Upper Heworth, 4th July, 1821. &quot; Your letter of the 23nl of June did not reach me till last Friday, after which time I had no opportunity that week to send you the oopy of my book for Mr. Reed of Old-town. ** I felt both much rejoiced and very thankful for the offer of ^wsist- ance in the department of natural history from the person at Otterboume which you have mentioned to me; and have inclosed, with the book for Mr. Reed, a small box I contrived last summer for killing insects in without injuring them.f The insects are shut up in the upper part, and some brown paper being lighted in the bottom sHde, when it is flaming and smoking, the top is io be put on, and the insects hy one or two smokings will be found dead; after which beetles, moths, butterflies, and in short all such as have wings, while their joints are pliable, should have their wings extended in this manner. (A drcnving with the pen in the margin,) Fasten the insect upon a well-stained board of soft wood by a pin put through it behind the head; then with a pin put through a piece of pasteboaM fix the wings in an extended position — ^thus. If I could be accommodated with a few of the most remarkable insects fixed in this manner, it would be of much service to me. Moist meadows before the grass is cut generally abound with small butterflies of great variety: one or two of each kind would be sufficient for all my purposes. Butterflies are seen abroad by day; the various kinds * The Editor is indebted to Mr. Robert White of Newcastle for the copy of die letter here made use of. t This may remind some of my readers of Isaac Walton and his worm. I fear, however, that the good old angler did not think so much of the wormls feelings as of the necessity of not giving it pain, that it might be the more lively, and consequeotlj the more tempting, upon his hook. COERESPONDENCB. : 877 of moths bj night. Beetles are commonly found under stones, in rofeten wood, dung, &lt;&amp;c. Biimstone must not be used in killing tbem, and much flame must be ayoided, else the wings of the insect will be singed through the wire gauze. Of shells mj collection is hitherto but small; your neighbourhood must have many; of the tribe mail I know there are several, and some so excessively minute as to escape ordinary observation. A very little attention . to their haunts will soon render any one expert in finding them ; both the land and water abound with them, and there are none, however small and common, that I do not wish to be acquainted with, and to have specimens of from different parts of the country. Of shells I would wish to have half-a-dozeh or a dozen of each' kind. But to obtain assistance of this kind I fear I shall not be able to render any adequate recompence. My expenses, without paying anything for authorship, can never be repaid to me by the sale of the work. ^ When I was in London this spring I copied a pedigree of ihe Seeds of Old-town, which I sent to Mr. Bidley, and have not yet got it back.. I expect it is the only document I have found respecting the ancient family of that name. Sir &quot;William Beed, Knight, had a lease of ' certain tythes at Beadnale, dated 13 Sept., 80 Eliz., copy in the Auditor's office, lib. ii. fol. 108; and there was a grant of lands and houses at Cookley to Balph Salkeld and Edward Eeed, June 18, 34 Eliz. f&amp;. ii. 28. Mr* Beed of Troughend is mentioned in the Lans- downe MSS. at No. 326, which belonged to B. Todd, sheriff, (not certain of this,) who cdlected rent respecting Northumberland, and out of whose MSS. in the British Museum and in the Bodleian Library Howard made large extracts. &lt;^ There are some curious particidars respecting the franchises of the .'.•••...* also of Bedesdale connected with the His1(ory of Cleveland, and in (the) depot in the Duchy of Lancaster Office: they consist of several charters in a full illuminated volume written in the beginning of the reign of Edward L I have not leisure to turn at present to my memoranda made from the authentic copy : but if my memory saves me the trouble, these fiimish some new history where- with Harbottle, or . . .* Castle . • . .* to Mr. Thos. ClenneU.. I write in much haste. With many thanks for your kind assistance and interest in my work. Believe me, my dear Sir, faithfully yours, &quot;John Hodgson.'^ The origiiial letter vnm here worn away. 378 MEHOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSOIT. The following letter and the memoranda by which it is suc- ceeded would seem to prove that in this year Hodgson was thought of for the valuable rectory of Whitfield. But it may be iioubtful whether Mr. Bigge had any real authority for exciting his expectations. To C. W. Bieos, Ebq. &quot; Dear Sir^ Newcastle, 12 Nov. 1821. '* Having bad to call at your bank this morning for my Queea AnDe^s Bounty money, and not having had the pleasure of meeting yoa there, I cannot avoid expressing the strong sense of gratitude and obli^ gation which I feel for your kind intentions towards me respecting the rectory of Whitfield. The more I have reflected upon what you said to me, the more desirable the preferment appears to me. The retire- ment of the' place would be very congenial to my feehngs, and very favourable to my plan of publishing a History of Northumberland; and the additional income which the living would bring me would enable me to send my children to school; which, with my present means, is qiiite out of my power. . If, therefore, Mr. Ord could make it agreeable io his own views to offer me the situation, I beg to assure you that it would, under any conditions as to residence he may think fit to impose 4ipon me, be most acceptable to me; and in the event of my succeeding to it I hope that my best endeavours would always be given to make my incumbency both satisfactory to him, and creditable to your recom- mendation. From, dear Sir, your very grateful and obedient humble servant, ' &quot; John Hodoson.'* ** N.B. I saw Mr. Bigge on the day this letter was written, and he told me that &lt; he believed that Mr. Scott, Mrs. Ord's brother, had accepted the living; but that he had written to Mr. Ord saying that I would accept of it if it was ofiered to me. Also that Mr. Ord had two months since talked of ofiering it'to me, but thought that I would (not?) accept of it on the condition of residing upon it.* — Journal. &quot; 1821,^29 Dec. Mr. Bigge to-&lt;lay told me that his brother-in-law Mr. Scott had passed his examination for Holy Orders and accepted of the living of Whitfield. He still thought it strange that he woidd take it with the condition of residing upon it, and that I woidd not have liked it, as there would have been little more society than walls and woods and heath ; that when I was fatigued with my Btudy I would not . BOMAN ALTABd, liTC, AT KWO^. 37&amp; have Newcastle to go to, to refresh tnyself with the conversation of literary- and scientiiic men. But I tqld him, as I felt, that mj History would occupy a large portion of my life, even if it were spared to an advanced age; that it would keep me in a sort of perpetual motion, and th^t solitude and quiet were very congenial to my feelings; and that* Whitfield would in every respect have suited me better than Jarrow^ and Heworth; but most especially because it wotdi have enabled me to^ provide better opportunities for the education of my family. — Ibid* -' '&lt; 14 Dec. 1821. Set off at seven with Messrs. Hedley, Adamson, and The. Hodgson, to Mr. Thorp's* at By ton to see his Roman Antiquities; for the purpose of guiding us in the price we should offer for those dis^ covered at Hbusesteads, and offered to the Newcastle Antiq. Soc. by Mr.' Gibson of Stagshaw Close House.-^-ii^. ' *^The collection of Koman Antiquities at Ryton belonged to Mr* Brand, and were left by him at his Newcastle lodgings in Hanover Square. The persons with whom he lodged, two sisters, claimed one moiety of them and Mr. Wheatl^y another. Mr. Wheatley gave me hia share, and the two sisters sold me theirs for ten pounds. A day or two* after! agreed to give this sum for them, I was dining with Mr. Thorp and mentioned the price of them; and he, expressing a.widi to. have tbemi' requested me to transfer the purchase, which I readily consulted to.* Mr. Thorp therefore had them for half their value if the Miss 's sliare was worth lOZ. He however Bometiitn^ after made me a present of Wordsworth's Ecclesiastical Biography.— /^tlj. * * * &lt;&lt; 18 DeC;. 1821, To John Apahson, EsQ.^-rDear Adamson,— I have considered upon the sum which the Society ought to ofibrfor the House* steads Boman Antiquities^ and recommend it to be twenty-five guineas. &lt;' About ten years since I purchased the late Mr. Brand's collection of Boman Antiquities for 10/. They contained the c^ebrikted all;a]^ to Jupiter DolichenuSj and the tablet to the Matrea Campesires found at Benwell, four inscribed stones found at Jarrow, and several perfect inscribed tablets and centurial stones, besides imperfect inscriptions, votive altars, Cologne-stone querns, &amp;c. &amp;c. to the number of thirty-five^ pieces. It is superior to the Housesteads collection in the number of it3 inscriptions, but inferior in other respects. For the uninscribed altars and stones bearing figures brought from Housesteads are very imposing in their appearance, but have no value in afibrding any proof or ilhistra* * Now Canon and Arohdeaoon of Durham, Warden of the ITniveruty, &amp;o. — at aU times a kind and steady friend pf Mr. Hodgapn. S80. HEM0I9 OF THIBJ BEY. JO^K HODGdOK. ^on of hiBtoiy or topography. They are, howerer, very curious, anct ^Te a claim to be preserved, because thej have survived the ravages of at least fourteen centuries, find were set apart from common purposes y^j a celebrated people, either from devotion to. their gods and emperors^ or in memory of some deceased friend. Mr. Brand's collection was taken away at the e^cpense of the purchaser; but I include llie carriage which Ibl^s been paid, in . the tw^uty-five guineas, which I recommend the Society to offer. Iam,&amp;c. J. H.** ; '' 1821, Dec. 22. My son Richard having 9s. and 6d., I gave him old English silver, local tokens, and foreign silver, which he sold for 1^. X6s. M* aud with the 9^* and 6d. put it into the Savings Bank in Newcastle^ his no. being 1843. I have done this with the view of getting him into an e^ly habit of saving ; being convinced that nothing is more injurious to religious and moral principle, and consequently, a greater enemy to human happiness, than want of thrift. Avarice is a horrible vice; but it is not so natural as T^aste .and thoughtlessness, and therefore not so common; for where there is one person who sells himself to the love of money, there are hundreds who sell their independence, principles, and happinei^s by an improvident use of the means of human subsistence,— : ^' 1821. Dec. 29. Near all the great Boman Stations there are found the ruins of a bath. The soldiers came out of warm climates, and were accustomed to bathe and wash their whole bodies eveiy day. This habit ef cleanliness they could not forego, even in our colder dimatew^^oiima/. To ROBERT SURTEES, Esq. .&gt; . i . ^MTDKABSm, Peo.ai, 1821. &quot;Your letter sent by Raine I have received, and beg your acceptance of my best thanks for your kind contribution of 102. towards the plates of my Northumberland, and for your promised endeavours to obtun further patronage to it; During the whole of this year I have been very much occupied with rebuilding Heworth Chapel, so much so fiiat i have found it impossible to go on both with it and attending my second volume through the press. More than a few weeks, however, \ very sanguinelyhope will not now pass by, before I shall proceed witb printing. My amanuensis is constantly employed five days a week, so that my materials grow very bulky, and a day seldom passes without a llUrSh CORBESPONDEirCB. : 381 rrRxportion of my own labour being emplojed either in £he outline or .,,.. filling up the detail of the extensive work that I have before me^ Jn * • ,•;-- pulling down the chapel of Heworth, very little in the Way of antiquitiei • • ^ Was found, if a few pieces of a fluted and corresponding moulded penning j^. :^ of a pointed arch, %nd some transoms and spandrils of windows be . &lt; ... excepted. Within the aTtar rails we found a leaden coffin bearing the following inscription on a plate of copper, BALPH BRANDLING| ESQ., DIED FEB. 23d. 1750, AGED 20 YEARS, and removed it with the remains it inclosed within the area of the new chapeL'* -:-jic- »;::'■- V..]. Upon the subject of a contribution to be made by the gentle- men of Nortliumberland to procure embellishments for Mr. Hodg- son's History, Mr. Surtees still continued to feel a considerable anxiety. He himself had received a mimificent donation of not much less than 800Z., from the nobility and gentry of the county of Durham for the illustration of his own splendid History, and ^t: he flattered himself with the hope that such an example would be jisf imitated by the coimty of Northumberlai^^f ^^^ ^^ hoped in vain. ^: After the receipt of the above letter, he thus wrote to his friend :&gt;'&lt; Mr. J. B. Taylor, who was also intimately acquainted with Mr. Edward Swinburne. i'j^ &lt;&lt; Feb. 1822. I cannot find a letter of Hodgson's which explains the &quot;^ subject, or would send it to you. The idea originated with myself. '&lt; Having a great regard for Hodgson, and thinking it a pity Mr. Swin« ^ bume's drawings should not have more justice done them, I sent Hodgson 10/., but of course had no groimd to stand on to begin a general subscription, but advised him to apply to Sir John Swinburne and other gentlemen of the county (see p. 321). He answers me that ^ he fears his first, or rather fiflh, volume, full of antiquarian lore, has been a damper to the public feelings, and he deemed it expedient, before I his friends set anything a-foot, to show the public that some portion of his work would be of more general interest. I do not agree in this, because time is passing; and, if there were ftinds, plates or etchings might be preparing, but, as my powers were absolutely nothing, I could only acquiesce. I never spoke, I think, to any one but Mr. Darnell, who promised, I believe, 5{. 5«. and said*he would canvass Mr. Trevelyan of Wallington, but the proposition ought to come from some powerful local interest,&quot; 38S HEMOIB OF THB BBT. JOHN H0DCH30N. No subscription however was entered into. Nortbuinberland t»Ted not to follow the example of Durham, and its historian was left to work his way in his public undertaking unbe&amp;iended and uncared-for by a county abounding in wealth, and still more in subjects of intense historical interest, many of them rapidly fidling into decay. . * CHAPTER XVI.— 1822. CommunicatiQils to the Gentleman's Magazine. — Oorrespondenoe with Pr. McCuUoch' on Natural History. — The Rev. James Tate, Master of Richmond School, and the Memoir and Monument of Richard Dawes. — Engravings for another volume. — New Chapel at Heworth.—- Consecration Senalon. — Church Restoration. Family Distresses. — Illness of his Children. — Death of two Brothers.^-Sympathy of his Friends. — Discoyei^ of a Mithraio Cave at Boroovicus or Housesteads. — Essay on the subject. — Prospect of Preferment. . In this year Mr. Hodgson communicated to the Gentleman'^s Magazine, under the signature of '^ Archaeus,&quot; accounts of Cope- land Castle, Bothal Castle, Warkworth Bridge, and WiUimotes^ -wick, in illustration of certain wood-cuts of those places which had appeared in his lately-published volume, and of which the Editor of that venerable publication had solicited the loan, a9 embellishments for its pages. That of Copeland Castle,, in particular, contains much valuable information. Other notices of his various communications to the 'Magazine will occur hereafter^ ■ • ' *^ 1822. April 1. Analysed a limestone found in the AMoan wood of which the pulpit is made in Heworth Chapel. It was in a dhake near the core and blunted the saws.^— Journal In the summer of 1822 there commences a series of lettera addressed to Mr. Hodgson by Dr. Thomas McCulloch, an -eminent American experimental philosopher and naturalist, chiefly on the subject of insects and other objects of Natural History;* and. affording, at the same time, some curious information on the state of Experimental Philosophy in that country. Unfortunately, we have none of Hodgson's letters in reply, but it is easy to discover that he took a great interest in the pursuits, and did everything in his power to supply the various wants, of his correspondent. On the 2nd of July, the Doctor thanks Hodgson for certain publications with which he had &amp;voured him, sending to him a few American insects in return, and assuring him that if the Newcastle Society would send him insect-pins and cork he would 384 MEMOIB OF THE BEY. JOHN HODGSON. Tepaj them with insectB &quot; in the ^U.** '^ The pins are made bj Domford of London, and can with difficulty be got in America.** ** In our Institution,** continues he, '^ it is a part of my duty to deliver lectures upon Natural Philosophy, and I am, at times, very much at a loss for receivers, tubes, &amp;c.—— At present I am prepar- ing a small electrical battery of twelve jars, but want the wires for connecdng them. In Nova Scotia things of this kind are not to be got.** On the 21st of November, the Doctor writes another letter thanking Hodgson for supplying his wants, and has further requests to make: ^' At this time I am hardly able to make anything like a decent appearance in the class for want of glass ardcles. They occasionally break upon my hands and cannot be replaced in this country; there are not more than three un- cracked receivers in our seminary, not one glass globe, and, I be- lieve only one tube of a wider bore than those which you sent In my electrical course for want of them I am reduced to many a miserable shift.— —You may judge that last summer I lost no time when I tell you that I pinned about 4000 insects. Of these four' boxes go to the University of Glasgow and the remtdnder to that of Edinburgh.^^ For you I have reserved a fefw. ^T hope to fiimish you with as many as may introduce you to some Philosophical Sodety of which you may- wish- to be a member. Along with the box of insects, I have sent for your little children a few Indian playthings. . I hc^ to send you a collection of the birds of these provinces Would you wish a few of the teptiles of this coimtry? Some of the toads and frogs are very curious.** The Doctor proceeds to enumerate not fewer than twenty-four different articles in which his lecturing apparatus was deficient, such as articles in glass, wire, &amp;g. &amp;c., upon which he^ requests Hodgson to lay out six or seven pounds, and concludes by requesting him to- see that the boxes of insects brought inta the Tyne by an American ship be duly forwarded to Professor Cowper of Glasgow, and Professor Jameson of Edinburgh, for their respective universities. With this request Hodgson com*^ pUes, and these two ^ntleman in due time acknowledge the arrival of the boxes here spoken o£ On the 24tii,of June 1823, Dr. McCulloch agidn writes, over- whelmed with gratitude for Hodgson's kind attentions in supply- NATURAL HISTQBY, ETC. 885 ing the deficiencies of his laboratory, and makes large promises of shells from the shores of the Gulph of St. Lawrence, the Atlantic Coast, and the Bay of Fundy, including such as could be found in the province. Circumstances seem to have prevented him from fulfilling these promises, and in October we have another letter: &quot; The collection which I am about to send is not what I expected it to be. I never spent a more active summer, but fighting against nature is a profitless toil. We have had so little summer that many beautiful species have not been hatched. You will scarcely believe me when I tell you that I and some of our students expended several hundred miles' riding upon the largest species of our butterfly, without catching one. My whole collection contains only three, of which you will receive two. You will receive four boxes containing, I conjecture, about two thousand specimens. In moths you will find a very beautifiil collection.&quot; Of Dr. M*Culloch we hear no more till 1826, when, on the ^st of April in that year, he writes ficom Newcastle to Hodgson, who had then been some time settled at Whelpington, stating that ^' the trustees of our institution, in consequence of some embarrass- ments, had deputed&quot; him &quot;to solicit in its behalf the assistance of the British public.&quot; In another letter he writes that he is &quot; sorely in want of the countenance of somebody, for never was poor mortal worse cut out for such a mission as mine. Everybody hates beggars, and whenever I try the trade I feel it at every pore&quot; He did not however pay a visit to Whelpington. Hodgson had at this time much illness in his house, and he contented himself with giving to his friend an introduction to some one in Edinburgh. After this we hear no more of Dr. M*Culloch. Some of the insects given by this gentleman to Hodgson are now in the museum at Wallington. To THE Rby. JAMES TATE,* Richmond. « Dear Sir, • Upper Heworth, near Gateshead, 19th July, 1822. '^ My engagements have put it out of my power to return you an early answer to your letter of the 21st of last month; but I have given * The learned master of Richmond SchooL I print this letter in its order of time; but more will be said of Dawes and his monument in the sequel. 2o 386 MEMOIB OF THE RST. JOHN HODGSON. up the first moment I haTe had to spare to consider about a monument for Dawes. For 25^. I can have one made of statuary marble on the annexed design. It will be nearly six feet high, and will hare a free space for an inscription on its tablet of 22 inches by 12 inches. If the subscription amount to more than 25/. then the whole monument will be proportionably enlarged. ^' The sketch is not correctly drawn, as to dimensions, exactly accord- ing to the proportions in which I could wish it to be executed ; but it will serve well enough to give a general notion of my plan. The book and lamp I hope you will think appropriate enough. All the rest is purely Greek, excepting the tablet, which is Roman, and therefore, per- haps, suitable enough for receiving a Latin inscription. ^ If you should think of adding any account of Dawes and his writings to the paper you have planned for the Classical Journal, I could furnish a paragraph respecting his person and habits. His books and MSS., as you will know, were purchased by Dr. Askew; and, in addition to the notices of him in the encyclopedias and books of biography, some ma- terials may be gleaned from Bishop Burgess's Preface to his Misc. Crit., and from an odd letter of his own to Dr. Taylor, in the Appendix to Bentley's Letters ; also from the second volume of Mr. Surtees's His- toiy of Durham; and Brand's Newcastle, vol. i. pp. 85, 96, 97. ** The *Biriypaftfia must be wholly your own. It will be much better as you suggest to represent the book in marble. Inscribed misc. grit., than to crowd the inscription with the title of the work ; and I will take care that the book be boldly done, and the label flowing and natural Do jou think it necessaryto insert some such sentence as this Bvrvs * in « jEDis * ccEMiTERio * SEPVLTVS., as a reason for putting up the monument at Heworth ?• '^ There is a large basaltic block lying in this village which I have some thoughts of moving and putting upon his grave, to prevent his re- mains being disturbed. Should this scheme be ever realised, I intend to fix a brass plate in the stone, and inscribe it with, *' The grave ofRiciard Dawes, Let no man move his hones i^ or '^ Tumulus Rkardi Dawes, Ossa ejus ne quis commoveto.^* &quot; I will not be formal with you in apologising for the trouble I am giving you, or with thanking you for the zeal you have shewn for the memory of Dawes ; being well aware that you enter con amore into the matter. '^ As soon as you have completed the subscription, I shall be glad to hear from you ; but we must not venture upon ordering the monument ENOBAVINGS FOR HISTORT. 387 till we Have exactly ascertained our means* I have of late been buying a good deal of experience about bargains with masons, and find that nothing must be left to honour in such matters. &quot; Most truly yours, &quot;John Hoixjson.&quot; To EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. &quot; My dear Sir, Aug. 4, 1822. &quot; The Bishop of Oxford * comes hither on Wednesday to conse- crate my chapel ; and, as no preacher is appointed, I am under the necessity of taking that office, for which my sermon is wholly to b^in^ I must therefore be brief to your very kind letter. ^ If Mr. Lewis will be content to wait for payment for his work till my next volume is ready for publication, I shall be most glad to engage him to be going on with the plates. The business of my chapel, as you well know, has been constantly engrossing the whole of my time for nearly two years ; but I do think that I shall in the course of a few weeks be ready to fag again at my History, and consequently to go on with printing. I cannot, however, hope to get a volimie out in less than fourteen or fifteen months, which I fear Mr. L. will think a long time. &quot; If I adopt more expensive plates I must give fewer of them; as the price I have set upon the work and the few copies I print will not pay for expensive views. Fifteen guineas is not however anything extra- vagant ; and if Mr Lewis will go on with five or six on the terms I have mentioned I shall be obliged to him by his doing so.f Etching is my favourite method: it is a mode sufficiently perfect for truth, and that is what I would principally aim at. The subjects you mention are all sufficiently interesting. I would however prefer Haughton Castle, Linnels Bridge, Hexham, Chipchase, the Peele on the Chirden, and Halton or Hamham, as those I could like to see put forward. *' The only hesitation I have in this matter is the trouble I am giving you, especially in negociating with Mr. Lewis. But, as I know that you enter con amore into the subject, I will not to the other burdens I have laid upon you add that of a load of apologies. '' I have no novelties to tell you of, unless a late discovery at House* steads of some Roman antiquities can be classed amongst such things. They consist of several altars and fragments of bas-reliefs, which were * The Hon. Edward Legge. * By letter of the 20th August, Mr. Lewis agreed to this arrangement. 2C2 388 MBHOIB OF THB KEY. JOHN HODGSON. dag oat of tbe ruins of the penetralia of a temple, which was partly ander groond. One of the altars is inscribed, ^ deo sou ikvicto mithb^ SECULAJU PDBUUS PROCaUHUS CENTURIO PRO SE ET PBOCULO SUO VOTUX soLvrr LIBEH8 MERiTO.'* One of the bas-reliefe contains the signs of the zodiac. I have a paper in hand for oar A. S. to illustrate them. Very faithfuUy yours, &quot;John Hqdgsok.&quot; The result of Hodgson*s second expedition to London, so &amp;r as his contemplated new chapel at Heworth was concerned, had been successful; and soon after his return the old chapel was re* moved to make way for the new &amp;bric, the first stone of which was laid on the 23d of May, 1821. '* It will,&quot; wrote he to his wife, *' give me pain to see the workmen begin to pull down a place which I have now been &amp;miliar with for thirteen years, and which attaches itself the more to me firom the certainty that it will soon be removed out of sight;&quot; but, with every credit to him for that very natural feeling, there really was nothing in the old fabric except this association to excite it and keep it alive. Of the chapel before it was pulled down, there is a representation in one of Mr. Hodgson's Journals, and another in Bichardson's Table Book, proving it to have been totally devoid of ecclesiastical character or antiquity; and it was most certainly utterly unable to accom- modate a twentieth part of the population of its district. The new church was designed by Hodgson himself, and is capable of holding 1500 people.* In its outward appearance it made at that day a considerable impression in the North. Never was church architecture at so low an ebb as in the commence- ment of the present century; and Heworth was the first new church in the district with any pretensions to character and dne arrange- ments; but now that the art of church building is in advance towards ancient perfection it will by no means bear a strict exa- mination. It would be unfair however to criticise too severely a fabric built at such a time for so small a costf and under such dif- * In the old ohapel there were only 67 seats free to all oomen ; in the new edifice the number is 687, over and aboTO those appropriated to houses or fiunilies. t The total cost was 2,200/. The subscriptions amounted to 1,500/. The remain- ing 700/. were borrowed for a limited time. NEW CHAPEL AT HEWORTH. 389 ficulties. It is in the form of a cross, with a tower at the west end, but without aisles, with a low roof and a flat ceiling. The* windows are numerous, and of the pointed shape, but poor in design, with a single upright muUion, headed by tracery incorrect in character; and externally the same kind of window is stuck ou here and there in blank, on what would have been naked spaces of surface, in the style of panelling. The effect of this arrangement, as it will be readily conceived, is heavy and unsatisfactory.* To revert for a moment to the fame which Mr. Hodgson acquired by this effort as a church architect, it must be mentioned that he was in 1825 requested by his neighbour Mr. CoUinson, rector of Gateshead, to furnish a design for the spire of the new church on Gateshead Fell (never was there such a mistake as that of a spire in such a situation); and when in 1841 the University of Durham, as we shall see, did him the honour of conferring upon him the degree of Master of Arts, it was seriously regretted by a gentleman in the Convocation House that the official person who presented him to the warden had forgotten to specify, among his other merits, that he had been the restorer of church architecture in the North of England. The chapel of Heworth is within a stone's throw of tlie Great North-Eastern Railway, at the north-west end of a short tunnel near Gateshead. It was opened for Divine service by licence on the 5th of May, 1822, and on the 6th of August following was duly consecrated by Dr. Legge, Bishop of Oxford, acting for the aged Dr. Barrington, Bishop of Durham. Hodgson himself preached upon the occasion, and made many happy and touching references to the history of his parish, at a time when Jarrow was the University of England, and that man of ancient and modern fame, the Venerable Bede, its teacher and pattern of learning and piety. His sermon, which is before me in manu- script, is very remarkable for the plainness of its language, addressed as it was chiefly to working men, and it is not less striking in its earnest exhortations to his hearers to make a * The stone, which is of good freestone was procured from a quarry at Upper Heworth, belonging to Mr. Kell, Mrs. Hodgson's father, and the masonry is weU executed. 390 MEMO! B or THE BEY. JOHN HODGSOK. proper use of the blesBiiig. A few of its historical allosioiis deserve to be made public. They were jwobably listened to with * great attention by men who had, till that time, no correct idea of the ancient history and glories of their parish. His text was Luke vii. 6 : *^ Christianity was introduced into this part of England about the year 635; and forty-six years afterwards, viz. in 681, Egfiith, king of Northumberland, gave to Benedict, Abbat of Weremouth, forty ixnna of land for the purpose of founding an Abbej upon it at Jarrow, which the zealous and indefatigable Abbot completed in two years : for the church there was dedicated on the 24th of May, 684. ELItherto the churches in this part of the country had been made of riren timber, lighted with lattice windows and roofed with reeds and straw. But Benedict built his churches after the Roman style, which he most admired, and for that pmrpose traversed France, in quest of masons and artificers skilled in making glass, which till his time was unknown in these part«. He also made frequent journeys to Borne for the purpose of purchasing books for the libraries of the abbeys ; and among other benefactions to his churches, in his last journey from that cotrntry he brought certain curious pictures to adorn the mother church of this place, which contained subjects admirably adapted to show the concord- ance between the Old and New Testament; for example, Isaac canying the wood for his own sacrifice, and Jesus bearing his own cross, were compared; and on another table were given the corresponding subjects of the lifting-up of the serpent in the wilderness, and the last solenm scene of the crucifixion. '^ These things I give on the testimony of the Venerable Bede, a man bom within your parish, who spent all his life in the Abbey of Jarrow; who was the greatest scholar of his day, and whose name you will find in the Kalendar of our Prayer Books opposite to the 29th of May, as one whose memory had been honoured with a canonization. &lt;&lt; From him we further learn that Benedict died in 689, and was succeeded by Ceolfrid, who presided as sole Abbot of Weremouth and Jarrow for twenty-one years, during which time he was not slow in carrying into effect all the plans of his illustrious predecessor. And, among other things which time suggested to him as necessary to be done for the benefit of his monasteries, ' he buUt more chapels of easeJ* &lt;&lt; Now, though this passage affords no positive evidence that a chapel was founded here either by Benedict or Ceolfrid, it is a good historical NEW CHAPEL AT HEWOBTH. 391 proof that several were built by them within the lands of their abbies ; and I could advance arguments,* grounded on rational evidence, to show that one was founded here either in or soon after the reign of Egfrith, the royal founder of our church (of Jarrow). From his time to the year 1214, 1 have met with no allusion to it, but a record of that year mentions ^ The lands of the chapel of Heworth ;* and since that time the notices of it are frequent. From the Commonwealth to the commence- ment of the last century it would appear to have either been in ruins, or to have been very seldom used; but in 1710, on account of the in- crease of the population in the neighbourhood, it was rebuilt and enlarged. And, as man has gone on according to the commandment of Grod, increasing and multiplying and replenishing the earthy that en- larged building, while it was rapidly falling into decay, grew greatly inadequate for the purposes for which it was erected ; and you are now again met together for the first time within the walls of one reared partly out of its remains, but six times larger, and how much more goodly in its appearance than the humble edifice in which we were wont to assemble 1 ^* Can we, my friends, warm our imaginations with the picture of the inhabitants of Capernaum assembled for the first time in the Synagogue which the Centurion had built for them, and not now feel the same holy flame of gratitude glowing in our hearts as burned in theirs? Can we carry back our thoughts to the times when our parish was filled with but a handful of Saxon barbarians, newly converted to the Christian faith? See the king of the province bestowing lands for the maintenance of a College of Missionaries sent to confirm them in their new religion. See Benedict the first superior of that college traversing France and Italy for artificers to build them a church ; for fixtures for its walls, and goodly vessels and ornaments for its altar, for vestments for its ministers, and books for its libraries I Can we, I say, bring into our minds the transports and the raptures of gratitude and admiration which the inhabitants of this parish fi^t when they saw all these things done for them — ^when they saw the temples, the altars, the idols that they had so lately bowed to, burnt down and demolished, and in their room obtained a Christian church in which they heard the nuDisters of Christ every Sabbath-day preaching to them the glad tidings of salvation? and, finally, when we contemplate one of the * He probably alludes to the discovery of coins of Egfritb, in Heworth Chapel-yard, in 1812. (seep. 167.) 392 M£MOIB OF THS REV. JOHK HODGSON. holy and the aged Abbots of that churchy for the greater ease of the inhabitants of this phuse, building a chapel here, and on the day of its consecration assembled with them on tibia spot — can we imagine to onrselres the blessings thej silently poured xxpan him, their admiration and their lore for him, while they gazed on him as he stood at the altar and lifted up his hands and his rcnoe and exhorted them all to flee from idols and torn to the liviiig^ God who made heaven and earth and all things that are therein?^ During the whole of the period in whicb Mr. Hodgson was engaged in rebuildii^ his chapel of Heworth, his mind was almost entirely occupied witb his holy undertaking. To Iiini it was a labour of love as well as of duty; and great was his exulta- tion when the work was finished, which for so many years had been the object of his earnest anxiety. Few people, except those who have been engaged in so pious a work, are aware of the pleasurable excitement lliere is in building a new church, or in freeing an old one from the squalid aboniina- tions of puritanical neglect, or intentional and unchristian parsi- mony. In either case there is a wholesome feeling of devout gratification which is not easily described. As the new fabric rises slowly firom the ground and points upwards to Heaven, the promoters of so godly a work cannot but feel that they are build- ing a house for the holiest of purposes, a house not for themselves or their own day, but for their Maker, and posterity ; and as an old one emerges from its defilements, and by degrees re-assumes its ancient character of decent arrangement and church-like appearance, in themselves no mean promoters of true devotion, they cannot but hope, in all humility of mind, that in them may be verified that notable declaration which may be found in the 8th verse of the 26tli Psalm; and that they may reasonably entertain a trust that such a good deed may not feil of a reward. After Richard Earl of Cornwall had laid out ten thousand marks upon the church of Hailes, and the work was now nearly finished, he made a memora- ble remark in the hearing of Matthew Paris, which that historian has taken care to place upon record.* ** Would to God,&quot; said the Earl, &quot;that all the money I have laid out upon my Castle of * Hist. Augl. 827; and Dugd. Mod. Angl. I. 928. NEW CHAPEL AT HEWOKTH. 393 Wallingford had been spent in so pious and salutary a way.&quot; All honour and praise to him who builds or restores a House of God upon the true principle of reverence and devotion, and with the conscientious feeling that he is doing no more than his bounden duty in return for blessings received I On the subject of church restoration in particular, more must be said, to account for the necessity of such a work, in so many localities and upon so extensive a scale at the present time. In general our ecclesiastical &amp;brics, where they are in a state of disorder or decay, have had to contend with one or other, or perhaps with all^ of three causes which generally go hand in hand— want of architectural skill and feeling, or gross neglect on the part of the Ordinary — ignorance or, as the result of bigoted notions, intentional indifference, and disregard of decency on the part of the minister — and pennysaving selfishness on the part of the parish. It is the duty of the Ordinary, by himself, or some one lawfully deputed as his representative, to make frequent inspections of every church or chapel within his jurisdiction. When these inspections were duly attended to they were made yearly, as they ought to be; and for this purpose Bural Deans, functionaries of which every diocese had its complement, were especially useful. Visitations of this nature, however, presuppose persons duly qualified to give good and wholesome orders, and moreover deeply imbued with the feeling, not merely that a church is somewhat different firom an episcopal palace or a par* sonage house, but that every church or chapel has its sacred history and associations, and owes its origin to a period, in which, whatever else there might have been to be amended, there was a devotional feeling and a reverence for holy things which we in our day ought to respect, and would do well to imitate. Now, whatever the feeling of persons in authority may have been in this latter respect, it is much to be feared that they have since the Reformation rarely possessed the qualifications I have spoken of Not, however, that this ignorance of the true principles of the fitting and the seemly has led the Ordinary in general to neglect his duty ; although in every diocese such omissions arising from other causes have been far too common. In truth, qualified ad he was, he performed it perhaps too frequently, if only once in 394 MEMOIB OF TH£ BBT. JOHN HODGSON. ten or twenty years he made an inspection by himself or his deputy, and gave rash orders leading to results to whicli we of the present generation, many of us, look back with regret, and not unfrequently with shame. In every diocese of the kingdom, churches, once stately, with fair proportions and seemly arrange- ments, but now mutilated and curtailed and begalleried into the bargain, wotild bear me out in this statement. But there was another unhappy result in attendance upon such injudicious and pernicious pfoceedings on the part of the duly constituted authorities. Almost every order made on such occa- sions was of a saving kind, consulting the purse rather than the duties and liabilities of the parish. In the case of windows, for instance, churchwardens have been authorised (in truth this seems to have been the rule) to destroy \he good old workmanship of graceful mullions and pictured glass by stopping a badly-glazed square-headed sash window into the opening, and filling up the Space beneath the arch above it with raw masonry, supported by a wooden lintel made of unseasoned timber, cut down probably for the occasion. That various other beautiful and essential parts of our good old churches were meddled with in this ill-judging way, under a due order, is everywhere manifest ; and the consequence was this, that the local authorities were not backward in making the discovery, that in such unhappy and tasteless parsimony an example was set by authority which it might be to the advantage of the parish purse for them to imitate when left to themselves and their own sage devices. And then again, among the parochial clergy, how seldom has it happened, until recent times, that an incumbent has mani- fested such a feeling for the temple of his ministrations as to induce him to exert his influence in behalf o£ decency, or set an example of reverence and respect for the handy-work of good and devout men in ancient times ! It must be admitted that at the present time a very different feeling is in general beginning to make itself manifest, and is making a progress, slow it may be, but sure and certain, not merely among the clergy, but among the laity also ; and men of all ranks and orders in every part of the kingdom are happily beginning to give hearty and affectionate proof of their love for CHURCH RESTORATION. 396 the honour of the Almighty, by following the example which He Himself has set us in that glorious temple in which He has placed us and all His creatures^ to render Him the worship due unto His name — the mighty dome of Heaven above, gilded at noon- day with the brightness of the sun, or spangled at midnight by the moon and stars — with the surface of the earth as the floor of this magnificent church, inlaid with all the gorgeous colours and patterns of fields, and flowers, and mountains, and rocks, woods, rivers, and seas. What man with the slightest pretension to any true devotional feeling can read the cxlviiith psalm without discovering one end at least of the creation of this beautiful and spacious temple, in which all things are there called upon to praise their Maker? Of the temple of Solomon, in all its glory, the avowed architect was the Almighty himself, and in it we have a distinct indication of the nature and character of the house in which He takes a delight. But He constructed a nobler temple than that, to excite the admiration of His true worshippers in every age, when He created the heavens and the earth. Such progress has the feeling of decency and respect for the house of God, above spoken of, made in late years among rightly- minded men, that probably, before long, a squalid church, or one out of repair, and more suited for the purposes of a stable or bam, than for those for which it was constructed, will be justly considered as an indication that true religious feeling, &amp;om whatever cause it may arise, is at a very low ebb in the parish in which it stands, not as an honour but a disgrace to the people who assemble in it and call themselves Christians. From ill-judged directions on the part of the Ordinary, we are probably now safe. Public opinion is powerfid, where what is wrong may be con- templated. Churchwardens are more disposed to take good advice for their guide.* Here and there there may be an incumbent * It is almoet impossible to estimate the good produced in the way of Church- restoration by a little book published anonymously now upwards of thirty years ago, entitled &quot; Hints to Churchwardens.'* The real object of the work was to preyent mischief, but the lessons which it avowedly taught, were, how to oommit mischief ; how to maltreat and disgrace our churches in every possible feature and way, within and without, from the foundation to the weather-cock. Every single direction is illus- trated by a ludicrous engraving of the happy change to be effected ; and scarcely one 396 MEMOIR OF THE KEY. JOHN HODGSON. wKo presumptuously or puritanically affects to despise such, decencies, and in self-justification uncharitably gives hard names to those who in humbleness and sincerity of heart entertain a different opinion. But the number of such is diminishing. Even our Dissenting brethren, who differ &amp;om us, unhappily, in points of doctrine or discipline, are building for themselves places of worship after the purest patterns of the best times of our archi- tectural history, and are calling them no longer meeting-houses, but after our names, putting to open shame many a clergyman and influential lay member of the Church of England, who, by their apathy, or unworthy arguments for indecent plainness, give proof that their opinions on such matters are better siuted to a period of our history of which there are few who do not think with regret and shame, and to the bringing in of which such opinions contributed, not a little, to pave the way. Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. &quot; My dear Sir, Richmond, Sept. 3, 1822. &quot; I have, since the receipt of yours (p. 387), had a conference with Mr. F. Lewis, on the subject of your Topography, and, finding him not only willing but desirous of undertaking the etchings on the conditions you proposed, I shall, without delay, put some of the subjects you mentioned into his hands, and the remainder before long. He desired me to say that the payment at the time of pub- lication would do very well, and that it would be a great conve- nience to him to have so much time beforehand, as he could take them up occasionally, when other business was not pressing upon him. A line to him, when you have leisure, would procure you a confirmation of this from himself, which it would be satisfactory to have. We have talked over the drawings together; and he made several useful suggestions for their improvement. He rather opened single instance is given which had not been perpetrated in some part of the kingdom. The grave title of the book led to its purchase by numerous well-inclined deigymen and churchwardens who were meditating improvements in their churches and seeking for information ; and its satirical engravings and explanations were more than suffi- cient to keep them from doing harm. Its author must have been a man of infinite humour, and of the most correct taste and feeling. ENGRAVINGS FOB HISTORY. 397 his eyes at the Peel, which to be sure is not very pictonaly but it has a very appropriate interest. We have adopted Halton. &quot; Our list is therefore: Haughton, Chipchase, Hexham, the Peel, Halton, Linnel Bridge. **I hope you don't slave so much, now that your masonic labours are over. Yours ever truly, '*Ed. Swinburne.&quot; &quot; I have just been writing to Lewis, and have suggested to him to mention, the first time he has occasion to write to you, his having agreed to your proposal, &amp;c.&quot; But grief and despondency are at hand. Hodgson's new church was no sooner finished and consecrated than his joy began to die away. Almost immediately after his heart had been gladdened by those happy events various causes began to array themselves against him in painful co-operation, and turn his rejoicing into sorrow. His first volume had not met with a ready or general sale, and niany of those by whom copies of the book had been purchased had neglected to fulfil their part of the en- gagement. The *^res augusta domi,&quot; that far too firequent attendant upon scholars and men of an independent and liberal mind, had long been his inmate, and he had learned patience and submission under its afiiicting visitations; but disease and death are now at his door. His brother Robert, the ingenious yoimg book-binder, of whom mention was so often made in his letters &amp;om London to Mrs. Hodgson, in 1819 and 1821, had come down to Heworth to die, and while the young man was patiently wearing out his latter days in a hopeless con- sumption, a typhus fever of great virulence made its appearance among the children; and, although happily it was in no case fatal, yet the distress and misery, of various kinds, which it occasioned were hard to bear. On these most painful S^ubjects it may suflice to throw together in their order the following letters, which speak of sympathy on the one side and patient endurance on the other. Here again the house of Swinburne is at hand to comfort and condole, and we have the good and aged Bishop of Durham oflTering something of a more substantial kind in alleviation of domestic misery. 398 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSOIT. '« To the Rev. J. Raine, 27th Sept. 1822, Heworth.— On my returu from Durham I found my eldest daughter suffering under a fever, which has confined her to her bed ever since, and which is not yet come to a crisis. Our medical adviser still continues to encourage us with the hope of her recovery, though she is so much reduced as merely to seem alive. This, joined to my brother's continued indisposition, must be my apology for having delayed to give you such additional lights on Meldon as my papers afford '^ I inclose this in a small box of organic remains to Mr. Darnell, and forbid you shrive your Major Canons of all their sins till you get them into the mind to let the poor Chaplain of Heworth have his lands again.* — John Hodgson.&quot; From THOMAS PURVIS, Esq. &quot; Mt dear Sir, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 16 Oct. 1822. ''A good deal of business consequent upon a death in the family has prevented me from having the pleasure of seeing you again before my return to London, for which place I set off on Tuesday. You must therefore have the goodness to let me know on paper what you want out of the British Museum for your History, and how I may procure an admission, &amp;c. Also tell me the particulars of the information you desire from Merton College, and I will try to interest Mr. Nath. Ellison,^ a vet'y late fellow, in your favoixr. In any other matters in which you think I can assist you apply to me sans ceremonie. I think you have my address in London, 7, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. &quot; Yours, very truly, &quot; Thos. Purvis &quot; This letter must not be passed over, although it interrupts our tale of affliction. Mr. Purvis, who so kindly tendered his assist- * This letter was sent undirected in the hox addressed to Mr. Darnell, one of the ** Major Canons *' here spoken of, who forwarded it to its destination, having written upon its back, &quot; Opened, and believed to be for the Rev. J. Raine.** This was not the only letter intended for the author by Mr. Hodgson which fell into other hands for want of having been properly directed. A very amusing tale might be told of one in particular, which found its way to Archdeacon Bowyer, whilst that intended for him was delivered to me. For the chapel lands see p. 391. t Mr. Ellison is now the much respected Commissioner of Bankrupts in the North of England. W-- ^ - FAMILY DI8TBES8ES. 399 ance, was afterwards a barrister of oonsiderable eminence witK the honour of a silk gown. The author may be permitted to express his obligations to Mr. Purvis, for his friendship and for somewhat more than mere professional zeal and assiduity upon a trying occasion. He died about six years ago, leaving behind him a valuable collection of pictures. Fbom EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. &quot; Mt dear Sir, Capheaton, 3 Nov. 1822. ''I was much concerned for you, when I heard, on passing through Newcastle yesterday week, that your brother had sunk into his early grave. When I saw him in London his half-extinguished voice and emaciated countenance shewed too evidently what havoc disease had already made ; but there was a spirit and animation about him which encouraged hope that change of air, quiet, and affectionate care might, with youth in his favour, have prolonged his existence. I was much pleased with the mixture of kindness and energy that appeared in his character; and I fear you have had a great loss by his untimely end. Did he not leave a family? 1 left three drawings with Lewis to go on with ; the others are so far thought of that they can be ready for him before he wants them— — &quot; Ed. Swinburne.&quot; To EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. &quot; My dear Sir, Friday morning, 8 Nov. 1822. &quot; I have a spare moment to say how much obliged to you I feel for your kind expressions of condolence for my poor brother's death. He had been seven weeks with me ; and, though when he first came down I could not venture to indulge in the most distant hope of his recovery, yet I did not suppose that he would have been so suddenly snatched hoia us as he was. He had been in a lethargic state for about three weeks; but till within a few hours of his death continued to sit with me in my study, still lull of life and animation. The moment he could shake off the drowsiness for a short time, all his mental energies seemed suddenly to revive, and to light up his sunken eye-balls with a fire almost preternatural. Very soon, however, after he left my study for the last time he became comatose and continued so till he expiredl 400 MEMOIR OF THE REV. JOHN HODGSON. Poor fellow 1 it was a sad affliction to bim that be came here ; for, tbougb everything that affection could do for bim was done, yet the week after he came to os my eldest child was seized with typhus fever, and, though recovering, is still lying in a very helpless and emaciated state; and before his death the disease had attacked one of the servants, and since her recovery my second boy has been fifleen days confined to his bed by it without the least symptom of its abating. These things bore more hardly upon my brother than his own sufferings. Added to all which, I have just received the afflicting intelligence of the death of my youngest brother from the Island of Jamaica, to which place I had sent him at his own urgent request, and at great expense to myself. 'Pray accept my best thanks for your kind attention to my work, which has been much delayed ; for before the business of my church was done my father-in-law took ill, and I have ever since had to assist him in his books ; and about ten weeks of continual sickness in my house have in some degree assisted in smothering the zeal with which I silently but laboriously proceed in the undertaking. ^ I beg my respectful compliments to Sir John and Lady Swinburne, and to the young ladies, and am, dear Sir, most truly yours, &quot; John Hodoson.&quot; From thb BISHOP of DURHAM. &lt;• Rey. Sir, Cavendish Square, 3 Dec 1822. &quot; Having somewhat accidently heard that you have been visited by much sickness in your family, I desire you to accept the accompany- ing bOL The bank bills are divided for security. When you acknowledge the first halves, the second shall be sent. I am, with much regard, your sincere friend and brother, « S. DUNELM.&quot; To EDWARD SWINBURNE, Esq. &quot; My dear Sib, 27 Dec. (1822.) &quot; I have this moment received, I suppose by Mr. Orde's man, the turkey and the hare; and beg of you and Sir John to accept my best thanks for these tokens of your kindness and regard to me. My dear children are indeed recovering, and I hope at present rapidly. One of them, who has been nine weeks confined, has begun to walk again FAMILY DISTRESSES. 401 during the last week; but my eldest child, wKo has been nearly fourteen weeks confined to her room, is not yet able to get out of bed, owing to the extreme weakness -of her knees and ankles. She, however, has aa extraordinary good appetite, and is become cheerful and buoyant in her spirits; indeed, considering that she lay upwards of six weeka in a state of delirium, her recovery, even as far as it is advanced, seems to us in a manner miraculous; and we have every motive to induce us to thankfulness to Providence for sparing us from the lacerating pang which parents have to avdSkr in parting with their children at the door of death. ** My chapel answers very weU. The flue i&amp;lls it sufficiently with warm air. I have indeed had some difficulty in getting it well attended to and the doors kept regularly closed, but my poor old sexton is beginning to understand the rationale of the contrivance a little better than I ever hoped he would; and all goes on smoothly now. Without the stove the building could not have been used during this winter; as many parts of the walls are still damp* I could not muster money for a balustrade of open-work round the top of the tower; but have finii^ed it with crenated battlements, having pretty high pinnacles, with gilded vanes at each comer, and four intermediate and shorter ones in the middle of each side. '' 1 did not get my paper on the Mithraic Antiquities quite finished before the meeting of the Antiquarian Society on the first Wednesday in last month, and have therefore beefii occasionally engaged in working ' upon it since that time. Hyde's History of the Ancient Persians, which Mr. Adamson procured for me from Sir John, has been of some use in my inquiries ; but it is impossible to fall into his notions respect- ing the ancient religion of the Persians, as he deduces his evidences on that subject from documents of a comparatively modem date, and slights the testimony of the classic authors, many of whom were sufficiently well acquainted with Persia to speak with certainty on the state of religion in it in their times. &quot; What a pity that the taurine tablet should have been so sadly mutilated! I have got another bit of it which adds one more symbol, the lunette, something in this manner, [^here a alight sketch of a portion of a crescent or hcUf-moony'} and makes the dimensions of the stone about a foot higher. &quot; The Mithraic rites appear to me to have been a mixture of severities, pretty pure notions of morality, elevated ideas of a future state in the Pythagorean sense, but withal so blended with Sabeanism and Mys-&gt; 2d 402 MEMOIB OV THE BEV. JOHN HODGSON. tidsm, in its strictesi sexifle, as to hare been npoa the vlioie litdft htttet than a jaigon of witc)iGraft and astrology. Ftaj, when 70a kave ao opportonitjr, o£Rbr my i^spectfiil compliments &quot;to Sir Jokn and Lady Sifinbume, and tiie rest of the family. Ton irill find this letter sealed with a gem that was connected through Abrazacism with the worship of Mithras. The %are is fiarpocrates; the letters some oocnlt phiio* Bophical signs, not to be deciphered bat by a Hen. Car. Agrippa. Most truly yoors, * '^ John Hodgson.'' The discoveiy to which Hodgson allndes in the conclusion of tKe preceding letter, and also in that dated on the 20th of August above, was probably one of the most interesting and important which had ever been, or perhaps will ever be, made along the line of the Wall, or even in the whole of England, conAected with the religious rites and ceremonies of the Bomans: it was made at the station called Housesteads, which is satis&amp;ctoiily identified as the ancient B&lt;M:cpvicus, a place long known and most famous for the number and character of its various remains, even after the lapse of thirteen centuries. ^' It is/' writes Gordon in 1727, *^ unquestionably the most remarkable and iBi^nifioent Eoman station in the whole island.'' **' It is hardly credible what a number of august remains of Bcnnan grandeur is ta be seen here to this day, seeing in every place where one oasts his eye there is some curious antiquity, either the marks of streets and temples in ruins, or inscriptions, broken pillars^ statues, and other pieces of sculpture, scattered all over the ground.&quot; Horsley, Gale, Stukeley, and Brand are all diffuse in their admiration of the place, and of the wonderful indications which it manifested in their respective periods of its ancient extent and importance. After the time 6f the last of these most pains-taking investigators, altar after altar, and one inscribed stone after another, )iad been brought to light. But the grand discovery was left to be made in June 1822, when there was living at no great distance firom the place, in the full vigour of intellect and learning, and burn- ing with Boman enthusiasm^ a man with ability and inclination to place upon record, for succeeding generatkms, a description of the historical and mythologicid treasures whioh the earth had for so many centuries concealed from public view. HITHBAXC AKTIQUITIBS. 403 In a Ullock called the Chapel Hill, at the foot of the declivity upon the summit of which stands the camp itself, there was found an artificial cave of walled masonry^ dedicated to the worship of tJi6 heathen god Mithras, one of the various names given to the San: in heathen times, and containing the various altar symbols, &amp;c. more or less perfect, which were in use in the secret under- ground mysteries of that deity. In Hodgson's opinion &quot; the cave itself, and the antiquities which were found in it, afibrd one of the finest and most copious illustrations of the nature of that worship of any that have been hitherto discovered;&quot; and in the midst of ** professional engagements, and a long series of domestic afflic- tions,*' — ^we have seen above how painfully he had been tried, — he beguiled his weary and sorrowful hours by compiling c^n elaborate account .of this discovery, which on the 22nd November following he comtnunicated to the Transactions of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. This essay, in its printed state occupies 57 quarto pages, and contains a full description with engravings of the sabterraneous temple and its accompaniments, entering minutely into the origin of Mithraic worship, and elucidating it through a long period of time in its various phases and migrations. A perusal of this elaborate treatise will amply repay him who takes an interest in tracing the various efforts of the human mind, when left to itself to discover a fit object of adoration, and to every one it may afford a striking proof of the simplicity and purity of that bright light from above which is gradually di^elling the darkness of heathen errors and impurities from the face of the earth. An analysis of this interesting Essay might with propriety have been made for these pages, but I must content myself with extracting the two following paragraphs, which appear to contain the results at which the writer of the paper arrives. '^ There can be no doubt that all the mysteries of paganism had one common origin; that the secrets, to which the aspirants were admitted in the orgies of Isis and Osiris in Egypt, of Ceres at Ele^isis, of Adonis in Phesmcia, of Bacchus in Samothrace, of Hu in Britain, and of Mithrife in Persia, all emanated from one common foimt9.in. Though, iiLtiheir progress, through dijSerent countries ^nd pges, numerous causes, 404 HEMOIB. OF THE BEY. JOHN HOIX^SOK. mich as vioe, a fondness for novelty, tlie schemes and animo^fies of politics, national aversionsi were incessantly employed, not only in per- yerting and debasing them, but increasing their numbers by setting them up in one place in opposition to their establishment in another, yet, still, such was the power with which the pageant which they exhibited preseryed its ascendancy oyer men's minds, and kept aliye the fear of departing from their forms and injunctions, that they seemed only to differ one from another as the produce of the seeds of the same plant differs from being stinted or luxuriant in its growth, in different soils and altitudes, and under different modes of treatment* In all their moral austerities and licentious impurities they kept a common likeness to each other. ^ The littie glimmerings of light which continue to shine on the religion of Mithras, have fallen on no part more distinctly than upon the severities which it enjoined upon the candidates for admission to its mysteries. But even this distinctness is comparative. It is brighter than those ' glimpses of the moon* which ^ made night hideous' in his caverns; but it is only a twilight. It is, however, strong enough to enable us to perceive that, among tiie many apparent contradictions and real difficulties which accompany them, the primary object of these severities was to prepare tiie mind and bodies of the aspirants by a long course of rigorous discipline, to undergo every species of self-denial, and, by an exhibition of that part of the Pagan creed which relates to the passage of the soul from life to immortality, to impress upon them the necessily of that great moral regeneration which was to fit the soul for entering upon a new, happy, and eternal existence.^ As a concluding remark upon this singular discovery, it must be observed that it is not imusual to find in Northumbrian camps of a Koman origin the sacred symbols of Christianity, such as crosses, crucifixes, &amp;c. ; all of them belonging to a very early period, if not of a date coeval vrith the Romans themselves. That some of the Roman soldiers may have been believers of the Truth is more than probable, and the discovery may thus be accounted for; but one thing would appear to be certain and of natural occurrence, tjiat, upon the departure of that people in A, d. 476, their camps and dwelling places would be instantly converted into houses and villages by the natives of the district, who not long afterwards, as we know, became Christians, under King Oswald MITHBAIG ANTIQUITIES, 405 and Aldan of Lindisfarne his biehop ; and hence in Boman camps the Saxon emblems of the Christian religion. That the earlier Christians in the North of England were glad to avail themselves of what the Romans had left behind them, in the shape of works of art or usefulness, ig proved by two very singular pieces of evidence, two prayers to be &quot;said over vessels found in ancient places, in order to purify them from the taint of heathenism. These prayers are contained in the venerable Durham Book of Church Services of the Saxon period, lately published by the Surtees Society. One of them must not be withheld from the reader: Benedictio super vasa repebta m locis antiquis. **^ Deus, qui adventu Filii tui, Domini nostri, omnia tuis mundasti fidelibos, adesto propitius invocationibus nostris ; et h»c vascula, quse tuse indulgentia pietatis post spatia temporum a voragine terrsB abstracta humanis usibus reddidisti, gratiae tuse largitate emunda, per, &amp;c.^ '* It is more than probable that the particulars of Mr. Hodgson's distressing situation in the autumn of 1822, arising from domestic afflictions and other causes, had been communicated to the Bishop of Durham by Mr, Bouyer, the kind-hearted Archdeacon of Northumberland, a man without an enemy, and certainly without a fault, except that of unwisely meddling with chapter-houses and churches, and building a windmill within the castle walls upon the towering and fer seen hill of Bamborough.J Mr. Bouyer had in the course of this autimin himself done much to , * Bituale Eccles. Dunelzn. SierU Soc» p. 97. In both of the prayen there is an inter- linear translation into Northumbro-Saxon. i This mill was a while ago, happily, removed. The warmest admiren of Mr. Bbuyer^s memory must, it is to be feared, plead guilty in his name in the matter of Bamborough and the chapter-house of Durham. In those two cases he unfortunately did enough, and more than enough, to convince us that in an architectural point of view he was utterly devoid of taste and feeling. But in the case of the parish churches within his archdeaconry a greater weight of blame is laid upon him than he deserves* The sash-windows, and ceilings, and other abominations in the churches of Northum- berland, are mostly due to an earlier Archdeacon, Dr. Sharp, who did not stop there^ but, in his capacity as a prebendary of Durham^ was mainly instrumental in redncing 406 KEMOIB OW THB BET. JOHK HOIKHSOK. ftUevIate Mr. Hodgscm's dktresBes. He had lost no opportunity of lecommendiiig the lately published volume of the History of Northumberland to the notice of his friends, and Imd been instru- mental in selling many copies in Durham and its neighbourhood for the benefit of its author. But it matteis not through what ehannel the Bidiop of Dufham had become acquainted with the state of things at Heworth. We have already seen what his kindness prompted him to do at the ntoment. He soon after-^ Wards conferred upon Hodgson a greater and more durable favour. In the following statements I shall be unhappily compelled, in the &amp;ithM prosecution of my imdortaking, to assign to m3rself a somewhat prominent part in this portion of my narrative, but I beg-to assure my readers ihat nothing shall be committed to paper which is not, in my opinion, necessary to illustrate the considerate kindness of the Bishop of Durhmn to such a man and' in such a case^. ... During the Christmas of 1822, and for a few weeks in the commencement of the year 1823, I spent muck time in the British Museum on the subject of my History of North Durham. School holidays were then no holidays to me; from morning till night during ike appointed hours my seat was at a desk in the reading-room with a manuscript before me. In the course of this visit I was fEivouied with much notice by the Bishop of Durham. At his own request I saw him frequently, and the conversation which kd was pleased to hold .^lk me on one evening in parti-^ cular made a. deep impression, upon my feelings, turning as it did almost exclusively upon a Mend whom I had known and valued for several years. ' &quot;I take it for granted,&quot; said the Bishop, one evening after dinner, ** that you are well acquainted with poor Hodgson;&quot; and he proceeded to make very numerous and minute inquiries into the ikoble ^t end of that glorious church to its present bereaved and miserable con- dition. He was, at that time, owner of the house in the South Bailey, which is nearest to the water-gato on the south side of the street ; and the old window mullions which are stuck upon the garden-wall of that house (a portion of the old Norman wall of the city) are trophies of his architectural triumphs borne away from the east windows of the Nine Altan. With Dr. Sharp we shall meet ^gain at HsrAoni. PEOSPBCT OP PBBPEKMBNT. 407 his state of health and that of his femily, the extent and population of his parish, and the real value of his benefice. Uppn these various subjects I was able to give much information, to which the Bishop lent a most, attentive ear. He then put to me several questions with regard to the progress, which Hodgson had m^e in his History of Northumberland, and its probable extent an|i cost; and here again I had it in mj power to. give a reply to his inquiries. I can never forget the earnest attention which his Lordship paid to the information I placed before him, or the ex- pressions of kindness and sympathy which fell fix&gt;m his lips during the conversation. My residence was, during my visit to London, with a friend in Welbeck Street, and, at an early hour the following morning, I received a note frpm the Bishop requesting me to call at his, house in Cavendish Square, on my way through it to the Museum. &quot; Mr^ Kaine,&quot; said his Lordship, as I entered the room, &quot; I am informe4 by letter this morning that one of my livings is vacant;*' and, as he appeared to me to hesitate for a while, I ventured to say, pre- sumingly perhaps, but with a fiill heart at the announcement, &quot; My Lord, what an opportunity for doing a kind act to Mr, Hodgson I &quot; &quot; No, not this,&quot; said the Bishop, giving me to under- stand by his manner that my suggestion was kindly received, '* I want you, if you will do me the fiivour, to write to your friend Mr. HeadlamofWycliffe, (afterwards Archdeacon of Eichmond,)for the value of the living of Bamardcastle, which he will not fail to know. Circumstances make it desirable that I should send Mr. Davidson to Chillingham, the vacant living, and then I would endeavour to obtain for Mr. Hodgson Bamardcastle, if he would be benefited by the change.&quot; The letter was duly written, although I was afraid, from what I knew personally of the matter, that my friend would be no gainer either in emolument or ease by leaving the Tyne for the Tees. But, on the following morning, there came another note from the Bishop, requesting another call. &quot; Mr. Kaine,** said his Lordship, upon my waiting upon him this second time, *' I am informed that Chillingham is not vacant; Dr. Thomas is still alive I&quot; Knowing that that was the last interview with the Bishop with which I should be &amp;voured during that vacation, as I had ananged to -&gt; »»y^HP 3=3t ^KZ. 408 XEKDIB OF THE REV. JOHH HODGSON. letnm home in the erening, I ventured to say, '* My Lord, I am sorry, for Mr. Hodgson's sake.^ Bishop Barrington, even at an earlier period of his life, never made promises, as I have been in- formed, which he might not live to fiilfiL At that time he was 89 yean of age. Bat I left him with a feeling amounting to a comfortable assurance that he had that morning made one to me. He smiled, and wished me a good journey home in the kindest way; and &amp;om that moment I could not but feel assured, that, if his life should be spared a while longer, and an opportunity ^ould present itself, Hodgson would not remain long at Hewortlu But, let us begin a new year with a new chapter and another volume, and see whether a change of residence, and lengthening days, and the pure air of Northumberland may not bring along with them more of comfort and happiness to a femily greatly in need of such blessings. Let us bid &amp;rewell to the Tyne, and lake our departure to the Wansbeck« Era&gt; OF THE FIRST VOLUlfE. Westminster ; Printed by J. B. Nichols and Sons, 25, Parliament Street. </p>